Poquoson / p ə ˈ k oʊ s ən / , informally known as Bull Island, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,150.  The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Poquoson with surrounding York County for statistical purposes.
Poquoson is located on the Virginia Peninsula, in the Hampton Roads metropolitan area.
Poquoson, which was formerly part of York County, became an incorporated town in 1952 and an independent city in 1975. (In Virginia, municipalities incorporated as independent cities are not part of any county.) However, the ties remain close. Over 30 years after Poquoson became a politically independent entity, some constitutional services such as the courts, sheriff and jail continue to be shared with neighboring York County.
Poquoson is one of the oldest continuously named cities in Virginia. It is also one of the few to retain a name which derived from the Native Americans who inhabited the area before colonization by the English began in the 17th century.
Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC) Edit
The most restrictive definition of the Greater Boston area is the region administered by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council.  The MAPC is a regional planning organization created by the Massachusetts legislature to oversee transportation infrastructure and economic development concerns in the Boston area. The MAPC includes 101 cities and towns that are grouped into eight subregions. These include most of the area within the region's outer circumferential highway, I-495. In 2013, the population of the MAPC district was 3.2 million, which was 48% of the total population of Massachusetts,  in an area of 1,422 square miles (3,680 km 2 ),  of which 39% is forested and an additional 11% is water, wetland, or other open space. 
The eight subregions and their principal towns are: Inner Core (Boston), Minuteman (Route 2 corridor), MetroWest (Framingham), North Shore (Lynn), North Suburban (Woburn), South Shore (Route 3 corridor), SouthWest (Franklin), and Three Rivers (Norwood).
Notably excluded from the MAPC and its partner planning body, the Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization, are the Merrimack Valley cities of Lowell, Lawrence, and Haverhill, much of Plymouth County, and all of Bristol County these areas have their own regional planning bodies. Bristol County is part of the Greater Boston CSA, as part of the Providence MSA.
New England City and Town Area (NECTA) Edit
Because New England's local governance model is organized around the smaller New England town unit, and has weak or non-existent county governments, the US Census Bureau organizes its urban regions in the New England around clusters of towns known as New England city and town areas (NECTAs) rather than around county borders as it does in the rest of the country. The set of towns containing the core urbanized area, along with surrounding towns with strong social and economic ties to the core area, is defined as the Boston–Cambridge–Nashua, MA–NH Metropolitan NECTA.  The Boston NECTA region is further subdivided into several NECTA divisions, which are listed below. The Boston, Framingham, and Peabody NECTA divisions together correspond roughly to the MAPC area. The total population of the Boston NECTA was 4,540,941 (as of 2000 [update] ).
- Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA NECTA Division (92 towns)
- Framingham, MA NECTA Division (12 towns)
- Peabody–Salem–Beverly, MA NECTA Division (4 towns)
- Brockton–Bridgewater–Easton, MA NECTA Division (Old Colony region) (8 towns)
- Haverhill–Newburyport–Amesbury, MA–NH NECTA Division (Merrimack Valley region) (21 towns)
- Lawrence–Methuen–Salem, MA–NH NECTA Division (part of Merrimack Valley region) (4 towns)
- Lowell–Billerica–Chelmsford, MA–NH NECTA Division (Northern Middlesex region) (15 towns)
- Nashua, NH–MA NECTA Division (21 towns)
- Taunton–Middleborough–Norton, MA NECTA Division (part of Southeastern region) (9 towns)
- Lynn–Saugus–Marblehead, MA NECTA Division (5 towns)
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) Edit
|US Decennial Census|
An alternative definition defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, using counties as building blocks instead of towns, is the Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA–NH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is further subdivided into three metropolitan divisions. The metropolitan statistical area had a total population of approximately 4,875,390 as of 2018 [update] and is the tenth-largest in the United States. The components of the metropolitan area with their estimated 2018 populations are listed below.
- Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA–NH Metropolitan Statistical Area (4,875,390)
- Companies along, inside or outside I-495, outside Route 128:
- , in Worcester (pharmaceutical laboratory) , in Worcester (research laboratory) , in Boxborough , in Norwood , in Quincy , in Beverly , in Burlington (headquarters) , in Acton , in Boston (headquarters) , in Boston (headquarters) , in Northborough (headquarters) , in Westborough (headquarters) , in Framingham (headquarters) , in Boston (headquarters) , in Marlborough (headquarters) , in Wilmington (headquarters) , in Boxborough
- CommunityRoot, in Boston (headquarters) , in Worcester (manufacturer of space suits) , in Marlborough (regional headquarters) , in Hopkinton (headquarters) , in Marlborough (headquarters) , in Marlborough (regional headquarters) , in Andover, Massachusetts , in Boston , in Boston (headquarters) , in Hudson , in Chelmsford, Massachusetts (headquarters) , Inc, in Framingham (headquarters) , in Natick , in Bedford (headquarters)
- Morgan Construction Company, in Worcester (rolling steel mill technology) , in Norwood (headquarters) , headquartered in Cambridge, with locations worldwide (a Swissmultinationalpharmaceutical company based in Basel) , in Andover (regional headquarters) , in Andover (global headquarters) and Framingham , in Westford (engineering headquarters) in Taunton (factory and headquarters) , in Worcester , in Marlborough (headquarters) , in Framingham (headquarters) , in Quincy (headquarters) , in Framingham (headquarters) , in Wilmington (headquarters) , in Brockton (headquarters) , in Grafton (complex metal components and products)
- NetBlazr, in Watertown , in Burlington , in Cambridge (research headquarters) , in Waltham , in Burlington in Burlington in Danvers (headquarters) in Needham (headquarters) in Burlington in Bedford (headquarters) , in Waltham (headquarters) , in Canton (US headquarters) , in Cambridge (headquarters many locations in the area) , in Needham (headquarters) , in Malden (headquarters) , in North Reading (headquarters) , in Waltham (headquarters) , in Needham (headquarters) , in Cambridge , in Lexington (North American headquarters) 
- Sonesta International Hotels Corp. (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters)
- The Boston Marathon, which follows a course from Hopkinton to Boston
- The Head of the Charles Regatta
- The Lenox Industrial Tools 301, Sylvania 300 and New Hampshire Indy 225 auto races at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway oval track.
