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From this viewpoint, you can take in the complexity of the agora and see many of its features. see it in VR here:
iOS - https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/athens-in-vr/id1279584683?mt=8
Android - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.LVR.agora&hl=en_AU
Oculus - https://www.oculus.com/experiences/gear-vr/1436166546433138/
HTC - https://www.viveport.com/apps/2680a6d9-8636-4182-867e-5c90230848eb
This is the Athenian Agora, home of Athenian civic life. This complex site was probably laid out around the 5th century BC, and continued in use into the Roman period. In the agora, ancient Athenians worked, shopped, rested, worshipped, engaged in their civic duties, and participated in shows and festivals. From this viewpoint, you can see the round Tholos building, the dining hall of the Athenian council, located at this important junction that connected Athens’ major public institutions. You can also see the Odeion of Agrippa towering above all buildings in the centre of the agora: it was accessible by the long covered walkway you can see, called the ‘Middle Stoa’. The temple you can see is the ‘south west temple’ and the line of statues are the Eponymous Heroes. Also visible here is an ash altar and part of the Metroon.
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EXPLORE THE ACROPOLIS
The Virtual Tour of the Acropolis monuments consists of high-resolution gigapixel images and panoramas of the most prominent monuments - the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the Temple of Athena Nike - as well as detailed photographic displays of selected views from the outer surface of the ancient walls surrounding the hill. Each view is complemented with descriptive information about the monuments and selected areas of interest.
An orthophoto map of the site’s area facilitates orientation and navigation of the visitor to each viewpoint. The images allow detailed zooming onto the architectural features of the monuments, which are otherwise difficult to experience during an onsite visit. Visitors can comprehend the location of the monuments in relation to its surroundings or even to realize a virtual "walk" through the site by selecting at will their own successive viewpoints.
The application is an initiative of the Acropolis Restoration Service (YSMA) and comprises an upgrade from a previous version with a focus on extending the app’s functionality to both stationary and portable devices. The decision to adopt "state of the art" technological solutions to "bring online" the entirety of the archaeological site is not merely a statement for the preservation work undertaken by the institution, but also a great contribution to the institution's mission to promote access to cultural heritage. Enhanced visual access may be used as a starting point for interested parties and potential visitors to get to know the monuments, but also as a scientific or educational tool to enable research in various disciplines.
The application has been created through the collaboration of the Documentation Office of YSMA with Culturplay that specializes in the provision of digital media solutions and interarctive tools for the cultural heritage domain.
The following people worked for this application:
YSMA - Project supervision, Content management: E. Lempidaki, I. Alexopoulos, M. Katsianis, K. Koutsadelis, D. Mavromati, E.Petropoulou
- Culturplay - Project production
- Design, Programming, Image Processing: A. Giannakidis
- Panoramic Photography: G. Gerogiannis
- Technology Consultant: A. Skorjanc
- Programming: Y. Stergiou, G. Giakoumidakis, G. Papadakis
- Typography: A. Mouriadou, E. Bountouraki
- Production Support: L. Mantzourani
The production of panoramic photomosaics at resolutions of several gigapixels was realised between 2010 and 2014 by employing established practices of digital image acquisition and processing.
In order to achieve the best possible mapping of natural lighting on the monuments together with the display of shaded details, High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging techniques were used for capturing and combining different exposure levels of the same theme.
Starting from the RAW photos all the way up to the combined and color-corrected finalised panoramas, all intermediate outputs were maintained in order to be able to reproduce and control the entire manufacturing process for future reference.
The krpano viewer and revelant tools are used for the display of the panoramic images within the application. Techniques to minimize the optical deformation of the monuments were applied during the construction of the photomosaics and are also used for their rendering within the application.
Particular emphasis was also placed on the typographic formatting of all textual information included, especially with respect to its effective adaptation to different screen sizes. Moreover, a series of interface controls were developed to facilitate user navigation tasks on touch screens.
The contents of the application are stored in a Content Delivery Network that significantly accelerates data serving to end-users.
8 Sexual Curiosities From Ancient Greece (PHOTOS)
According to Aristophanes, human beings used to have four arms, four legs, and two sets of genitals, either two male sets, or two female, or one of each. But Zeus split everyone in two, forcing them to wander around on just two legs looking for their other half, with their sexual orientation determined by the genitals of that alter ego they yearned for. Sex hasn't changed much we are still on that same quest, and many of the sexual attitudes from two and a half thousand years ago are still around today - but there are also some radical differences.
