Ranger IV ScStr - History

Ranger IV ScStr - History

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Ranger IV

(ScStr.: dp. 1,020, 1. 177'4", b. 32', d. 12'9", s. 10 k.
cpl. 138; a. 1 11" sb., 2 9" sb., 1 60-par.)

The fourth Ranger, an iron-hulled steam-powered vessel with a full-rig auxiliary sail, was laid down in 1873; launched in 1876 by Harlan and Hollingsworth, Wilmington, Del., and eomrrissionei at League Island Naval Shipyard, Philadelphia Pa., 27 November 1876, Comdr. H. D. Manley in command

After completion of fitting out, Ranger was assigned to the Atlantic Station, but remained in the Gosport (Portsmouth) Navy Yard and Hampton Roads until 8 March 1877, when she was assigned to the Asiatic Fleet. Following a special fitting out for her new duty, Ranger left New York 21 May 1877, arriving Hong Kong 24 August 1877, via Gibraltar Suez Canal, and Malacea Straits. The ship served on the Asiatic Station until the fall of 1879, protecting American interests and national poliey in the Far East. Arriving at Mare Island Navy Yard 24 February 1880, she was converted into a survey vessel. From 1881 to 1889, she was engaged in hydrographie survey work off Mexico, Baja California Central America, and the northern Pacific, except when protecting American national interests in the politically turbulent Central Ameriean nations. The survey ship was decommissioned from 14 September 1891 to 26 August 1892 at Mare Island Navy Yard. Upon reactivation, she was assigned to protect American seal fisheries in the Beriny Sea. On 31 January 1894, she relieved Alliance in protecting American interests in Central Ameriea, where she remained until placed out of commission 26 November 1895, except for temporary duty in the Bering Sea in May 1894. Recommissioned 1 November 1899, she was a survey ship for 2 years off Mexico and Baja California, then operated with Wisconsin off Central America, protecting American national interests. She was again decommissioned from 11 June 1903 to 30 March 1905 at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. She departed Puget Sound 16 April 1905 for the Asiatic Station, arriving Cavite 30 May. Due to reoccurring maintenance problems, she was decommissioned again at Cavite from 21 June 1905 to 10 August 1908. Departing Cavite 16 August, she arrived Boston 12 December via the Suez Canal, and was decommissioned immediately. On 26 April 1909, she was loaned to the State of Massachusetts as a school ship to replace Enterprise.

Her name was changed to Rockport (q.v.) 30 October 1917 and then to Nantucket (q.v.) 20 February 1918. A.s the Nantucket, she operated as a gunboat in the First Naval District during World War I, as well as a training ship for Navy midshipmen. Designated PG-23 in 1920, she was redesignated IX-18 on 1 July 1921, and was returned to the state of Massachusetts as a school ship. 30 November 1940, she was struck from the Navy list. On 11 November 1940, she was transferred to the Maritime Commission for final disposition to be used as a school ship for the Merchant Marine Aeademy, Kings Point, N.Y.

The Eko Ranger Series

The most successful European guitar ever. At least 100,000 were made, including six- and twelve-string configurations, but the actual figure could be closer to 200,000. Under various names and versions, it was a mainstay of the Eko range for over twenty years.

It started its carrier with a glued-in neck in late 1964 under the name J-52, soon substituted by the J-54 with a bolt-on neck and complemented by the twelve-string version J-56. Little modified versions were built for Vox under the names Country-Western and Folk Twelve in the years 1965 through 1968. Meanwhile, in early 1967, the J-54 and 56 were renamed Ranger VI and Ranger XII.

Acoustic guitars only played a subordinate part in the Eko range in the 60’s. But following the end of shipments to Vox in 1968 and to LoDuca in 1971 as well as the growing Japanese competition in the middle-priced electric guitar market, Eko had to redeploy onto Europe and to focus on acoustics, so that the Ranger Series emerged as the very centre of the company’s business in the 70’s.