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- The Cheshire Railroad (later Boston & Maine) was secured at Bellows Falls.
- Cross-lake traffic at Burlington was gained via the Whitehall & Plattsburgh across the waters at Plattsburgh (this road was attempting to provide its own northerly connection into Canada).
- A western connection was also acquired with the Rensselaer & Saratoga at Rutland.
- Scrapping the entire steam fleet (58 locomotives in all, including its four new 4-8-2s purchased in 1946) for fifteen new diesel road-switchers from Alco (RS1s and RS3s) in 1951-1952
- Abandoning the Chatham Branch in 1953 (57 miles in all).
- Cutting the workforce from nearly 1,200 employees to just 400.
- Purchasing several hundred new freight cars from Pullman-Standard allowing it to scrap its tired fleet of rolling stock (a lot of which would be accepted by interchange partners).
- 2,182 94.7% White alone
- 49 2.1% Hispanic
- 28 1.2% Black alone
- 22 1.0% Two or more races
- 21 0.9% Asian alone
- 3 0.1% American Indian alone
Recent articles from our blog. Our writers, many of them Ph.D. graduates or candidates, create easy-to-read articles on a wide variety of topics.
Latest news from New Lebanon, NY collected exclusively by city-data.com from local newspapers, TV, and radio stations
Ancestries: German (19.8%), Irish (19.2%), English (16.9%), Italian (12.4%), French (9.3%), Dutch (5.9%).
Current Local Time: EST time zone
Land area: 35.9 square miles.
Population density: 64 people per square mile (very low).
104 residents are foreign born (3.0% Europe, 0.7% Latin America).
Nearest city with pop. 50,000+: Albany, NY (21.8 miles , pop. 95,658).
Nearest city with pop. 200,000+: Bronx, NY (114.2 miles , pop. 1,332,650).
Latitude: 42.47 N, Longitude: 73.44 W
Single-family new house construction building permits:
- 1997: 7 buildings, average cost: $89,100
- 1998: 7 buildings, average cost: $113,300
- 1999: 11 buildings, average cost: $107,400
- 2000: 9 buildings, average cost: $122,100
- 2001: 7 buildings, average cost: $122,100
- 2002: 9 buildings, average cost: $122,100
- 2003: 15 buildings, average cost: $129,800
- 2004: 12 buildings, average cost: $175,800
- 2005: 5 buildings, average cost: $172,000
- 2006: 8 buildings, average cost: $218,400
- 2007: 7 buildings, average cost: $148,600
- 2008: 3 buildings, average cost: $90,700
- 2009: 4 buildings, average cost: $125,000
- 2010: 3 buildings, average cost: $166,700
- 2011: 1 building, cost: $150,000
- 2012: 1 building, cost: $150,000
- 2013: 2 buildings, average cost: $32,500
- 2014: 6 buildings, average cost: $85,800
- 2015: 6 buildings, average cost: $85,800
- 2017: 3 buildings, average cost: $170,000
- 2018: 3 buildings, average cost: $170,000
- 2019: 5 buildings, average cost: $191,600
- Educational services (16.5%)
- Health care (9.6%)
- Public administration (7.0%)
- Construction (6.3%)
- Professional, scientific, technical services (5.9%)
- Accommodation & food services (4.8%)
- Arts, entertainment, recreation (3.8%)
- Educational services (11.5%)
- Construction (11.1%)
- Public administration (7.9%)
- Health care (4.6%)
- Professional, scientific, technical services (4.3%)
- Truck transportation (4.1%)
- Repair & maintenance (3.4%)
- Educational services (21.7%)
- Health care (14.8%)
- Professional, scientific, technical services (7.6%)
- Accommodation & food services (6.3%)
- Public administration (6.1%)
- Social assistance (4.8%)
- Finance & insurance (4.6%)
- Preschool, kindergarten, elementary, and middle school teachers (5.0%)
- Other management occupations, except farmers and farm managers (3.9%)
- Other sales and related occupations, including supervisors (3.6%)
- Other production occupations, including supervisors (3.5%)
- Other office and administrative support workers, including supervisors (3.4%)
- Secretaries and administrative assistants (3.3%)
- Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations (3.2%)
- Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers (5.1%)
- Other production occupations, including supervisors (5.1%)
- Electrical equipment mechanics and other installation, maintenance, and repair workers, including supervisors (4.6%)
- Other sales and related occupations, including supervisors (4.4%)
- Driver/sales workers and truck drivers (4.4%)
- Retail sales workers, except cashiers (4.1%)
- Metal workers and plastic workers (3.6%)
- Preschool, kindergarten, elementary, and middle school teachers (6.8%)
- Secretaries and administrative assistants (6.6%)
- Registered nurses (5.8%)
- Other office and administrative support workers, including supervisors (5.6%)
- Other management occupations, except farmers and farm managers (4.9%)
- Counselors, social workers, and other community and social service specialists (3.6%)
- Other teachers, instructors, education, training, and library occupations (3.6%)
Average climate in New Lebanon, New York
Based on data reported by over 4,000 weather stations
Air Quality Index (AQI) level in 2018 was 71.9. This is about average.
Carbon Monoxide (CO) [ppm] level in 2018 was 0.215. This is better than average. Closest monitor was 11.2 miles away from the city center.
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) [ppb] level in 2018 was 0.0698. This is significantly better than average. Closest monitor was 10.4 miles away from the city center.
Ozone [ppb] level in 2018 was 27.8. This is about average. Closest monitor was 10.4 miles away from the city center.
Particulate Matter (PM2.5) [µg/m 3 ] level in 2018 was 7.36. This is about average. Closest monitor was 9.7 miles away from the city center.
New Lebanon-area historical tornado activity is above New York state average. It is 25% smaller than the overall U.S. average.
On 8/28/1973, a category F4 (max. wind speeds 207-260 mph) tornado 3.4 miles away from the New Lebanon town center killed 4 people and injured 36 people and caused between $5,000,000 and $50,000,000 in damages.
On 5/29/1995, a category F4 tornado 18.5 miles away from the town center killed 3 people and injured 24 people and caused between $5,000,000 and $50,000,000 in damages.
New Lebanon-area historical earthquake activity is significantly above New York state average. It is 68% smaller than the overall U.S. average.
On 10/7/1983 at 10:18:46, a magnitude 5.3 (5.1 MB, 5.3 LG, 5.1 ML, Class: Moderate, Intensity: VI - VII) earthquake occurred 112.3 miles away from New Lebanon center
On 4/20/2002 at 10:50:47, a magnitude 5.3 (5.3 ML, Depth: 3.0 mi) earthquake occurred 142.1 miles away from the city center
On 4/20/2002 at 10:50:47, a magnitude 5.2 (5.2 MB, 4.2 MS, 5.2 MW, 5.0 MW) earthquake occurred 140.4 miles away from the city center
On 1/19/1982 at 00:14:42, a magnitude 4.7 (4.5 MB, 4.7 MD, 4.5 LG, Class: Light, Intensity: IV - V) earthquake occurred 117.5 miles away from the city center
On 10/16/2012 at 23:12:25, a magnitude 4.7 (4.7 ML, Depth: 10.0 mi) earthquake occurred 161.2 miles away from New Lebanon center
On 6/17/1991 at 08:53:16, a magnitude 4.1 (4.0 MB, 4.0 LG, Depth: 3.1 mi) earthquake occurred 63.9 miles away from the city center
Magnitude types: regional Lg-wave magnitude (LG), body-wave magnitude (MB), duration magnitude (MD), local magnitude (ML), surface-wave magnitude (MS), moment magnitude (MW)
The number of natural disasters in Columbia County (22) is greater than the US average (15).
Major Disasters (Presidential) Declared: 12
Emergencies Declared: 9
Causes of natural disasters: Storms: 7, Floods: 6, Hurricanes: 4, Winter Storms: 4, Snowstorms: 3, Blizzards: 2, Power Outage: 1, Tornado: 1, Other: 2 (Note: some incidents may be assigned to more than one category).
Hospitals and medical centers near New Lebanon:
- SPRINGSIDE REHABILITATION AND SKILLED CARE CENTER (Nursing Home, about 8 miles away PITTSFIELD, MA)
- BERKSHIRE VISITING NURSE ASSOCIATION (Home Health Center, about 9 miles away PITTSFIELD, MA)
- HILLCREST HOSPITAL (Hospital, about 9 miles away PITTSFIELD, MA)
- HILLCREST COMMONS NURSING AND REHABILITATION CENTER (Nursing Home, about 9 miles away PITTSFIELD, MA)
- CENTER FOR OPTIMUM CARE-BERKSHIRE (Nursing Home, about 9 miles away PITTSFIELD, MA)
- HOSPICE OF THE BERKSHIRES, INC (Hospital, about 10 miles away PITTSFIELD, MA)
- BERKSHIRE PLACE (Nursing Home, about 10 miles away PITTSFIELD, MA)
Amtrak stations near New Lebanon:
- 10 miles: PITTSFIELD (DEPOT ST. BTW NORTH & CENTER STS.) . Services: enclosed waiting area, public payphones, free short-term parking, free long-term parking, taxi stand, intercity bus service, public transit connection.
- 20 miles: ALBANY-RENSSELAER (RENSSELAER, 555 EAST ST.) . Services: ticket office, partially wheelchair accessible, enclosed waiting area, public restrooms, public payphones, snack bar, ATM, free short-term parking, free long-term parking, call for car rental service, taxi stand, public transit connection.
Colleges/universities with over 2000 students nearest to New Lebanon:
- Hudson Valley Community College (about 21 miles Troy, NY Full-time enrollment: 9,346)
- Williams College (about 21 miles Williamstown, MA FT enrollment: 2,141)
- Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (about 22 miles Troy, NY FT enrollment: 6,940)
- The Sage Colleges (about 23 miles Troy, NY FT enrollment: 2,499)
- The College of Saint Rose (about 23 miles Albany, NY FT enrollment: 4,085)
- Siena College (about 24 miles Loudonville, NY FT enrollment: 3,153)
- SUNY at Albany (about 25 miles Albany, NY FT enrollment: 15,490)
Public high school in New Lebanon:
Private high school in New Lebanon:
Public elementary/middle school in New Lebanon:
Private elementary/middle school in New Lebanon:
Library in New Lebanon:
- NEW LEBANON LIBRARY (Operating income: $151,834 Location: 550 ROUTE 20 17,061 books 213 e-books 693 audio materials 2,107 video materials 14 state licensed databases 8 other licensed databases 37 print serial subscriptions)
Points of interest:
Notable locations in New Lebanon: Lebanon Valley Speedway (A) , New Lebanon Library (B) . Display/hide their locations on the map
Church in New Lebanon: New Lebanon Congregational Church (A) . Display/hide its location on the map
Cemeteries: Immaculate Conception Cemetery (1) , Mott Cemetery (2) , Cornwall-Tilden Cemetery (3) , Cemetery of the Evergreens (4) . Display/hide their locations on the map
Lakes and swamps: Beaver Pond (A) , Shaker Swamp (B) . Display/hide their locations on the map
Streams, rivers, and creeks: Wyomanock Creek (A) , Hollow Brook (B) . Display/hide their locations on the map
Park in New Lebanon: Shafford Memorial Park (1) . Display/hide its location on the map
Birthplace of: George Henry Williams - Lawyer, Phineas Hitchcock - Politician.