Many Greek philosophers were lukewarm on the subject of sex. Democritus thought that people derive as much pleasure from scratching themselves as they do from having sex. Aristotle asked "Why are people ashamed to admit that they want to have sexual intercourse, whereas this is not the case with drinking or eating or other such things? Is it because most of our desires are for things we must have, some of them actually being essential for life, whereas sexual desire is a non-vital indulgence? (Ps.-Aristotle, Problems). Epicurus (yes, that Epicurus, the one who regarded pleasure as life's central purpose) said that "sexual intercourse has never done anyone any good, and we should be content if it does us no actual harm" (Epicurus, frg. 62).
On the other hand, Greek physicians took a much more positive view. They recommended intercourse as a way of countering a wide spectrum of ailments: depression, indigestion, jaundice, lower back pain, weak eyes, and many more. Hippocrates, the father of Western medicine, states that unrestrained intercourse cures dysentery. Sex gives relief to a man bitten by a snake or stung by a scorpion, although it harms the woman who is his partner. It can even restore sanity.
Ancient Greek medical texts also provide many remedies for male impotence: for example, smearing your penis with a mixture of pepper, olive oil, and honey. If you want to make your penis look especially big, soak the root of a specific but unidentifiable plant in good wine for three days and, when needed, tie it to your thigh. Aristotle thought size mattered, but not how you might think: the longer a man's penis, the farther his semen has to travel and the greater the chance that he will be unable to father children.
The images that follow present just a few of these sexual curiosities in Ancient Greece - sometimes satirical, sometimes familiar, and often strange.
Ancient prophecy: oracles and the gods
The ancient Greek world was full of gods – gods who controlled the fate of mankind. In such an environment, it made sense for mortals to find out what the gods had in store. It was here that the practice of oracular consultation came into its own.
An oracle was a gateway to knowing the will of the gods, a cosmic information super highway for understanding what lay ahead. The most famous oracle was the priestess of the temple of Apollo at the sanctuary of Delphi.
So important was this sanctuary and its oracle that Delphi even became known as the omphalos – the belly button – of the ancient Greek world. Individuals, cities and kings would come from across the ancient world to put their questions about their future plans to the Delphic oracle and wait to receive a response about what the gods thought of them.
Delphi became so busy that long queues would form on the certain days of the month on which the priestess could be consulted and, in later times, several oracular priestesses would operate at once. But consultants had to be careful how they interpreted the, often unclear, answers of the oracle.
King Croesus of Lydia (modern-day south-western Turkey) asked the oracle whether or not he should go to war on his neighbouring kingdom. The oracle replied that if he went to war, a great kingdom would fall. Croesus interpreted this as being his enemy’s… it turned out to be his own.
But Delphi was not the only site of oracular consultation in ancient Greece. In north western Greece was the oracular site of Dodona, where consultants wrote their questions on small lead tablets, which still survive today. In the deserts of Egypt, at the oasis of Siwah, lay the oracle of Ammon, which Alexander the Great make the journey to visit during his conquests.
And if a long journey wasn’t an option, then the ancient Greeks could consult one of the many ‘chresmologoi’ or ‘manteis’ (‘oracle-sellers’ and ‘seers’) who lived in the cities or travelled with armies, and who promised (for a fee) to translate the will of the gods by reading the signs of animal entrails, the flight of birds, the ripples of water or by using books of prophecy amongst a myriad of other mechanisms.
And it wasn’t just the gods who could be consulted about the future. The spirits of the dead could also be consulted, particularly at certain sites around the ancient world where there were said to be entrances to the underworld, like at the ‘necromanteion’ (oracle of the dead) near the river Acheron in Epirus.
In finding their way in life, the ancient Greeks thus had many sources of advice to turn to. Which one to listen to, however, was another matter!
Ancient History and Classical Civilization
We are interested in how the various cultural, political, ethnic and migratory groups of Antiquity defined their respective identities, in the strategies they developed to interact successfully with others, and in the religious beliefs and practices that underlay and shaped these processes.
We study these questions from an interdisciplinary perspective, combining more traditional historical and epigraphic approaches with methodologies deriving from archaeology and the sciences. Archaeological fieldwork as well as inscriptional projects from the core of the several major research projects we are in the process of conducting.
In terms of chronology and geography, we focus on the history of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern World from the Archaic Period (800 BCE) all the way down to the early Middle Ages (600 CE). Our projects place special emphasis on the study of the Archaic and Classical period in Greece, on Hellenism in the Near East, on Roman and early Christian culture both in Rome and in the Netherlands, and on Jewish Diasporic history and archaeology.