There has been two main generations, the watershed year being about 1973. They are visually distinguished at first glance by the stenciled rosette, less ornate after 1973. While the older ones have more vintage appeal, the post-1973 Rangers are technically improved instruments with their thinner and more consistent polyester finish and improved bracing. In short, all Rangers are equally desirable.

They are famous for being heavy and built like tanks. Action is easy to set up due to the bolt-on neck and the adjustable aluminium bridge saddle. They are known as great players. They are not as loud as modern high end guitars with solid spruce top and a set-neck, but they sound amazingly good, even though the Rangers were all made of laminated woods (yes!).

Many people say that compared to an expensive Martin, Gibson, Guild or Taylor, an Eko Ranger delivers 90% of the sound for less than 20% of the price. It is still the best possible bargain on the vintage market.

Il più grande successo della chitarra europea. Ne furono costruite almeno 100 000, incluendo le configurazioni a 6 e 12 corde, ma la vera cifra porrebbe essere più vicina a 200.000. È stata, attraverso vari nomi e versioni, un riferimento centrale della gamma Eko durante più di 20 anni.

La sua carriera iniziò alla fine del ’64 con un manico incollato sotto il nome J-52, presto sostituita dalla J-54 con manico avvitato, accompagnata dalla versione a 12 corde J-56. Versioni scarsamente modificate furono costruite per Vox sotto i nomi Country-Western e Folk Twelve, negli anni 1965 a 1968. Nel frattempo, all’inizio del ’67, le J-54 e J-56 venero rinominate Ranger VI and Ranger XII.

Negli anni 60 le acustiche avevano solo un posto secondario nel programma della Eko. Ma dopo la fine degli ordini dalla Vox nel 1968 e da LoDuca in 1971, nonché la competizione giapponese sempre più aspra nel campo delle elettriche di gamma media , la Eko fu costretta a concentrarsi sull’Europa e le acustiche, il tal modo che le serie Ranger emersono come il vero centro dell’attività della ditta negli anni 70.

Ci sono state principalmente due generazioni, lo spartiacque essendo verso il 73. Si identificano alla prima occhiata secondo la decorazione stampata intorno alla rosa, meno ornata dopo 1973. Se le più vecchie offrono più interesse storico, le Ranger del dopo-73 sono strumenti tecnicamente migliorati con rifinitura poliestere più sottile e regolare, e raggiere ottimizzate. In breve, le Ranger sono tutte ugualmente desiderabili.

Sono famose per essere pesante e indistruttibili. L’azione si regola facilmente grazie al manico avvitato e all’osso (in alluminio) regolabile del ponte. Il manico si suona benissimo. Il volume sonoro è più moderato rispetto alle odierne chitarre a manico incollato e tavola in abete massello, ma la qualità del suono è incredibile, benchè tutte le Rangers fossero fatte di legno compensato (sì!).

Molti affermano che di fronte a una costosa Martin, Gibson, Guild o Taylor, una Eko Ranger offre il 90% del suono per meno del 20% del prezzo. Rimane il migliore affare possibile sul mercato del vintage.

4 Replies to &ldquoEarly Stories of Ojai, Part IV (Nordhoff Rangers)&rdquo

I actually lived on orchid ranch for a few months as a kid, around 1960-61. We lived in the Orchid town, inside the buildings including the pony express and the art gallery. My sisters’ bedroom was the chinese laundry. It was a wonderful experience for a poor ghetto kid who had previously lived in south central los angeles.