Columbia County has a predicted average indoor radon screening level greater than 4 pCi/L (pico curies per liter) - Highest Potential
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A major winter storm affected the mid-Atlantic on December 16 and 17, 2020. Developing low pressure along the coast brought a surge of moisture into the region, causing precipitation to begin on the afternoon of December 16. Strong high pressure over southern Canada helped lock in cold air over much of the area. However, the low pressure area&rsquos track close to the coastline combined with the warm marine influence of the ocean also brought warmer air into the region. This created a multi-faceted storm with various precipitation types. While rain dominated along the coast, most locations experienced a mix of snow, sleet, and/or freezing rain with heavy precipitation at times during the evening and overnight of the 16th. Snow totals were greatest in the northern and western portions of our area which remained all snow for longer, with widespread amount of 8 to 14 inches reported. Totals decreased to the southeast where snow changed over to sleet and/or rain more quickly. A narrow but persistent corridor of freezing rain also developed mainly over northern New Castle County, DE and southern Philadelphia County, PA. This brought over one quarter inch of glaze ice to some locations. Strong wind gusts also occurred due to a strong pressure gradient between the nearby low pressure and the area of high pressure to the north. Winds were especially strong near the coast where gusts reached 50 to 60 mph. Minor to locally moderate coastal flooding affected oceanfront locations for two high tide cycles. Thankfully, the timing of the highest tides did not correspond with the time of greatest water level increases, likely sparing the coast from widespread moderate or even major flooding. The storm departed from the region on the morning of the 17th, leaving dry but chilly weather in its wake.
This page remains a work in progress and will be updated with additional information.
Watch the video: 4 cylinder race 52221 Lebanon Valley Speedway
- Boston, MA Metropolitan Division (2,030,772)
- , Massachusetts (705,388) , Massachusetts (518,132) , Massachusetts (807,252)
- , Massachusetts (790,638) , Massachusetts (1,614,714)
- , New Hampshire (309,176) , New Hampshire (130,090)
Combined Statistical Area (CSA) Edit
A wider functional metropolitan area based on commuting patterns is also defined by the Office of Management and Budget as the Boston–Worcester–Providence combined statistical area. This area consists of the metropolitan areas of Manchester, Worcester, Providence, as well as Cape Cod, in addition to greater Boston. The total population as of 2018 [update] for the extended region was estimated at 8,285,417. The following areas, along with the above MSA, are included in the combined statistical area, with their estimated 2018 populations:
- , Massachusetts (564,022) , Rhode Island (48,649) , Rhode Island (163,861) , Rhode Island (82,542) , Rhode Island (636,084) , Rhode Island (126,179)
- , Massachusetts (830,839) , Connecticut (117,027)
- , New Hampshire (415,247)
- , Massachusetts (213,413)
- , New Hampshire (151,132)
- , New Hampshire (61,022)
Boston metropolitan area Edit
The Census Bureau defines the following as principal cities in the Boston NECTA  using criteria developed for what the Office of Management and Budget calls a Core Based Statistical Area: 
Largest cities and towns Edit
Cities and towns in the Boston CSA with at least 50,000 residents:
(2010 to 2014)
Population density Edit
The most densely populated census tracts in the Boston CSA (2010): 
|Rank||City or neighborhood||Census tract||Population||Population density|
|/sq mi||/km 2|
Race and ethnicity Edit
The 40 most diverse Census tracts in the Boston CSA: 
|Rank||City or neighborhood||Census tract||Population||% White||% Black||% Hispanic||% Asian||% multiracial or other|
The 40 census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Hispanic or Latino: 
|Rank||City or Neighborhood||Census Tract||Population||% Hispanic or Latino|
Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Black American: 
|Rank||City or Neighborhood||Census Tract||Population||% Black|
Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Asian American: 
|Rank||City or Neighborhood||Census Tract||Population||% Asian|
Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Irish American: 
|City or Neighborhood||Census Tract||Population||% Irish|
Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Italian American: 
|City or Neighborhood||Census Tract||Population||% Italian|
Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Portuguese American: 
|City or Neighborhood||Census Tract||Population||% Portuguese|
Census tracts in the Boston CSA with French or French Canadian listed as first ancestry: 
|City or Neighborhood||Census Tract||Population||% French|
Greater Boston has a sizable Jewish community, estimated at between 210,000 people,   and 261,000  or 5–6% of the Greater Boston metro population, compared with about 2% for the nation as a whole. Contrary to national trends, the number of Jews in Greater Boston has been growing, fueled by the fact that 60% of children in Jewish mixed-faith families are raised Jewish, compared with roughly one in three nationally. 
The City of Boston also has one of the largest LGBT populations per capita. It ranks fifth of all major cities in the country (behind San Francisco, and slightly behind Seattle, Atlanta, and Minneapolis respectively), with 12.3% of the city identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. 
|County||2016 Estimate||2010 Census||Change||Area||Density|
|Essex County, Massachusetts||779,018||743,159||+4.83%||492.56 sq mi (1,275.7 km 2 )||1,582/sq mi (611/km 2 )|
|Middlesex County, Massachusetts||1,589,774||1,503,085||+5.77%||817.82 sq mi (2,118.1 km 2 )||1,944/sq mi (751/km 2 )|
|Norfolk County, Massachusetts||697,181||670,850||+3.93%||396.11 sq mi (1,025.9 km 2 )||1,760/sq mi (680/km 2 )|
|Plymouth County, Massachusetts||513,565||494,919||+3.77%||659.07 sq mi (1,707.0 km 2 )||779/sq mi (301/km 2 )|
|Suffolk County, Massachusetts||784,230||722,023||+8.62%||58.15 sq mi (150.6 km 2 )||13,486/sq mi (5,207/km 2 )|
|Rockingham County, New Hampshire||303,251||295,223||+2.72%||694.72 sq mi (1,799.3 km 2 )||437/sq mi (169/km 2 )|
|Strafford County, New Hampshire||127,428||123,143||+3.48%||368.97 sq mi (955.6 km 2 )||345/sq mi (133/km 2 )|
|Total||4,794,447||4,552,402||+5.32%||3,487.40 sq mi (9,032.3 km 2 )||1,375/sq mi (531/km 2 )|
A long established center of higher education, the area includes many community colleges, two-year schools, and internationally prominent undergraduate and graduate institutions. The graduate schools include highly regarded schools of law, medicine, business, technology, international relations, public health, education, and religion. Greater Boston contains seven R1 Research Institutions as per the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. This is, by far, the highest number of such institutions in a single Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States.
Changes in house prices for the Greater Boston area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 10-city composite index of the value of the residential real estate market.
- , in Cambridge (headquarters) , in Waltham (R&D) , in Cambridge (headquarters) , in Medford (North American headquarters) , in Weston (North American headquarters) , in Peabody (North American headquarters) , in Waltham , in Canton (headquarters) , in Cambridge , in Lynn , in Waltham (headquarters) , in Cambridge , in Braintree , in Waltham, Cambridge and Littleton , in Cambridge (headquarters) , in Burlington (headquarters) , in Burlington (headquarters) , in Waltham (US headquarters) , in Westwood (headquarters) , in Cambridge , in Cambridge (Parent company of CBS and Viacom), in Dedham (headquarters) , in Waltham (US headquarters) , in Waltham
- (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) , now owned by Procter & Gamble (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) , now the United States division of Canada's Manulife Financial (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (headquarters) (moving to Assembly Row, Somerville) (North American headquarters, moving to Assembly Row, Somerville) (headquarters) (headquarters)
|Boston Bruins||Ice hockey||National Hockey League||TD Garden (Boston)||1924||6 Stanley Cups|
7 Eastern Conference Titles
|Boston Cannons||Lacrosse||Major League Lacrosse||Harvard Stadium (Boston)||2001||1 MLL Championship|
|Boston Celtics||Basketball||National Basketball Association||TD Garden (Boston)||1946||17 NBA Championships|
21 Eastern Conference Titles
|Boston Pride||Ice hockey||National Women's Hockey League||Bright Hockey Center (Boston)||2015||2 Isobel Cups|
|Boston Red Sox||Baseball||Major League Baseball||Fenway Park (Boston)||1901||9 MLB World Series Champions|
14 American League Pennants
|New England Patriots||Football||National Football League||Gillette Stadium (Foxboro)||1960||6 Super Bowl Champions|
11 AFC Champions
|New England Revolution||Soccer||Major League Soccer||Gillette Stadium (Foxboro)||1995||1 US Open Cup|
U.S. Routes Edit
State Highways Edit
Bridges and tunnels Edit
- , carrying Route 1A Northbound , carrying Interstate 195 , carrying Route 138 , carrying Massachusetts Route 3A , carrying Route 1A Southbound , carrying I-90 , carrying I-93 and Routes 1 and 3 concurrently , carrying Route 1 , carrying Interstate 93, Route 1 and Route 3 concurrently
- in Boston, 3 miles (4.8 km) northeast of downtown Boston, New England's largest transportation center in Manchester, New Hampshire in Warwick, Rhode Island in Bedford
Rail and bus Edit
- (MBTA, generally known as the "T") rapid transit lines:
- heavy rail: Cambridge–Braintree and Boston (Mattapan) heavy rail: Boston (Jamaica Plain)–Malden heavy rail: Boston–Reverelight rail/streetcar: Cambridge–Brookline and Newtonstreetcar: Ashmont–Milton–Mattapanbus rapid transit South Station–Logan Airport and Downtown–Nubian
- serving Plymouth County serving northern Bristol County, western Norfolk County, Kent County, and Washington County, connecting to Providence, Rhode Island shuttle service from South Station serving western Norfolk County serving Boston's South Shore serving Boston suburbs and Needham serving southwestern Middlesex County, connecting to Worcester serving northwestern Middlesex County, connecting to Fitchburg serving northern Middlesex County and Newburyport/Rockport Line serving Essex County & Boston's North Shore
The first railway line in the United States was in Quincy. See Neponset River.
The following Regional Transit Authorities have bus service that connects with MBTA commuter rail stations:
Non-native settlement in the region dates to ca. 1740. In 1754, prominent soldier and land owner Colonel Charles Broadwater settled within the town boundaries. Broadwater's son-in-law, John Hunter built the first recorded house there in 1767, naming it Ayr Hill to recall his birthplace, Ayr, Scotland. That name was then applied to the tiny developing community. The name of the town was changed in the 1850s, when a doctor, William Hendrick, settled there if the town renamed itself after his hometown, Phelps, New York, which was then known as Vienna. 
On June 17, 1861 a relatively-minor but widely-noted military engagement occurred there, the Battle of Vienna, one of the earliest armed clashes of the American Civil War. A would-be Union occupation unit under Brigadier General Robert C. Schenck approached Vienna from the east by train but was ambushed and forced to retreat by a superior Confederate force led by Colonel Maxcy Gregg. Today, several historical markers in Vienna detail its Civil War history.      In addition, in the center of town lies the well preserved Freeman House which, in 1861, was the polling place for the secession vote and was used during the war by both sides as a hospital. The house has been turned into a museum and gift shop.
The First Baptist Church of Vienna was founded in 1867, and the original church structure was built using Union Army barracks lumber obtained through the Freedmen's Bureau.  This church building was also the town's first black public school. The first white public school was built in 1872. A permanent black elementary school was built, which was later named for its long-time principal, Louise Archer. Fairfax County Schools were completely desegregated by the Fall of 1965. 
Robert Hanssen was arrested in Vienna in 2001 for spying for the Russian intelligence service (and previously the KGB). His home was outside the town but had a Vienna mailing address. He used dead drops in nearby Foxstone Park to deliver U.S. federal government secrets to his handlers, and to collect cash or diamonds in exchange. Hanssen was sentenced that year to serve multiple life terms in prison.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.4 square miles (11.5 km 2 ), all of it land. As a suburb of Washington, D.C., Vienna is a part of both the Washington Metropolitan Area and the larger Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. It is bordered on all sides by other Washington suburbs, including: Wolf Trap to the north, Tysons Corner to the northeast, Dunn Loring to the east, Merrifield to the south, and Oakton to the west.  These communities are unincorporated, and portions of them lie in ZIP codes with Vienna postal addresses despite lying outside the town's borders. 
|* U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the 2010 census, there were 15,687 people, 5,528 households, and 4,215 families residing in the town. The population density was 3,565.2 per square mile (1,376.5/km 2 ). There were 5,686 housing units at an average density of 1,292.3 per square mile (494.4/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the town was 75.5% White, 12.1% Asian, 3.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 5.3% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.0% of the population. 
There were 5,528 households, out of which 39.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.4% were married couples living together, 3.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.8% were non-families. 18.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84, and the average family size was 3.19. 
In the town, the population was spread out, with 25.7% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 30.3% from 45 to 64, and 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males age 18 and over. 
As of 2009, the median income for a household in the town was $113,817, and the median income for a family was $124,895. Males had a median income of $88,355 versus $66,642 for females. The per capita income for the town was $49,544. About 3.7% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and 2.9% of those age 65 or over. 
Vienna's median home price was $820,000 in 2017,  one of the highest in the nation.
Primary and secondary schools Edit
Vienna is served by three high schools (Oakton, Madison, and Marshall), two middle schools (Kilmer and Thoreau), and seven elementary schools. However, of all the schools Vienna students attend, only four public and one private are actually within the town limits: Cunningham Park Elementary School, Marshall Road Elementary School, Louise Archer Elementary School, Vienna Elementary School and Green Hedges School.
Vienna has one independent school, Green Hedges, accredited by the Virginia Association of Independent Schools. Green Hedges has students from ages 3– 5 (Montessori preschool and kindergarten program) through preparatory grades 1–8. Founded in 1942 by Frances and Kenton Kilmer, the School was relocated to the Windsor Heights area of Vienna in 1955.
Vienna also has one independent Catholic school, Oakcrest School, which was founded in 1976 and moved to its permanent campus in Vienna in 2017,  and two Catholic elementary schools: St. Mark Catholic School and Our Lady of Good Counsel Catholic School.  
The music program at James Madison High School includes a marching band, "The Pride of Vienna", and color guard, two symphonic bands, jazz band, orchestra, and chorus. The Crew team at James Madison has won many awards.  The novice team has won states three years in a row  In addition, the Women's Junior Eight of 2010 won second in the nation as well as Virginia States.  Their Team sent all their boats but two, to the nationals in Saratoga.  Their Varsity Baseball team has won 26 District titles, 6 Region titles, and 4 State titles (1968, 1971, 2002, 2015), led by Coach Mark "Pudge" Gjormand's 20-year run which produced 19 of the 36 titles (14 district, 3 region, and 2 state). A water tower stating "Home of the Warhawks" can be seen towering over the school. Also, more recently, the Madison Men's Lacrosse team, coached by coach of the year, Arron Solomon, won the District, Regional, and State championship in the spring of 2019. The 2019 lacrosse team was the first team at James Madison to win a state championship and did so without any players committed to a college team.
Thoreau Middle School shares a class with Joyce Kilmer Middle School (also located in Vienna) and Longfellow Middle School (located in Falls Church). Kilmer had accelerated programs for students that have passed certain aptitude tests, known as the Advanced Academic Program (AAP) program. This program has also been introduced into Luther Jackson Middle School. Kilmer also has a band and orchestra program, and recently started up a Science Olympiad and Chess Club program.
Close to Madison sit the seven elementary schools: Flint Hill Elementary (not to be confused with Flint Hill School, a private school in neighboring Oakton, Virginia), Louise Archer (which also has an AAP program), Marshall Road, Oakton Elementary (a feeder school into Oakton and Madison High Schools),  Vienna Elementary, Wolftrap, and Cunningham Park. Each of these schools send graduates into Thoreau, Kilmer, Luther Jackson Middle School or Longfellow, and afterwards James Madison High School, Oakton High School (just outside Vienna on the border with Oakton, with a Vienna address), George C. Marshall High School (in the Falls Church area of Fairfax County), Falls Church High School (just outside Vienna in Merrifield) or McLean High School. Freedom Hill Elementary, which recently started an Advanced Academic program, sends graduates to Kilmer, and afterward to Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology or Marshall High School. Residents of Vienna who live along the town's border with Great Falls, VA also send graduates into Langley High School via Cooper Middle School. Because of the large influx of new residents in the last decade, the classes of '09, '10, and '11 at these regional high schools are expected to be the largest over the next ten years. [ citation needed ]
Public libraries Edit
Fairfax County Public Library operates the Patrick Henry Library in Vienna. 
Rutland Railroad's Premier Passenger Trains
At the same the General Assembly also gave charter to the Vermont Central Railroad, organized by Charles Paine. This line was to utilize a more northerly route through the White and Onion River valleys while passing through Northfield (his hometown).
These two individuals grew into bitter rivals and the railroads they built similarly remained at odds with one another for many decades.
During November of 1847, Follett renamed his system as the Rutland & Burlington Railroad to better reflect his intentions.
Over the next two years Follett worked hard in seeing the R&B brought to completion in 1849 construction picked up and was finished by the fall of that year between Bellows Falls and Burlington.