History & Culture
The history of Athens is one of the longest of any city in Europe and in the world. Named after Athena, goddess of wisdom and knowledge, Athens has been continuously inhabited since the Bronze Age and is generally considered to be the cradle of Western civilization. It became the leading city of Ancient Greece in the first millennium BC and the strongest Greek city-state around 500 BC, entering its Golden Age after emerging victorious from the Persian Wars (500 – 449 BC). During the time of Pericles (443 – 429), Athens reached the height of its cultural and imperial achievement. Socrates and the dramatists Aeshcylus, Sophocles and Euripides lived at that time.
It was then when the incomparable Parthenon was built, when sculpture and painting flourished making Athens a center of intellectual life. The city enjoyed a cultural explosion that ended with the Peloponnesian War (431 – 401 BC), but Athenian achievements in philosophy, drama and art continued even after the city’s glory faded, creating a legacy that conquered the world as Hellenistic culture. During the Middle Ages, Athens experienced decline and then a recovery under the Byzantine Empire, becoming a provincial capital of the empire and a center of religious learning and devotion.
Athens was relatively prosperous during the Crusades, benefiting from Italian trade. However, the fall of the Acropolis to the Ottoman Turks in 1458 marked the beginning of nearly four centuries of Ottoman rule and once again decline. Athens re-emerged in the 19th century as the capital of the independent Greek State. Modern Athens was constructed after 1834, when it became the capital of a newly independent Greece.
The cultural legacy of ancient Athens to the world is incalculable and to a great extent the references to the Greek heritage that abound in the culture of Western Europe are to Athenian civilization. Today, cultural events including dance and theatre, recitals, concerts international trade shows, conferences and symposia, public lectures, gallery exhibits, sports events and marathons, an integral part of life in this bustling cosmopolitan capital.
11 The Trojan Women (2004)
Whether or not the Trojan War actually happened doesn't really dent the historical accuracy of this film, which is primarily a depiction of the aftermath of war in the ancient world. The surviving women of the Trojan royal family are not only doomed to serve as the spoils but also have to watch their children be killed to end their family lines, a real fate that many people of the ancient world suffered from either due to invading armies or barbarian hordes.
These tales are not taken from the Iliad, which ends with the death of Hector before the Trojan Horse incident, but take place after the battle and depict the fate of the survivors. The Aeneid, Virgil's poem that was written hundreds of years after the Iliad and the Oddysey, contains many similar accounts told by Trojan refugees scattered across the Mediterranean.
Athenian Agora - 3D View - History
Acts 17:22 Paul stood in the middle of the Areopagus, and said, "You men of Athens, I perceive that you are very religious in all things.
ar-e-op'-a-gus (Areios pagos Acts 17:19, 22. Mars' Hill, 17:22 the King James Version): A sort of spur jutting out from the western end of the Acropolis and separated from it by a very short saddle. Traces of old steps cut in the rock are still to be seen. Underneath are deep grottoes, once the home of the Eumenides (Furies). On the flat surface of the summit are signs still visible of a smoothing of the stone for seats. Directly below to the North was the old Athenian agora, or market-place. To the East, on the descent from the Acropolis, could be seen in antiquity a small semicircular platform-the orchestra-from which rose the precipitous rock of the citadel. Here the booksellers kept their stalls here the work of Anaxagoras could be bought for a drachma from here his physical philosophy was disseminated, then, through Euripides, the poetic associate of Socrates and the sophists, leavened the drama, and finally reached the people of Athens. Then came the Stoics and Epicureans who taught philosophy and religion as a system, not as a faith, and spent their time in searching out some new thing in creed and dogma and opinion. Five centuries earlier Socrates was brought to this very Areopagus to face the charges of his accusers.
To this same spot the apostle Paul came almost five hundred years after 399 B.C., when the Attic martyr was executed, with the same earnestness, the same deep-rooted convictions, and with even greater ardor, to meet the philosophers of fashion. The Athenian guides will show you the exact place where the apostle stood, and in what direction he faced when he addressed his audience. No city has ever seen such a forest of statues as studded the market-place, the streets and the sides and summit of the Acropolis of Athens. A large part of this wealth of art was in full view of the speaker, and the apostle naturally made this extraordinary display of votive statues and offerings the starting-point of his address. He finds the Athenians extremely religious. He had found an altar to a god unknown. Then he develops theme of the great and only God, not from the Hebrew, but from the Greek, the Stoic point of view. His audiences consisted, on the one hand, of the advocates of prudence as the means, and pleasure as the end (the Epicureans) on the other, of the advocates of duty, of living in harmony with the intelligence which rules the world for good. He frankly expresses his sympathy with the nobler principles of the Stoic doctrine. But neither Stoic nor Epicurean could believe the declarations of the apostle: the latter believed death to be the end of all things, the former thought that the soul at death was absorbed again into that from which it sprang. Both understood Paul as proclaiming to them in Jesus and Anastasis ("resurrection") some new deities. When they finally ascertained that Jesus was ordained by God to judge the world, and that Anastasis was merely the resurrection of the dead, they were disappointed. Some scoffed, others departed, doubtless with the feeling that they had already given audience too long to such a fanatic.