I lived in “Orchid Town” (no longer referred to as “Rancho Rinconada”) in about 1970 to 1971. My buddy, Rick Askam (deceased), and I rented what we were told had been the ranch’s chef’s home which was situated in the northwest corner of the establishment. It was near what we were told were old, roofed, concrete-based dog kennels. The home was of a wood-sided “ranch-style” architecture. It had two bedrooms separted by a bathroom, a combination kitchen & dining room and a sunken living room. The home had electricity and running water. It was set up for propane gas, but the propane gas supplier would not turn on the propane for us because the former tenants failed to pay their propane gas bill. So, we cooked on an electric hot-plate and wood-burning stove. We heated the home with firewood too. You didn’t stay in the shower long without the water being heated! We had a fenced, wonderful producing, year-round vegetable garden next to the home. We had to keep the garden fenced because the deer and other wildlife would devour it without it being fenced. There were other old homes at Orchid Town at this time that were being rented too. I don’t recall who owned the property, but the rent was only $5o per month with water and electricity included. Quite the deal, even way back then!

Drew, it’s interesting that you lived in that house. It was empty when we lived there. And the pool wasn’t maintained, but had about 8 feet of water in it one time, and I fell in! I was about 9. That’s when I learned how to swim!

On every wall of his den, the trophy hunter Rengar mounts the heads, horns, claws, and fangs of the most lethal creatures in Valoran. Though his collection is extensive, he remains unsatisfied, tirelessly seeking greater game. He takes time with every kill, studying his prey, learning, and preparing himself for the next encounter with the one monster he never managed to defeat.

Rengar never knew his real parents, but was raised by a human who was revered as a legendary hunter. He was an ideal pupil, intently absorbing the lessons of his father, and improving them with his uncanny feral instincts. Before his mane had fully grown, Rengar set off on his own and claimed a wide territory for himself. Along its perimeter, he mounted the skulls of his slain prey - a warning to would-be aggressors. He thought undisputed reign of a region would fulfill him, but instead, he grew restless. No beasts in his domain proved challenging prey, and without formidable adversaries to push his limits, Rengar's spirit waned. He feared that no worthwhile game remained, that he would never again feel the Thrill of the Hunt .

Just when things seemed their bleakest, he encountered the monster. It was a disturbing, alien thing, distinctly out of place in his world. It bore huge scything claws and devoured any animal that strayed across its path. Overzealous at the prospect of a challenge, Rengar ambushed the monster in haste. It far outclassed anything he'd hunted before. Their fight was savage, and each suffered crippling wounds. Rengar lost an eye, but the most grievous blow was to his pride. He had never before failed to make the kill. Worse yet, the severity of his injuries forced him to retreat. Over the following days, he hovered on the threshold between life and death. He was wracked with pain, but beneath it, he felt a glimmer of joy. The hunt was on. If such powerful beings existed in the world, he would find them, and stack their heads high.

The monster, however, was a kill he wanted to savor. On his den's largest wall, he reserves a space for the beast's head , a trophy he swears will one day be the centerpiece of his collection.

Ranger IV ScStr - History

In May 1924, U.S. President Calvin Coolidge appointed 29-year-old J. Edgar Hoover as acting director of the 16-year-old Bureau of Investigation (BOI), forerunner of today&rsquos FBI. By December, Coolidge had made the appointment permanent.

Hoover mandated that his special agents hold a college degree in law or accounting. He promptly fired female agents and began purging the Bureau of frontier lawmen types.

But the new director stopped before completely clearing the ranks.

In 1923, Osage leaders requested federal government assistance investigating murders of tribal members in the Oklahoma oil fields. The BOI assigned one special agent: Tom White. After a year passed with little progress, Hoover knew his job depended on results. Rather than fire White, a former Texas Ranger, Hoover put White in charge of the Oklahoma City Field Office and the failing murder investigation.

Standing six foot four, White had tracked fugitives, murderers, and stick-up men for the State of Texas he commanded respect and was a dead shot.

Hoover kept more of his frontiersmen on the books and assigned them to Special Agent in Charge (SAC) White. The SAC would need them. Before White&rsquos arrival, several investigators had been killed while looking into the Osage murders. White&rsquos team included a 56-year-old former New Mexico sheriff a former Texas Ranger a Native American who had been fired and rehired and another Texan who listed his interests as pistol practice and man hunting.

In a little more than a year, White and his team brought to trial the individuals responsible for the Osage murders. And he had uncovered the motive&mdashhead rights to the Osage&rsquos oil reserves were transferable upon death. During the 1920s, the Osage were among the wealthiest people in the United States because of oil that had been discovered on Osage Nation property.

On 28 October 1926, a trial of accused Osage murderers ended in the conviction of two men.

In solving the murders, Director Hoover hit upon a formula that works today&mdashdiversity of investigators&mdashthose who fulfill the Bureau's motto of "Fidelity, Bravery, and Integrity."

Read more about the gunfighting agents of the Bureau of Investigation in Killers of the Flower Moon, an award-winning book by David Grann. A book review is available here.

AdvisorShares Ranger Equity Bear ETF (HDGE)

Contrarian investors seeking to capitalize on stock market declines can profit during a bear market using an inverse exchange-traded fund (ETF). A bear market is typically defined as a situation where securities prices fall 20% or more from recent highs amid widespread investor pessimism.

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MSOS and DWAW Available for Investment at LPL Financial LLC

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AdvisorShares Announces Reverse Split of ETF

AdvisorShares, a leading sponsor of actively managed exchange-traded funds (ETFs), has announced a reverse split of the issued and outstanding shares of the AdvisorShares Ranger Equity Bear ETF. The split will not change the total value of a shareholder's investment.

A Conversation with a Short Seller

Short seller David Tice, new CIO of AdvisorShares Ranger Equity Bear ETF (HDGE), discusses short opportunities in a post-COVID world.

86th Infantry Regiment

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
This regiment, Col. Benajah P. Bailey, was organized at Elmira November 23, 1861, and there mustered in the service of the United States for three years November 20-23, 1861. June 21, 1864, the men of the 70th Infantry, not mustered out with their regiment, were transferred to this. At the expiration of its service the men entitled thereto were discharged and the regiment retained in service.
The companies were recruited principally: A at Syracuse B at Addison C and F at Corning D at Hornellsville E at Elmira G at Canisteo H' at Troupsburg I in Steuben county and K at Woodhull.
The regiment left the State November 23, 1861 served in 2d Brigade, Casey's Division, Army of Potomac, from December, 1861 in 3d Brigade, Smith's Division, Army of Potomac, from January 16, 1862 in 2d Brigade, Casey's Division, Army of Potomac, from February, 1862 in General Wadsworth's Military District of Washington, D. C., from March, 1862 in Piatt's Brigade, Reserve Corps, Army of Virginia, from August, 1862 in same brigade, Whipple's Division, 12th Corps, Army of Potomac, from October, 1862 in 1st Brigade, 3d Division, 3d Corps, Army of Potomac, from November, 1862 in 2d Brigade, 1st Division, 3d Corps, Army of Potomac, from June, 1863 in 1st Brigade, 3d Division, 2d Corps, Army of Potomac, from April, 1864 and it was honorably discharged and mustered out, commanded by Col. Nathan H. Vincent, June 27, 1865, near Washington, D. C.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 9 officers, 92 enlisted men of wounds received in action, 5 officers, 67 enlisted men of disease and other causes, 3 officers, 151 enlisted men total, 17 officers, 310 enlisted men aggregate, 327 of whom 17 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
Eighty-sixth Infantry.&mdashCols., Benijah P. Bailey, Benjamin L. Higgins, Jacob H. Lansing, Nathan H. Vincent Lieut.-Cols., Bar-nard J. Chapin, Benjamin L. Higgins, Jacob H. Lansing, Michael B. Stafford, Nathan H. Vincent, Luzern Todd Majs., Seyman G. Rheinvault, Benjamin L. Higgins, Jacob H. Lansing, Michael B. Stafford, Nathan H. Vincent, Frederick Van Tine, Luzern Todd, Samuel H. Leavitt. The 86th, known as the Steuben Rangers, was recruited in Steuben, Chemung and Onondaga counties, mustered into the U. S. service at Elmira, Nov. 20 to 23, 1861, and left for Washington on Nov. 23. It passed the first winter in the performance of guard duty at or near Washington and was not ordered to the front until Aug., 1862, when it joined the forces under Gen. Pope and lost 118 in, killed, wounded and missing at the second Bull Run. It then moved to Fredericksburg, participated in the battle there with the 1st brigade, 3d division, 3d corps, and then went into winter quarters near Falmouth. It bore a prominent part in the battle of Chancellorsville, was engaged at Brandy Station, and in the thick of the fight at Gettysburg. Moving southward. via Wapping heights, Auburn and Kelly's ford, no further loss was met with Until the Mine Run campaign, when the regiment lost 32 in the action at Locust Grove. At Brandy Station, where the Army of the Potomac made its winter quarters, a large number of the regiment reenlisted and received their veteran furlough in Jan., 1864, and the 86th continued in the field as a veteran regiment. Camp was broken in April for the Wilderness campaign, the regiment being assigned to the 1st brigade, 3d division, 2nd corps, with which it fought through all the battles of that memorable advance toward Richmond, meeting its heaviest loss at the Po river, where 96 were killed, wounded or captured. It accompanied its brigade and division to Petersburg, shared in the first assault, the engagements at the Weldon railroad, Deep Bottom, Strawberry Plains, Poplar Spring Church, the Boydton road, the Hicksford raid, Hatcher's run and in the Appomattox campaign, winning renown as a fighting regiment. It was commonly named "The fighting regiment of the Southern Tier." Out of a total enrollment of 1,318, the regiment lost 98 killed in action, 73 died from wounds, and 153 from other causes during service. The loss in officers was also heavy. Lieut.-Col. Chapin was killed and Maj. Higgins severely wounded at Chancellorsville, and Lieut.-Col. Stafford fell before Petersburg.

86th Regiment NY Volunteer Infantry | National Color | Civil War

The “ladies of Addison” presented this flag to Company B, which was recruited in Addison. After company commander Captain William Angle suffered a…

Ford Ranger & Explorer 4.0L V6 Engine

The 4.0L OHV (Over Head Valve) V-6 engine found its way in to the Ford Ranger in 1990 and ultimately replaced the 2.9L V-6. Information on this engine is being provided because many Bronco II owners have swapped it in to their Bronco II.

This evolutionary redesign of the American 2.9L solved many of the reliability issues that plagued its predecessor. A beefier cylinder head design eliminated the 2.9L’s common failure of cracked heads. Hydraulic roller lifters replaced the simple hydraulic lifters used in the 2.9L, which were sometimes overly sensitive to oil contamination, often requiring the lifters to be replaced prematurely. However, one major design fault was not completely eliminated: Valve rockers and upper pushrod tips still received poor oil supply, resulting in eventual wear to these areas, and consequential valvetrain noise as a result of the increased clearance. Required replacement of these parts is common in older engines.

The 4.0L OHV engine was produced until 2000 and was used in the Ford Explorer and Ranger. Output was 160hp and 225 ft·lbf. Though there is some variation, typically 155hp is quoted as horsepower for 1990-1992 applications.

In 1998 the 4.0L SOHC (Single Over Head Cam) engine replaced the 4.0L OHV engine producing 207hp.

SOHC & OHV Engine Differences:

The difference between a SOHC 4.0L and OHV 4.0L is that in a SOHC engine there is a camshaft sitting on the top of each cylinder head with the valves running directly off the camshaft. It doesn’t rely on push rods, rocker arms, or lifters. The SOHC engine uses a jackshaft in place of a camshaft to drive a timing chain to each cylinder head. Three timing chains are used, one from the crank to the jackshaft, one in the front of the engine to drive the cam for the left bank, and one on the back of the engine to drive the cam for the right bank.

The OHV engine has the cam mounted above the crank. The cam and crank are joined in time by a timing chain. Lifters ride on the cam and push rods that extend to rocker arms in the heads which push the valves.

Engine Displacement (Cubic Inches) 245 CID
Type OHV (1990 – 2000) (VIN Code X)

(OHV spark plug at the top – SOHC plug on the bottom)

1990-1996 uses SP486 (Platinum) (old part number is AWSF42P)

1997-2000 uses SP500 (Platinum) (old part number is AGSF22PP) or SP413 (Premium Nickel)

Without A/C 6.5 quarts (OHV Engines)

Torque in 2 steps (SOHC Engines):

Torque in 2 steps (SOHC Engines):

Torque in 2 steps (SOHC Engines):

4.0L Firing Order

4.0L Engines Firing Order: 1-4-2-5-3-6 DIS Ignition System

Known Problems:

Missing or Bogging – There are several things that could be causing this. First off your MAF may be dirty. Check HERE on how to clean it. Then there are the obvious – plugs, wires, dirty injectors. Tune up items basically.

Also, if you get a problem with hesitation, check the wires around the exhaust. One of the oxygen sensor wires may have been damaged by the exhaust.

Loose Intake Manifold Bolts – Some 90’s 4.0L’s have a problem with loose intake bolts. Click HERE for more details.

How To Build Performance:

Performance Parts:

Tom Morana: Offers numerous products for the 4.0 including stroker kits, camshafts, connecting rods, pistons, cylinder heads, and supercharger kits.

K&N Filters: Carries products including new air intake systems for some 4.0L Rangers.

Camcraft : Offers a new camshaft for the 4.0L.

Super Six Motorsports : Offers cylinder heads for the 4.0L engines.

Competition Cams: Offers camshaft# 49-410-8 as an OEM replacement good for towing and all around performance. Camshaft# 49-422-8 is a more aggressive cam for 4.0’s with other modifications. It is designed to improve midrange power and torque.

Thomas Knight: Offers a kit to install an Eaton supercharger on the 4.0L Ranger.

BBK Performance : BBK offers 66mm throttle bodies for the 4.0L OHV Ranger.

Pacesetter : Pacesetter offers headers for the 4.0L OHV Ranger.

JBA: JBA offers headers and ignition wires for the 4.0L Ranger.

Hedman Hedders: Offers headers for the 4.0L engines.

Gibson and Dynomax : Both offer cat-back exhaust systems for the Ranger.

Nitrous Oxide Systems (NOS) : Nitrous Oxide Systems (NOS) showed the world how to effectively harness the power of nitrous oxide for automotive use in the 1970’s. Since then, NOS has powered more racers than any other brand of nitrous. When you’re looking to go fast, rely on NOS to deliver the most power per dollar available. From stock engines to race vehicles, jet skis to trucks, NOS has a kit for you.


Port your upper and lower intake. The intakes don’t line up diameter to diameter. Porting opens this up and allows better flow. Knife edge the intake side of the throttle body to remove the front lip. You can use a Dremel tool to grind, sand and buff this area to obtain a smooth airflow in to the engine. You can also mill down the butterfly to blend in to the shaft for a smoother air flow.

For details on how to port your heads, click HERE .

MSD – Manufactures a DIS ignition system along with wiring harnesses. Find their parts at Summit Racing .

JetChip – Makes a module to reprogram the engines computer. Click HERE .

4.0 Computer Numbers Submitted by: skineral

1991 Explorer 4.0 Manual Transmission 4ࡪ

Calf 3006 (F07F-12A650-YA) & (F07F-VAMR)
Fed 3007 (F07F-12A650-VA) & (F07F-VAMR)

1992 Explorer 4.0 Manual Transmission 4ࡪ

Calf 3397 (F27F-12A650-VC) & (F27F-12A650-VCMR)
Fed 3398 (F27F-12A650-TC) & (F27F-12A650-TCMR)

1993 Explorer 4.0 Manual Transmission 4ࡪ

Calf 3729 ( F37F-12A650-XB) & (F37F12A650-CRA)
Fed 3726 (F37F-12A650-UC) & (F37F-12A650-YR) & (YMBR)

How ‘The Highwaymen’ whitewashes Frank Hamer and the Texas Rangers

On Friday, Netflix released the new film “The Highwaymen,” featuring Texas Ranger Frank Hamer, dubbed by screenwriter John Fusco as “arguably the greatest law officer of the 20th century.” The film has already earned the stamp of approval from Texas audiences. Emily McCullar of Texas Monthly described the movie as a “classic Texas story, one that doesn’t push back on the white, masculine, Wild-West mythology that Texans cling to.”

We’ve all partaken in the creation of this mythical Texas, especially when it comes to the Texas Rangers. Politicians, historians, the media and historical commissions have long celebrated the Texas Rangers, transforming them into a mythical hero in radio, film and eventually television shows like “The Lone Ranger” and “Walker, Texas Ranger.”

But this myth has relied on a public willingness to overlook lawmen breaking the law and ignore (or even celebrate) the Rangers’ long history of racial violence targeting Native Americans, ethnic Mexicans and African Americans. “The Highwaymen” threatens to further this mythology at precisely the moment when many in Texas are beginning to grapple with this appalling history.

After Texas claimed independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Rangers were developed as a “fighting force” for Anglo settlers in the ongoing war for racial supremacy — battling Mexican landowners and indigenous nations while supporting chattel slavery. Frank Hamer started his career in the early 20th century when the Texas Rangers helped enforce new Jim Crow and Juan Crow segregation laws targeting black and Mexican Texans and intimidating labor organizers and anti-lynching activists. These state police officers blurred the lines between enforcing state laws, practicing vigilantism and inciting racial terror.

In fact, the abuses were so extensive that the Texas legislature investigated charges of Rangers denying residents due process, torturing prisoners, murdering unarmed prisoners and coordinating massacres. In early 1919, in the span of two weeks, 83 witnesses testified. Ultimately, the committee found the Texas Rangers culpable of misconduct and “unwarranted disregard of the rights of citizenship.”

All along the way, the Rangers and their supporters tried to undermine the legal process. Hamer played a significant role in this process. Over the years, he built a reputation for his harsh treatment of suspects, brutal interrogations and unhesitating use of his gun. In 1915 he posed next to the corpses of Jesus García, Mauricio García, Amado Muñoz and Muñoz’s brother like trophies. Photographer Robert Runyon turned carnage into profit when he sold the image as postcards. These postcards, like those of lynchings, circulated widely and were effective methods of racial intimidation. Cloaked in legal authority, the Rangers helped criminalize the dead and spread fear.

About Wivenhoe Rangers by Noel Clark

In 1967/68, before emigrating to Australia, I played with the then Wivenhoe Rangers Football Club. Not with any great distinction I should add! So I have read with interest your "history" of the club.

I must say that it was with a tinge of disappointment that I saw that the now Wivenhoe Town has the nickname "The Dragons", because, as your "Noteworthy People of Wivenhoe" page recalls, there was a daffodil named after the old Wivenhoe Rangers, and the daffodil was the emblem of the club at the time I played. Our claret and blue shirts, with the yellow daffodil badge, were very distinctive.

I have sometimes wondered whether the club has a list of former players or anything similar. Being out of a job at the time I was a player I also took on the task of marking out the pitch ready for Saturday games on the old Recreation Ground. The committee met in the bar at one of the pubs – The Rose and Crown on the Quay – where we played darts and the first and reserve teams were decided and announced. Johnny Sills was the captain of the club that year. Other players associated with the fledgling University of Essex, as I was, were Keith Dalton, who at one stage played for Nantes Juniors in France, and Roger Hall.

My cousin Ray Watsham also played for the club at some stage. I see that the Wivenhoe Watshams and Ray get a mention elsewhere. My mother was a Watsham from Elmstead all the Watshams and Watchams of Essex are related, and I have a pretty comprehensive family tree of the family back to the early 1700s.

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