To capstone the project, a race was held to see whether a team of horses or a train could move the mail faster between the two cities. The train won by a good two hours!
Financial difficulties first began appearing in the 1860s traffic had not materialized (as Jim Shaughnessy notes in his book, "The Rutland Road: Second Edition" it was a system that connected "nowhere to nowhere") in part due to the fighting with Paine's Vermont Central which refused to offer interchange.
On July 9, 1867 the bankrupt R&B was reorganized the Rutland Railroad Company. Under the direction of John Page efforts were made to gain new and permanent interchange partners:
During 1870 the Rutland expanded its system exponentially, gaining new western and southern outlets by leasing the Whitehall & Plattsburgh as well as the Vermont & Massachusetts (neither road was ultimately folded into its system).
It also picked up the small Addison Railroad giving it access to Ticonderoga, New York and grew its steamship freight business via control of the Champlain Transportation Company.
A nervous Vermont Central leased the Rutland on December 30, 1870 in an attempt to quell the growing competition from its biggest competitor.
Unfortunately, this move eventually forced the VC into bankruptcy during March of 1896 and the Rutland regained its independence on May 7th of that year. The old adversaries may have ended their longtime feud but the Rutland continued to grow into the 20th century.
Just prior to this event was Rutland's efforts to provide itself a direction connection with the O&LC. To do so required bridging the gap between Rouses Point, New York and Burlington, which meant incorporating a new company.
The railroad leap-frogged the northern islands of Lake Champlain at South Hero, Grand Isle, and North Hero using a marble, rip-rapped causeway to reach Alburgh before briefly crossing the waters again to connect with Rouses Point and the O&LC.
The 40 miles of new line were completed in only a year and were consolidated into the Rutland during January of 1901. Amazingly, this wasn't the final addition to the railroad's system that year. On June 1st it also picked up the Chatham & Lebanon Valley, part of the fabled "Corkscrew Division."
The C&LV, along with the Bennington & Rutland (acquired in February of 1900 this road operated between Rutland and Bennington), gave the Rutland a through route to Chatham, New York.
System Map (1940)
Both lines comprised the Chatham Division, a winding, circuitous route complete with 263 curves. While it provided the Rutland with southern interchange to the NYC it was an operational headache.
With these leased lines added to the Rutland's system it had reached its farthest extent, operating just over 400 miles of railroad on a system that looked a bit like an upside-down “L” between Chatham, New York to Alburgh, Vermont with a western extension from Alburgh to Ogdensburgh, New York.
The railroad’s one major "branch" was its original main line, extending from Rutland southeasterly to Bellows Falls where it connected with the B&M.
For all of the fondness and status surrounding the Rutland, particularly by the people of Vermont, the railroad continued to struggle for most of its life the road simply served no major online customers or manufacturing centers (its most notable freight over the years included marble, milk, and lumber).
It again fell under the control of an outside railroad when the New York Central gained control in 1904, which went on to sell half its interest to the New Haven Railroad in 1911.
New troubles arose in 1915 when the Panama Canal Act forced the Rutland to divest itself of the Rutland Transit Company, a steamship operation that cost it valuable interchange traffic from Chicago over the Great Lakes. The years under NYC control arguably witnessed one of the last great periods of prosperity.
The Central moved a large amount of bridge traffic over the Rutland to transfer through Ogdensburg and paid for infrastructure and equipment upgrades. Alas, these good years would not last. Following the Panama Canal Act the Central dropped much of its interest and control in the railroad.A Rutland 40-foot boxcar is seen here within a New York Central train that appears to be at one of the railroad's Boston & Albany terminals during the 1950's.
Together both it and the New Haven owned 52% of the railroad’s common stock until 1941 when they sold their interest altogether.
The 1920s were another time of relatively strong traffic with the rise in lucrative milk shipments and other freight. However, again, these happy times were short-lived.
Things took a turn for the worse in 1927 when major flooding in Vermont heavily damaged large sections of the Rutland’s right-of-way (more than half its total mileage!).
Then, in May of 1938 the railroad entered receivership and was on the verge of total shutdown until the unions agreed to a wage reduction in August that kept the railroad operating.
Additionally, state and local governments, as well as the people of Vermont, worked to keep the company operational by donating money (such as the "Save The Rutland Club) and reducing its tax burden (some bills were forgiven altogether).
One notable means the road implemented to increase tonnage was the launching of "The Whippet," a high-speed, timed freight train which ran the length of the system hauling bridge traffic.
A 2-8-0 Consolidation was even painted black and silver to advertise the service along with print media making potential customers aware of the program.
It largely worked, and the company also picked up some less-than-carload freight in the process, although the train lost its name with the start of World War II.
After the war the Rutland was in trouble again (having already reorganized in November of 1950 to become the Rutland Railway, bringing a new logo and image, "The Green Mountain Gateway"), this time with a strike as the railroad’s organized workers would not comply with a new change in operational practices.
New management, led by Gardner Caverly after 1954, did everything they could to reduce losses and pull the company out of its perennial red ink.A famous Rutland company photo featuring RS3 #207 pulling new 40-foot boxcars over the Cuttingsville Bridge during the early 1950s. Jim Shaughnessy photo.
Some of these efforts included:
The strike came down on June 26, 1953, first in the company's long history, and ultimately led to the cessation of all passenger operations.
After 21 days management and labor were able to reach an agreement and the railroad to resume all operations, sans the money-losing passenger trains.
Unfortunately, all efforts to streamline operations could not curb the growing loss of its freight traffic.
The once lucrative milk trains had all but disappeared (taken away by trucks) and it was becoming increasingly difficult for management to find ways in keeping the company even marginally profitable.
By the mid-1950s there were about 331 miles left of the original system and good management had allowed for one final brief period of relatively good years late during the decade. However, as the 1960s dawned its ghosts returned to doom the company.
As traffic continued to slide away a point was reached whereby the company had little place else to trim its losses except to the work rules, and Rutland's remaining employees were already receiving pay below the national average.A little 0-6-0 switcher goes for a spin on the turntable at Bellows Falls, Vermont in 1951.
To help ease the losses and improve efficiency new company president William Ginsburg proposed reducing its subdivisions from three to only two, allowing trains to operate further and faster.
The old operations had long called for trains to operate between either Bellows Falls-Rutland or Bennington-Rutland, Alburgh-Rutland, and Alburgh-Ogdensburg.
The new divisions would have trains meet at Burlington and run north or south from that point.
This issue, naturally, was not satisfactory to the unions and this time they would not relent, walking out on September 15, 1960. A cooling off period was invoked for a year but this did nothing to relieve the stalemate.
As Mr. Shaughnessy notes in his book part of the issue was in regards to the Rutland's now younger workforce, many of whom were not around during the struggles to keep the company operational during the 1930s and earlier.
Many from the older generation, who had often been willing (certainly with some consternation) to take pay cuts for the greater good, had since retired.
Diesel Locomotive Roster
American Locomotive Company
|Model Type||Road Number||Date Built||Quantity|
|Model Type||Road Number||Date Built||Quantity|
Steam Locomotive Roster (Post 1913)
|B-2/a/b/c, B-3, B-9||Switcher||0-6-0|
|C-25, C-28, C-29, C-2, C-X||American||4-4-0|
|E-1-d, E-14, E-17||Mogul||2-6-0|
|F-2 Through F-12 (Various)||Ten-Wheeler||4-6-0|
For nearly two years after the cooling off period had not brought about an agreement, the property sat dormant as rails rusted over and Mother Nature reclaimed what was rightfully hers.
This time, nothing or no one could save the Rutland and the Interstate Commerce Commission ruled for total abandonment on January 29th, 1963. Even after this time the battle continued as union's fought to appeal the ruling and keep the company operational.
These efforts ultimately failed but in an ironic twist of fate, it was announced during mid-June of 1963 that the unions and company had reached an agreement, albeit far too late to the save the Rutland.
Thankfully, in a proactive move during August of 1963 Vermont purchased the former property from Bennington to Burlington as well as part of the Bellows Falls line creating today's Vermont Railway.Rutland 4-6-2 #84 (K-2) appears to be moving slowly in reverse, perhaps heading towards its train, at the station in Rutland, Vermont in 1951. The railroad's three K-2's were all retired by 1953. Ralph Phillips photo.
The rest, including the entirety of the O&LC as well as the Burlington-Alburgh extension across the lake, was abandoned. Following the shutdown of the Rutland in it was resurrected just a few years later in 1964.
That year F. Nelson Blount created the Green Mountain Railroad. Using a forest green and yellow livery inspired directly from the Rutland (it’s virtually identical) the Green Mountain was started by Mr. Blount to operate his collection of steam locomotives.
While Mr. Blount passed away a few years after creating his new tourist railroad (which eventually became part of the National Park Service’s Steamtown, USA located in Scranton, Pennsylvania) the Green Mountain Railroad lived on and split off as its own operation.
Today, the railroad hauls both passengers and has been widely acclaimed as the top tourist railroad in New England with its spectacular views of Vermont's Green Mountain Range and on board train services.
About The Forest Apartments
The Forest Apartments are conveniently located to Universities, Downtown Pittsburgh and public transportation. The 3-story, garden-style buildings are all brick and cement in construction. Enjoy a quiet morning sipping coffee on your private balcony or patio. The Forest provides hassle-free living with on-site staff who take care of all the snow removal and maintenance. The spacious floor plans have natural light and boast ample closet space plus additional storage rooms. Call us today to schedule an appointment and make our beautiful community your home! The Forest is located in Swissvale PA. Other cities and neighborhoods include Turtle Creek, Elizabeth, North Versailles, Murrysville, White Oak, Greensburg, Forest Hills, Wilkinsburg, Monroeville, McKeesport, Trafford, Irwin, Delmont, Penn Hills and Holiday Park. Drive to Downtown Pittsburgh and enjoy restaurants and shopping in Squirrel Hill, Shadyside, Oakland, The Waterfront, Homestead, Carson Street, Southside Flats and the Cultural District of Pittsburgh. Take in a Ball game at PNC Park, Heinz Field or Console Energy Center. Center Grove is in close proximity to UPMC in Monroeville, Forbes Hospital and Excela Health Medical Facilities. We are close to CCAC, Penn State and Triangle Tech. Call Today to learn more..
The Forest Apartments is an apartment located in Allegheny County, the 15218 ZIP Code, and the Woodland Hills School District attendance zone.
N.J. snowfall totals: Which towns got the most snow?
The second major coastal storm to hit New Jersey in six days ramped up in intensity Wednesday afternoon and was dumping snow at a rapid rate in parts of the state into the night. By the time the storm was over, it bombarded some counties with as much as 2 feet of snow.
Here's a look at the final snowfall totals reported by the National Weather Service offices in Mount Holly and Upton, N.Y., as well as the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, based at Rutgers University.
Morris County turned out to be in the bull's eye of this storm, with six towns or sections of towns getting pounded by 2 feet or more of snow: Montville, with 26.8 inches on the ground, Morris Plains, with 26.0 inches, Butler, with 25.5 inches, Kinnelon, with 25.0 inches, Pine Brook, with 24.5 inches, and Green Pond, with 24.0 inches, according to the weather service.
Also buried under a lot of snow were Oakland and Franklin Lakes in Bergen County, which measured 26 inches and 24 inches, respectively, and North Caldwell in Essex County, which measured 23 inches of snow on the ground.
Forecasters had predicted the storm would dump as much as 18 to 24 inches of snow in parts of northern and western New Jersey before winding down by midnight. It appears their forecast was right on the mark.
Catham and Lebanon Valley 4-4-0 #5 - History
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