The Areopagus, or Hill of Ares, was the ancient seat of the court of the same name, the establishment of which leads us far back into the mythical period long before the dawn of history. This court exercised the right of capital punishment. In 594 B.C. the jurisdiction in criminal cases was given to the archons who had discharged the duties of their office well and honorably, consequently to the noblest, richest and most distinguished citizens of Athens. The Areopagus saw that the laws in force were observed and executed by the properly constituted authorities it could bring officials to trial for their acts while in office, even raise objections to all resolutions of the Council and of the General Assembly, if the court perceived a danger to the state, or subversion of the constitution. The Areopagus also protected the worship of the gods, the sanctuaries and sacred festivals, and the olive trees of Athens and it supervised the religious sentiments of the people, the moral conduct of the citizens, as well as the education of the youth.
Without waiting for a formal accusation the Areopagus could summon any citizen to court, examine, convict and punish him. Under unusual circumstances full powers could be granted by the people to this body for the conduct of various affairs of state when the safety of the city was menaced, the court acted even without waiting for full power to be conferred upon it. The tenure of office was for life, and the number of members without restriction. The court sat at night at the end of each month and for three nights in succession. The place of meeting was a simple house, built of clay, which was still to be seen in the time of Vitruvius. The Areopagus, hallowed by the sacred traditions of the past, a dignified and august body, was independent of and uninfluenced by the wavering discordant multitude, and was not affected by the ever-changing public opinion. Conservative almost to a fault, it did the state good service by holding in check the too rash and radical younger spirits. When the democratic party came to power, after Cimon's banishment, one of its first acts was to limit the powers of the Areopagus. By the law of Ephialtes in 460 the court lost practically all jurisdiction. The supervision of the government was transferred to the nomophulakes (law-guardians). At the end of the Peloponnesian war, however, in 403 its old rights were restored. The court remained in existence down to the time of the emperors. From Acts 17:19, 22 we learn that it existed in the time of Claudius. One of its members was converted to the Christian faith (17:34). It was probably abolished by Vespasian.
As to whether Paul was "forcibly apprehended and formally tried," see Conybeare and Howson, The Life and Epistles of Paul, chapter x, and The Expositor, 5th series, II, 209, 261 (Ramsay).
P. W. Forchhammer, De Areopago (Kiel, 1828) Philippi, Der A. und die Epheten (Leipzig, 1874) Lange, Die Epheten und der A. vor Solon (Leipzig, 1874).
AREOP'AGUS, hill of Mars, Acts 17:19. It was the place where the high court of justice of the Athenians was held. It was on a rocky hill in the midst of Athens, Greece. On this hill there still remain the seats cut in the rock where the members of the court sat in the open air and where the audience of the Apostle sat to hear him.
Money in Ancient Greece
Before 600 B.C. there was no monetary system in Greece, so they utilized the barter system. This was a system of trading goods and /or services for other goods and/or services. By 500 B.C., each city-state began minting their own coin. A merchant usually only took coins from their own city. Visitors had to find a moneychanger to exchange their coins. Typically a 5 or 6 percent fee was charged to exchange foreign currency to the local currency.
Athens used a currency known as the drachma. Their currency was widely used because of the large trade network that they developed. Often an Athenian coin could be used in other Greek cities and not have to be exchanged for the local currency.
The Athenian monetary system was set up in the following way:
600 minae = 1 talent (or the equivalent of 57 pounds of silver)
A worker in Athens could earn about two drachmas a day. Sculptors and doctors were able to make up to six drachmas daily. An unskilled worker would make around half of a drachma for one day&rsquos work.
12. Mask of Agamemnon
Agamemnon was one of the most popular characters of the ancient Greek period among historians and philosophers, and his tragic history tells of a father who sacrificed his daughter to the god of wind so that his ships could sail to Troy. The story was set during the Trojan Wars. After returning from the war, Agamemnon was murdered by his wife Clytemnestra in revenge for her daughter’s sacrifice.
The Mask of Agamemnon is made of gold. It was created from a single gold sheet which was hammered and chiseled to give its powerful expression. Presently, the sculpture is in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens.