Grace Robertson

Grace Robertson

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Grace Robertson was born in Scotland in 1930. After leaving school she looked after her mother who suffered from rheumatoid arthritis.

Robertson's father gave her a second-hand camera in 1949 and the following year she had a photo story about her sister doing her homework published in Picture Post. Over the next few years she had several photo stories published in the magazine including Sheep Shearing in Wales (1951), Tate Gallery (1952), Mother's Day Off (1954) and Childbirth (1955). As well as photojournalism for magazines such as Life Magazine, Robertson worked in advertising.

William Robertson

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William Robertson, (born Sept. 19, 1721, Borthwick, Midlothian, Scot.—died June 11, 1793, Edinburgh), Scottish historian and Presbyterian minister. He is regarded, along with David Hume and Edward Gibbon, as one of the most important British historians of the 18th century.

Robertson was educated at the University of Edinburgh, completing his studies in 1741. He was ordained a minister in the Church of Scotland, and in 1743 he received the living of Gladsmuir, near Edinburgh. He became a member of the church’s General Assembly in 1746 and for many years held a leading position in that assembly’s Moderate party.

Robertson’s first major work, The History of Scotland, During the Reigns of Queen Mary and of King James VI (1759), established his reputation as a historian within the next few years he was appointed principal of the University of Edinburgh and historiographer royal for Scotland. His next major work was The History of the Reign of the Emperor Charles V (1769), which saw several editions and was translated into all of the major European languages it was followed by The History of America (1777).

Robertson’s histories reflect his interest in social theory they stress the importance of material and environmental factors in determining the course of civilization. His writings were influential in the 19th century but received little critical attention during the 20th century.

Grace Robertson, photography pioneer, dies at 90

Back then was the 1950s, when Grace worked for Picture Post in Britain, her gentle style of observational photojournalism chiming with the postwar public’s appetite for images that reflected the small pleasures of peacetime.

Picture Post was a weekly news periodical, founded in 1938, that regularly published the work of a generation of pioneering photojournalists, including Bert Hardy and Bill Brandt. Grace’s father, Fyfe Robertson, a famous BBC TV reporter in the 50s and 60s, worked at Picture Post from 1943.

On the caterpillar essay. Photograph: Grace Robertson/Rex/Shutterstock

Grace, born in Manchester in 1930, later recalled being dismayed as a teenager by the paucity of career choices available to her.

“There were only three jobs considered by society as appropriate – teaching, secretarial work or nursing, just to fill in until you got your man.”

After she expressed an interest in photography, her father, in 1949, bought her a camera, enthusiastically encouraging her to try her hand at what was then a combative, male-dominated, medium.

She initially sent her photos to Picture Post under a male pseudonym – Dick Muir – not wanting to draw attention to the fact that she was Fyfe Robertson’s daughter. On an early rejection slip, a picture editor wrote “persevere, young man”.

Grace Robertson in 2000. Photograph: Jane Bown

In 1951, she had her first series, A Schoolgirl Does Her Homework, published. It featured her younger sister, Elizabeth.

Other photo essays by her were published in the years that followed, including Sheep Shearing in Wales (1951), Tate Gallery (1952), and Mother’s Day Off (1954).

The latter series, which became her most celebrated, was a record of a day-trip to Margate by a group of middle-aged and older working-class women she had encountered in a pub in Bermondsey, London, and befriended.

“Their energy was awesome,” she said. She later recalled: “These women were survivors.”

Robertson had an acute eye for social history, realising in this instance that the working-class community the women belonged to was under threat from the high-rise developments being built in the city.

Tea Time. 1952. A wife waits with her young daughter for news of her husband captured in Korea. Photograph: Grace Robertson/Getty Images

The series became so iconic that Life magazine commissioned her to reshoot a version of it two years later, this time featuring another group of women who were regulars at a pub in Clapham.

She was astonished and embarrassed when Life provided her with a chauffeur-driven Rolls-Royce for the story. “He insisted on following us down to Margate while I went in the coach,” she told the Guardian in 2006. “The women spotted it, but fortunately it didn’t ruin the story as we got on so well.”

Strikingly tall, unmistakably middle-class, and from a Scottish background, Robertson decided from the beginning to make her difference work in her favour, spending time with people until they accepted her.

In 1955 she published a pioneering series on childbirth which featured what were then considered graphic images of a young woman giving birth.

Belonging by temperament to the left politically, she was also, with hindsight, a proto-feminist, whose work often reflected the experiences and everyday lives of women in Britain.

“I took any opportunity to work on stories that allowed me to meet other women,” she later said.

She married fellow photographer Thurston Hopkins, in 1955, whom she met while they were both working for Picture Post. They were together until his death, aged 101, in 2014. In 1999 she received an OBE for her services to photography.

• This article was amended on 15 January 2021 because an earlier version incorrectly said that Grace’s father Fyfe Robertson founded Picture Post whereas he worked at the publication.

Grace Robertson

Grace Robertson was one of the most significant women photojournalists. At the beginning of her career in the 1950s, she used the pseudonym Dick Muir. The daughter of a Scots-born Picture Post writer, she worked for the magazine before its collapse in 1957. Picture Post was one of only a handful of publications employing freelance women photographers on a regular basis. However, as Robertson later recalled, she was sometimes sent to cover topics purely because she was a woman. More recently she wrote and lectured on the role of women in photography. In 1999 she was awarded an OBE.

Wikipedia entry

Grace Robertson, OBE (born 13 July 1930, Manchester, England) is a British photographer. After leaving school she looked after her mother who suffered from rheumatoid arthritis. Robertson's father gave her a second-hand camera in 1949 and the following year she had a photo story about her sister doing her homework published in Picture Post. Over the next few years she had several photo stories published in the magazine including Sheep Shearing in Wales (1951), Tate Gallery (1952), Mother's Day Off (1954) and Childbirth (1955). Robertson was appointed an OBE in 1999. She was married to the Picture Post photographer Thurston Hopkins (1913-2014). As well as photojournalism for magazines such as Life Magazine, Robertson worked in advertising. She is the daughter of journalist and broadcaster Fyfe Robertson.

James I. Robertson Jr., Exacting Civil War Historian, Dies at 89

Dr. Robertson, who wrote or edited dozens of books, was best known for his monumental biography of Stonewall Jackson.

James I. Robertson Jr., an authority on the Civil War who published several dozen deeply researched books that humanized historical figures like Stonewall Jackson, died on Nov. 2 at a hospital in Richmond, Va. He was 89 .

His wife, Elizabeth Lee Robertson, said the cause was complications of metastatic cancer. He had taught at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg for 44 years.

Dr. Robertson, who went by Bud, wrote books that appealed to general audiences as well as academics.

“History is human emotion,” he said in an interview for “Dr. Bud, The People’s Historian,” a documentary film scheduled to be released next year, and it “should be the most fascinating subject in the world.”

“You take away the humanization of history,” he added, “and you’ve got nothing but a bunch of boring facts, and history poorly taught is the worst, most boring subject in the world.”

Dr. Robertson wrote or edited many books about the Civil War, including “For Us the Living: The Civil War in Paintings and Eyewitness Accounts” (2010), which featured lavish illustrations by the artist Mort Kunstler “Robert E. Lee: Virginian Soldier, American Citizen” (2005) and “General A.P. Hill: The Story of a Confederate Warrior” (1987).

His most lauded book was “Stonewall Jackson: The Man, the Soldier, the Legend” (1997). More than 900 pages long, it was the product of seven years of research .

Thomas Jonathan Jackson, better known as Stonewall, was a critical military leader for the Confederacy — so much so that many historians point to his death in 1863, days after he was mistakenly shot by Confederate soldiers during the Battle of Chancellorsville, as the beginning of the end for the South.

Jackson, who had a reputation as a taciturn, eccentric battlefield genius and a religious zealot, was often glorified by earlier generations as a figure of near legend, but Dr. Robertson sought to present an unvarnished portrait of him.

“ Mr . Robertson has tracked down all this source material — finding a good deal that is new along the way — and, equally important, has subjected all of it to rigorous testing,” the Civil War historian Stephen W. Sears wrote in The New York Times Book Review in 1997. “Myths are exploded, anecdotes crumbled. What remains as fact is highly distilled.”

James Irvin Robertson Jr. was born on July 18, 1930, in Danville, Va., to James and Mae (Kympton) Robertson. His father was a banker. Dr. Robertson said his fascination with the Civil War was kindled when his grandmother told him tales about his great-grandfather, who had fought for the Confederacy.

After graduating from George Washington High School in Danville, Dr. Robertson began studying history at Randolph-Macon College in Ashland, Va., interrupting his education to serve in the Air Force during the Korean War. After completing his bachelor’s degree at Randolph-Macon, he earned a master’s and a doctorate in history from Emory University in Atlanta in the late 1950s.

In 1961, Dr. Robertson was appointed executive director of the United States Civil War Centennial Commission , which oversaw commemorations of the war.

He taught at the University of Iowa, George Washington University and the University of Montana before moving to Virginia Tech, where he founded a center for civil war studies. He also worked as a football referee for the Atlantic Coast Conference for 16 years (before Virginia Tech joined the conference in 2004).

In addition to his wife, whom he married in 2010 and with whom he lived in Westmoreland County, Va., he is survived by two sons, Howard and James III a daughter, Beth Brown a stepson, William Lee Jr. a stepdaughter, Elizabeth Anderson Lee seven grandchildren and four great-grandchildren. His first wife, Elizabeth Green, died in 2008.

Dr. Robertson lectured about the Civil War and acted as a historical adviser for the 2003 Civil War film “Gods and Generals.” He retired from Virginia Tech in 2011 and afterward wrote and edited several more books, most recently “Robert E. Lee: A Reference Guide to His Life and Works” ( 2018 ).

Grace Mabel Wood & James Hamilton McCord Robertson

Grace Mabel Wood was born April 12, 1886, in Emporia, Kansas, the eldest child of Henry Clay and Nancy Frances (Eastman) Wood. She was raised on her parents’ farm in the Boston community in Pike Township, Lyon County, southwest of Emporia. When she was a teenager, a fire destroyed her home, and she moved with her parents to the Badger Creek community southeast of Reading, Kansas. She moved again in 1907 or 1908 with her family to another farm five miles north of Reading. When she was nearly 25 years old, her father died from Bright’s Disease.

James Hamilton McCord Robertson was born September 21, 1879 in Blue Hill Township, Mitchell County, Kansas, a son of John C. and Sarah C. Robertson. In the early 1890s, his family removed to Tohee Township, Lincoln County in the Oklahoma Territory, when the Cherokee Strip Land Run was opened. Some time prior to September 12, 1918, he had lost an eye. He met Grace in the early 1910s, and they were married March 23, 1912, in Kansas City, Missouri.

James worked in bridge construction, and perhaps it was that which led him and Grace in the early days of their marriage to Louisiana, where their first son, John, was born. John did not live long, however, and died when he was only three months old. By the mid-1910s, James and Grace had returned to Kansas, settling in Stockton Township in Rooks County, where James engaged in farming in addition to bridge construction, and where their three younger children were born. In 1940, James was working as a skilled laborer for the Works Project Administration, an agency of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal program, earning $625 for 26 weeks of work.

Grace died in Stockton on August 4, 1940. James survived her by nearly twenty years. Sometime after her death, he removed to Memphis, Tennessee, where he died March 25, 1960.

Children of Grace Mabel Wood and James Hamilton McCord Robertson:

1. John Robertson (b. 16 Jan 1913, LA d. 9 Apr 1913)

2. Mabel Frances Robertson (b. 2 Aug 1916, Stockton, Rooks Co., KS d. 1 Feb 2000, Memphis, Shelby Co., TN int. Northridge/Woodhaven Cem., Millington, Shelby Co., TN) m. (4 Jun 1948) Frank Joseph Milner (b. 9 Nov 1916, poss. MO d. 8 Feb 1992, prob. Memphis, Shelby Co., TN int. Northridge/Woodhaven Cem., Millington, Shelby Co., TN)
In 1940, she was living in Scott, Scott Co., KS, where she was renting a room from Ms. Josephine Rider and working as a teacher at the local high school for $930 per year.

3. Maxine Carol Robertson (b. 1 Mar 1920, Stockton, Rooks Co., KS d. 25 Jan 2001, Wichita, Sedgwick Co., KS int. Ellenwood Cem., Sawyer, Pratt Co., KS) m. Robert Leroy McFall (living)

4. James Hamilton Robertson, Jr. (living) m. Gertrude L. Henson (b. 17 Apr 1920, Rapid City, Pennington Co., SD, daughter of Hans Hansen and Edith Swanson d. 18 May 2013, Hibbing, St. Louis Co., MN int. Our Savior’s Lutheran Church Columbarium, Hibbing, St. Louis Co., MN)

Family Records from Frances Jones
Social Security Death Index for Maxine C. McFall
Social Security Death Index for Frank J. Milner
Social Security Death Index for Mabel R. Milner
World War I Draft Registration Card for James Hamilton Robertson
World War II Army Enlistment Record for Robert L. McFall
World War II Army Enlistment Record for James H. Robertson, Jr.
1895 Kansas State Agricultural Census, 1 Mar 1895, Pike Twp., Lyon Co. (enumerated by H. C. Wood Roll v115_85, p. 24 of 84)
1905 Kansas State Agricultural Census, 1 Mar 1905, Emporia, Lyon Co. (Roll KS1905_87, p. 731 of 821)
1880 United States Federal Census, 9 Jun 1880, Blue Hill Twp., Mitchell Co., KS (Roll T9_389, p. 4 of 9)
1900 United States Federal Census, 19 Jun 1900, Pike Twp., Lyon Co., KS (Roll T623_487, p. 11 of 23)
1900 United States Federal Census, 6 Jun 1900, Tohee Twp., Lincoln Co., Okla. Terr. (Roll T623_1339, p. 1 of 18)
1910 United States Federal Census, 27-28 Apr 1910, Reading Twp., Lyon Co., KS (Roll T624_445, p. 9 of 21)
1920 United States Federal Census, 6-7 Jan 1920, Stockton Twp., Rooks Co., KS (Roll T625_545, p. 3 of 30)
1930 United States Federal Census, 9 Apr 1930, Stockton Twp., Rooks Co., KS (Roll 717, p. 4 of 6)
1940 United States Federal Census, 5 Apr 1940, Stockton Twp., Rooks Co., KS (T627_1256, p. 2 of 6)
1940 United States Federal Census, 22 Apr 1940, Scott, Scott Co., KS (T627_1258, p. 20 of 50)

Picture Post photographer, Grace Robertson, taking pictures of a Bluebell Girls dance troupe rehearsing at the Nuevo Teatro in Milan, November 1951. Robertson has followed the newly-formed troupe as they travel from England to their first engagement in Italy. Original Publication: Picture Post - 5672 - Miss Bluebell Takes Her Girls To Italy - pub. 9th February 1952 (Photo by Grace Robertson/Picture Post/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

This exhibition presents a dozen delightful works by the pioneering photographer Grace Robertson who was born in Manchester, England, in 1930. Having left school early to look after her sick mother, Robertson reportedly discovered her vocation while she was waiting in line at a shop. She recounts, “I was standing watching two women talking, it was drizzling, and a bike had fallen over. And suddenly this butcher, whom I loathed, became a picture.” She informed her father that she aspired to become a photojournalist, and was, in turn, given her first camera in 1949. From the beginning she found sources of inspiration in everyday life.

Robertson’s father, Fyfe Robertson, was a writer and journalist who worked for the Picture Post, a groundbreaking pictorial weekly news magazine. When Grace began her career, photojournalism was a predominantly male discipline. For these reasons, she sent her first work to Picture Post under the pseudonym of Dick Muir. She remembers receiving the terse reply, “Persevere, young man,” and feeling encouraged. Soon she was selling work under her own name and she went on to create portraits of ordinary people for such publications as Picture Post, Illustrated, Everybody’s, and later Life magazine. Her images from the 1950s, now classics of photojournalism, captured the spirit of British society as it returned to the activities of normal life in the post-war era, from museum or pub outings to relaxing in Wimbledon Common.

In 1951, her first assignment for Picture Post was to document the work of sheep-shearers in a hill farm in Snowdonia, Wales. Working with staff writer David Mitchell, she experienced for the first time the hardships of another way of life, immersing herself in a world previously unknown to her. A few years later, Robertson captured the unrestrained and unselfconscious mood of a women’s annual pub outing. She later wrote about her subjects, “These women, with their amazing stamina, were a visible testament to survival, many of them having endured two world wars and the Depression.” The resulting images have become some of her best-known work, exemplary of her commitment to celebrating independent women and reporting on issues related to their lives.

Throughout her career, Robertson acted as a pioneer with much the same energy as characterized the women she photographed. She created spontaneous, timeless images that offer rare glimpses of the human spirit, often with great humor and character. Her well-composed photographs balance aesthetics and documentation and demonstrate both a classic, fine art approach to the medium and a genuine interest in the lives of real people.

All of the works on view were generously donated in 2017 by Michael and Joyce Axelrod (Joyce Jacobson, Vassar class of 1961). The exhibition is supported by the Hoene Hoy Endowment for Photography.

This exhibition was held in the Hoene Hoy Photography Gallery, Summer 2018.

Grace Robertson - History

As governor of Oklahoma from 1919 to 1923, J. B. A. Robertson narrowly avoided impeachment, used martial law numerous times, faced an indictment in a bank scandal, and called a special session of the Oklahoma Legislature to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment for women's voting rights. The turbulence of his administration has long obscured his accomplishments. Born at Keokuk County, Iowa, in 1871, James Robertson transplanted to Chandler, Oklahoma Territory, twenty-one years later. A former teacher in Iowa, Robertson had begun studying law. In Chandler he renewed his studies, passing his bar exam in 1898. The next year he married Olive Stubblefield.

In 1900 Lincoln County residents elected him county attorney, the first of many elective posts before his gubernatorial inauguration. Defeated in bids for territorial councilman in 1903 and for the 1906 Constitutional Convention, Robertson assisted in drafting initiative and referendum legislation for the state constitution.

In 1909 Gov. Charles N. Haskell appointed him temporary (later permanent) judge of the Tenth District after authorities charged Judge W. N. Maben with accepting bribes. Robertson resigned in 1910 to challenge Lee Cruce and "Alfalfa Bill" Murray for the Democratic governor's nomination. Robertson withdrew from the race and supported Cruce, creating ill will between Murray and Robertson. Later that year Governor Haskell appointed Robertson to the Oklahoma Capitol Commission. Disagreeing with commission policies, he resigned his post. In 1911 he began a stint as a commissioner to the Oklahoma Supreme Court Commission Number One. In 1910 three new U.S. representative seats opened for Oklahoma. In 1912 Robertson challenged William Murray, Joe Thompson, Claude Weaver, and others for the Democratic nomination but placed seventh. In 1914 Robertson resigned his commissioner's seat and again ran for governor. Former Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Robert L. Williams, former bank robber Al Jennings, State Treasurer Robert Dunlap, and R. E. Herring bid against him in the Democratic primary. Despite his wife's death during the campaign, Robertson fought hard and lost by only 2,101 votes. He contested the election results but, afraid it would hurt the Democrat's chance for election, he withdrew his claims.

In 1918 Robertson finally ascended to Oklahoma's highest office. Defeating William Murray in the primary, he then overwhelmed the Republican candidate, Horace G. McKeever. Becoming the first governor from former Oklahoma Territory and the first inaugurated at the new Capitol, in his inaugural speech he discussed the close of World War I, federal government restoring states' rights, aggressive road building, and the unemployment plight of returning veterans.

Improvement of Oklahoma roads topped Robertson's list. He proposed a fifty-million-dollar good roads bond that, unfortunately, Oklahomans eventually voted down. His administration still created more than 1,550 miles of hard-surfaced roads.

Education represented another priority for the governor. Administration-sponsored legislation strengthened the compulsory education law, added appropriations for rural schools, gave scholarships to two persons per county to attend Oklahoma A&M and to twenty-five African Americans to attend Langston University, created teachers' old-age pensions, authorized rural school busing, authorized part-time adult education classes, and extended state aid to African American rural schools. During Robertson's first legislative session, 315 bills were passed by the relatively friendly legislature, with the Seventh Legislature approving the first state budget law, later abandoned in 1921. The governor and legislators passed other, less liberal, laws to curb radicalism, teach only English in schools, display proper reverence to the flag in school, prohibit the display of a red flag or emblem of disloyalty, and prohibit the desecration of the American flag.

In 1920 Robertson called a special session to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment, allowing Oklahoma women voting rights. That same year the Republican Party had its greatest success, capturing a number of national political offices, and electing Warren G. Harding president. Republicans gained the majority in the state's House of Representatives, although Democrats continued to control the Senate. The Republican-dominated House impeached Lt. Gov. Martin Trapp and then attempted to impeach the State Treasurer A. N. Leecraft and Governor Robertson. These all failed, and the Senate quashed the charges against Trapp. The session produced no appropriations bill, and the House adjourned while the Senate was still in session. The governor had to call a special session to get the House to approve the budget.

In 1921 a dispute with Texas occurred over the boundary between the two states. Oil discovery at the Burkburnett Field on the south bank of the Red River caused both states to issue overlapping leases to oil companies. For several months Oklahoma National Guardsman faced Texas Rangers violence loomed. Robertson met with Texas governor W. P. Hobby, but settlement was only reached after the U.S. Supreme Court upheld Oklahoma's claim.

The governor also tackled the problem of race relations. Racial violence terrorized not only Oklahoma but also the nation after World War I. The revival of the Ku Klux Klan and the emergence of African American returning war veterans with a new sense of independence fueled the flame of violent outbreaks. After lynchings and attempted lynchings occurred in Oklahoma City, Okmulgee, Tulsa, and other towns during his first year in office, Robertson created a commission on race relations that consisted of five prominent whites and three African Americans, including Roscoe Dunjee, editor of the Black Dispatch in Oklahoma City. This did not stem the violence, and in 1921 one of the worst outbreaks of interracial violence in the nation's history occurred in Tulsa. The governor declared martial law there and sent Gen. Charles F. Barrett and the National Guard to control the city.

This was not the only incident of mob violence during Robertson's reign. In 1919 violence erupted at Drumright during a telephone operator strike. Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and socialists were active in the area and used this opportunity to demonstrate. Turning violent, the mob apparently held the mayor, chief of police, and a councilman in the city jail and threatened to lynch them. Robertson sent out the Guard to control the town. The governor took a strong position against strikers, especially public officials, and had harsh words for the twenty-eight Tulsa police officers who struck early in his administration. The governor threatened to send the Guard to Sapulpa in June 1919 to control a streetcar strike. Telegraphing the sheriff, he claimed that peace officers might be advising, assisting, and encouraging citizens to violate the law, and he threatened to investigate.

The culmination of Robertson's stand on strikes and the government's role in strikebreaking occurred during the coal strike of October 1919. Citing dissatisfaction with the conditions in coalfields, miners announced a national walkout. Seeking to prevent the Oklahoma miners from joining this strike, Robertson called industry leaders and miner representatives to McAlester on October 29. Talks failed, and eight thousand miners walked out, causing the governor to declare martial law in six southeastern counties. National Guardsmen protected mining operations and threatened to use convict labor to keep the mines producing. The mining industry settled the strike on December 10, and the governor eventually lifted martial law. Other strikes occurred during his term, but Robertson did not again use troops until the railway shopmen's strike of 1922 in Shawnee.

In 1922 District Judge Mark Bozarth called a grand jury to investigate the failure of Okmulgee's Bank of Commerce. Robertson was one of the thirty persons indicted. The grand jury charged that state officials, including the governor, had accepted bribes to keep the bank operating after they knew it to be insolvent. Robertson did not clear himself of the allegations until after leaving office. In 1922 he was succeeded by John C. Walton. Robertson again ran in the 1926 governor's primary, and he was defeated by Henry S. Johnston. In 1930 Robertson lost bids for the Oklahoma Senate and for the Oklahoma Supreme Court. His last public service came as attorney for the Oklahoma Corporation Commission. He died of cancer on March 7, 1938. His second wife, Isabelle, and two children survived him.


J. B. A. Robertson Papers, State Archives Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries, Oklahoma City.

Jimmie L. White, Jr., "James Brooks Ayers Robertson, Governor of Oklahoma, 1917–1923," in Oklahoma's Governors, 1907–1920: Turbulent Politics, ed. LeRoy H. Fischer (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1981).

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The following (as per The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition) is the preferred citation for articles:
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What Robertson family records will you find?

There are 1 million census records available for the last name Robertson. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Robertson census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 256,000 immigration records available for the last name Robertson. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 217,000 military records available for the last name Robertson. For the veterans among your Robertson ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 1 million census records available for the last name Robertson. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Robertson census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 256,000 immigration records available for the last name Robertson. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 217,000 military records available for the last name Robertson. For the veterans among your Robertson ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

The History of Robertson County

[p.827] The surface of Robertson County is generally broken, except near the Kentucky line, where it becomes a level plain. A small strip of level plateau land also bounds the southern and eastern borders. The middle belt is more broken, but is quite fertile. Geologically the county belongs to the lower carboniferous and to the upper or Lithostrotion bed of that group. The St. Louis limestone abounds in the county and crops out all along the streams in high bluffs. Innumerable springs furnish pure water in abundance. The principal streams are Red River and Sulphur Fork. Buzzard Creek, Miller's Creek and Elk Fork are tributaries of Red River, the latter entering from the north. Red River also has two branches, known as Middle and North Forks. Carr's Creek empties into Sulphur Fork three miles west of Springfield, and the two form a V, Springfield being in the fork. Sycamore Creek forms the southern boundary of the county and empties into the Cumberland River in Cheatham County.

The soil is similar to that of Montgomery County. A strip of thin porous land, with siliceous soils, begins on the Kentucky line, near the northwest corner of Sumner County, and rims the county on its east, south and half of its western boundaries. This land has a whitish sub-soil. The best soils for tobacco lie on Sulphur Fork, Buzzard Creek and that part of the county east of Miller's Creek. Almost all kinds of timber known to this latitude are found in abundance. Corn, wheat, oats and tobacco are the staple productions. Tobacco, on the best soils, produces from 800 to 1,200 pounds per acre the quality is excellent and is classed with the best Clarksville tobacco. The amount raised is steadily increasing and the crop for 1886 is estimated at from 6,000,000 to 7,000,000 pounds.

[p.828] In nothing is Robertson County more distinguished that in the making of whisky. From an early period in the history of the State this brand has been sought after, and it now has a world-wide reputation. As will be seen from the appended figures, the amount of whisky manufactured and handled in the county is enormous. By far the largest distillery is operated by Charles Nelson, and is situated near Greenbrier. At this distillery there was manufactured, in 1885, 8,029 barrels, or 379,125 gallons of whisky, upon which the revenue tax amounted to $341,212.50. There were taken out of the warehouses during the same time 7,223 barrels, or 321,819 gallons of whisky. The second largest distillery in the county is owned by John Woodard. During the year 1885 he manufactured 40,097 gallons of whisky, and moved from his warehouse in the same time 47,941 gallons. J. S. Brown manufactured 27,674 gallons, and removed from his warehouse 23,559 gallons. The corresponding figures for Daniel Woodard's distillery are 9,211 and 7,787 gallons, respectively. For the distillery of J. H. Woodard the amounts were 6,756 and 15,427 gallons. The following is the number of gallons removed from warehouses by distillers who manufactured no whisky during 1885: J. R. Bridges, 6,374 Bridges & Johnson, 560 Pitt Bros., 7,549. The total amount of whisky manufactured in the county during 1885 was consequently, 462,863 gallons, and the amount removed from warehouses in the same time was 431,016 gallons, upon which the revenue tax paid amounted to $387,914.40. There is also some apple and peach brandy distilled in the fruit season, but the industry is somewhat on the decline.

The following statistics are from the census of 1880: There was produced in 1879, 793,702 bushels of corn, 134,426 bushels of wheat, 115,678 bushels of oats, 2,472 bushels of barley, 311 bushels of rye, 13,304 bushels of Irish potatoes, 25,350 bushels of sweet potatoes, 2,468 tons of hay, 4,342,588 pounds of tobacco, 32,706 pounds of wool, 193,272 pounds of butter, and 602 pounds of cheese. The value of orchard products was estimated at $4,704, and the value of all farm products sold and consumed, at $852,162. The number of farms was 2,148, valued at $3,462,671, and embracing 165,902 acres of improved land. The number of horses in the county was 3,597 mules, 2,984 milch cows, 2,975 other cattle, 3,849 sheep, 7,697 swine, 28,528. The total value of the live-stock is placed at $614,325.

The first settlement in Robertson County was made by Thomas Kilgore on the waters of the Middle Fork of Red River, three-fourths of [p.829] a mile west of Cross Plains. The Legislature of North Carolina passed a pre-emption law securing to settlers of Tennessee 640 acres of land provided the settlement was made prior to 1780. In the spring of 1778 Kilgore left North Carolina with some ammunition, some salt, and a few grains of corn. Traveling on foot he passed through East Tennessee, and plunged into the wilderness beyond. Guided alone by the sun and the north star, he pushed on, seeing no white people until he reached Bledsoe's Lick, where he found a colony of six or eight familes. After resting a few days, he went on some twenty-five miles west where he located. As a safe hiding place from the Indians, he selected a cave a mile west of where Cross Plains now is. It had a bold stream of water running from it into the Middle Fork of Red River, and by wading the stream he could enter the cave without leaving a trail.

After finding a location to suit him he kicked up some of the rich alluvial soil of the cane brake, and planted a few hills of corn. It is said that in order to secure his land it was necessary for him to remain until the corn matured, that he might carry a few ears back to North Carolina. He spent the summer in watching his little crop, meeting with several narrow escapes from the hostile savages. During this period he had no other food than the game which he killed. In the fall he gathered two or three ears of corn, returned to North Carolina, and had the title to his land confirmed. In the spring of 1779, with a few families besides his own, he returned to the spot, where he had passed the previous summer. A stockaded fort, "Kilgore's Station" was at once erected to protect them from the Indians. This fort was situated on a commanding eminence about three-fourths of a mile from Cross Plains. Kilgore's Station, from that time for years, was a land-mark in the overland emigration to Tennessee.

In 1780 or 1781 Maulding's Station was built. It was located one mile west of the present Louisville and Nashville pike, and four miles east of Kilgore's. That was the next settlement in Robertson County, but the Indians were so hostile that they abandoned it for a time and united with the people at Kilgore's. Among the occupants of the latter station at this time were the Kilgores, Mauldings, Masons, Hoskinses, Jesse Simmons, Isaac Johnson, Samuel Martin, Yates, and several others. The first Indian massacres in the county occurred in 1781. A small colony had located in Montgomery County, near where Port Royal now is.

In 1782 the Indians became very hostile. Samuel Martin and Isaac Johnson were attacked, surrounded and captured Johnson afterward escaped and returned to the station. In the same year the young Masons, while watching for deer at Clay Lick, saw a party of eight or ten Indians [p.830] approaching. The young men fired and killed two of the number, and then fled to the fort. That night John and Ephraim Peyton, on their way to Kentucky on a surveying expedition, came to the station, having left Bledsoe's Lick in the morning. During the night the Indians stole all the horses at the fort. Pursuit was immediately made, the trail led across Sulphur Fork, and up one of its tributaries toward the ridge. About noon the pursuers overtook the thieves on the bank of the stream, fired on them, stampeded and recovered their horses. While returning to the fort the pioneers stopped at Colgin's Spring for water. Here they were attacked by the Indians, who anticipating this, had managed to get in front of them and were lying there in ambush. One of the Masons was killed and Joseph Hoskins, fatally wounded. The condition of the occupants of Kilgore's Station having by this time become so perilous, they abandoned it, and joined those at the Bluff, where they remained during 1783. The next year the colony, augmented by new accessions, returned. There they remained until Indian hostilities ceased, when they separated, and began forming independent settlements. Thomas Kilgore, after living half a century on the land which he had acquired by his heroic daring, died at the advanced age of one hundred and eight years.

The years 1793 and 1794 closed the Indian massacres in Robertson County. During these years Adam Fleener, William Bartlett and a Miss Roberts were killed, and Capt. Abram Young and John Mayfield were wounded. The forts were generally the nuclei around which the earliest settlements clustered. They extended west from Kilgore's and east from Sevier's, now Clarksville. About 1781 Caleb Winters settled on the farm now owned by Hon. G. A. Washington. It is said that he, like Kilgore, subsisted entirely upon meat during the first season. It is also stated that Ezekiel Polk, grandfather of President Polk, located on Sulphur Fork, about three miles south of Adams Station, during the same year, but the Indians were so hostile that he remained only about a year. A fort known as Miles' Station was built on the place now occupied by Joseph Washington, and among those who settled in that vicinity were William and Charles Miles, Azariah Dunn, John Roberts and Nicholas Conrad. Jonathan Carr and Holland Darden, Archibald Mahan, James and Henry Gardner, Joseph Washington, William and Giles Connell located in Sulphur Fork.

In 1788 Samuel Crockett built a block-house or fort on the place where his son, Capt. M. D. Crockett, now lives. This served as a defense in times of danger for all those who had settled in that neighborhood. The Indians finally became so troublesome that the women and children were sent away to the stronger forts, while the men remained to [p.831] look after the crops. With all the precautions taken by the community, a young lady, a daughter of Thomas Norris, was killed by the Indians, and Patrick Martin was wounded. Besides those mentioned the following persons settled in this vicinity and to the southwest of it: Benjamin Nail, Joseph Martin, Thomas Martin, Henry Frey, George Williams, George Murphy, Thomas Jamison, Julius Justice, James and Hardy Bryant and Thomas Holmes. In the same year that Crockett located, the Forts formed a settlement on the north side of Red River, not far from where Adams Station now is. Others who found homes in this part of the county within the next few years were John and James Johnson, Thomas and James Gunn, Corbin Hall, Jesse Gardner, Isaac Menees, Jeremiah and Benjamin Batts and John Bell. Thomas and Henry Johnson, John and Benjamin McIntosh, Anderson, Archer, Edward and John B. Cheatham, William and Jonathan Huddleston, Richard Crunk, Martin Duncan, John Edwards, Joseph Hardaway and Jacob McCarty all settled in what is now the Ninth Civil District previous to 1795.

In 1792 Thomas Woodard located on Beaver Dam Creek in what is now the Eighteenth District. William and James Stark, Meredith and Martin Walton, and John Couts also settled in that vicinity at about the same time. The country around Barren Plains was settled largely by the Taylors, Redferrens and Masons. Still further north were the Pitts, Moores and Hueys, William Scoggins, Bardwell Babb, Edmund Edwards and James Gambell. In the neighborhood of the Tenth Civil District were Richard and Moses Stanley, James Sawyers, Simeon Walton, James Seals, James England, and John and Sampson Mathews. The last named afterward formed a settlement at the head of Spring Creek. At the beginning of the present century, a colony of Germans from North Carolina, among whom were the Fishers, Binkleys, Stoltzes, Fykes, Gigers, Kigers, Clinards and some of the Freys, came to the county and settled on Carr's Creek and vicinity. After the removal of the Indians from this part of the State, the settlement went on very rapidly, and in 1812 there were 852 able-bodied men in the county divided into fifteen militia companies.

The many streams of the county afforded ample water-power and invited the erection of mills, which was begun at an early date. The first was probably built by Thomas Kilgore on the middle fork of Red River, three-fourths of a mile northwest from Cross Plains, some time between 1785 and 1790. At a little later date one was erected by Thomas Woodard on Beaver Dam Creek. It is also stated that Maj. Charles Miles erected a water-mill on Sulphur Fork as early as 1793. >From this time forth mills were erected in different parts of the county as the increasing population [p.832] demanded. They were especially numerous along Red River, and some of them had a wide reputation for the excellence of the flour produced.

During the first fifty years after the settlement of the county, cotton was a crop of some importance. Nearly every farmer raised enough to clothe his own household, and after the invention of the gin, considerable quantities were shipped. Among the gins and presses in use in 1804 were those of Archer Cheatham, in Springfield, and John McMillan near Cross Plains. About 1830 the cultivation of cotton began to decline, and it was not long until its production practically ceased.

The manufacture of whisky and brandy has always been an important industry in Robertson County. In the earlier days small distilleries were found in almost every hollow, and it is asserted that on some streams there was a still-house at every 100 yards. These establishments had a capacity of not more than thirty or forty gallons per day, and the whisky was manufactured by what is known as the sour-mash process. The honesty and care used in making it gave it a high reputation which it has since maintained. One of the first distilleries in the county was erected by Daniel Holman, near Cross Plains, about 1798. Another was built by Mr. Grider, near Turnersville, in the same year. The Woodards were also among the first distillers of the county.

In 1799 Elisha Cheek, with whom is connected one of the most thrilling incidents in the history of the county, settled on Red River, near the Sumner County line. Cheek, though an octoroon, had a white wife, and brought several slaves with him from Virginia. He purchased about 400 acres of land, upon which he built a mill and distillery, and living upon the road leading from Louisville to Nashville, he kept a hotel known as "Cheek's Stand." Many traders, laden with the proceeds of their sales in the shape of Spanish milled-dollars, returned from New Orleans by the overland route. The trip was a perilous one, as the country was infested with highwaymen. On Cheek's land was a cavern, said to be unfathomable, descending perpendicularly from the surface into the bluff. On a certain night the dogs of the neighborhood set up a terrific barking and howling, and in the morning they were found around the cavern. Attempts to drive them away only increased their excitement. They would occasionally go home for food, but would immediately return. Among them was a strange dog that never left the spot. On the twelfth day the commotion ceased, and the dogs returned to their homes. Upon examination the strange dog was found to be dead. It was believed by many that a trader had been murdered by Cheek, and that his body had been thrown into the cave to conceal the crime, as a man riding a horse with a dog following had been seen near Cheek's place on the night when the disturbance [p.833] began. A superstitious dread of the cave existed from that time forth, and it was asserted that the ghost of the murdered man had been repeatedly seen in that vicinity, and that Cheek, for several years before his death, never ventured from his house after dark.

A remarkable occurrence, which attracted wide-spread interest, was connected with the family of John Bell, who settled near what is now Adams Station about 1804. So great was the excitement that people came from hundreds of miles around to witness the manifestations of what was popularly known as the "Bell Witch." This witch was supposed to be some spiritual being having the voice and attributes of a woman. It was invisible to the eye, yet it would hold conversation and even shake hands with certain individuals. The freaks it performed were wonderful, and seemingly designed to annoy the family. It would take the sugar from the bowls, spill the milk, take the quilts from the beds, slap and pinch the children, and then laugh at the discomfiture of its victims. At first it was supposed to be a good spirit, but its subsequent acts, together with the curses with which it supplemented its remarks, proved the contrary. A volume might be written concerning the performances of this wonderful being, as they are now described by contemporaries and their descendants. That all this actually occurred will not be disputed, nor will a rational explanation be attempted. It is merely introduced as an example of superstition, strong in the minds of all but a few in those times, and not yet wholly extinct.

In the days when affairs of honor between gentlemen were settled according to the code, two noted duels were fought in the northeast part of Robertson County. At that time the line between Tennessee and Kentucky was in dispute, and these duels were fought in this county under the impression that the Kentucky line passed south of where it was finally located. The first was between two lawyers from Columbia, Maury Co., Tenn., Smith and Branch. The former was killed and lies buried on the field where he fell. On the same ground Gen. Houston and Gen. White fought. White fell at the first fire, receiving a wound from which he never recovered.

Previous to the organization of the State in 1796, Robertson County formed a part of what was known as Tennessee County. The first General Assembly convened at Knoxville March 28, 1796, and among the first acts passed was the following:

AN ACT TO DIVIDE TENNESSEE COUNTY INTO TWO COUNTIES: Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, That the county of Tennessee be divided by a line as follows, viz.: Beginning at the upper end of the first bluff above James McFarlin's on Red River, near Allin's cabins running from thence a direct course to the Sulphur Fork one-quarter of a mile below Elias Fort's thence up to [p.834] the creek as it meanders to the mouth of Brush Creek thence up the same as it meanders to the head thence a direct course to the Davidson County line at the mouth of Sycamore Creek thence up said Sycamore Creek with the Davidson County line to the Sumner County line thence with the extreme height of the dividing ridge eastwardly to the Kentucky road leading from Nashville thence northwardly with said road to the Kentucky State line thence west with said line to such place as a southeast course leaving Joseph French in the lower county will strike the beginning, and all that part contained in the said boundary henceforth be erected into a new and distinct county by the name of Robertson.

The county was so named in honor of Gen. James Robertson, the founder of the Cumberland settlements. William Johnson, Sr., James Norfleet, John Young, John Donelson and Samuel Crockett were appointed locating commissioners to fix the seat of justice. By an act passed April 20, 1796, these commissioners were authorized to purchase fifty acres of land centrally located, lay out lots and sell them, and apply the proceeds toward erecting "a court house, prison and stocks." The same act provides that the town "shall be called and known by the name of Springfield." Thirty acres of land upon which is now situated the western half of the town was donated to the county by Archer Cheatham, and on April 18, 1798, twenty acres lying to the east of it was purchased from Thomas Johnson for the sum of $100. Thomas Johnson, Archer Cheatham, Jr., Elias Fort, of Miller's Creek, and George Bell were appointed to assist the locating commissioners in erecting buildings and regulating the town.

The county court began its first session July 18, 1796, at the house of Jacob McCarty. The magistrates who were present and took the oath of office were William Fort, William Miles, Benjamin Menees, Isaac Phillips, Bazel Boren, Martin Duncan, John Phillips, Zebulon Hart and James Crabtree. William Fort was chosen chairman, and Thomas Johnson clerk. The latter gave bond in the sum of $2,000, with Jacob McCarty and Bazel Boren as sureties. Stephen Boren, Isaac Menees, Daniel McKindley, William Boren and John Mercer were appointed constables. A tavern license was granted to Isaac Brown, who gave a bond in the sum of $330. The tavern rates fixed by the court were as follows: Each one-half pint of whisky, 16 & 2/3 cents brandy, 21 cents wine, 25 cents each breakfast or supper, 25 cents each dinner, 33 & 1/3 cents lodging, 6 cents. The next term of the court was held in October at the house of Benjamin McIntosh, which continued to be the place of meeting until July, 1798, when it was removed to the store-house of George Bell, in Springfield. By a provision of an old law persons desiring to build mills were compelled to procure permits from the county court. During the first few years after the organization of the county such permits were issued to the following persons: Thomas Woodard, Francis [p.835] Graham, on Brush Creek Adam Shepherd & Co., on Iron Fork of Barton's Creek William Reyburn, on Miller's Creek L. Ventress, on Sycamore Creek Nathan Clark, on Sulphur Fork John Stump, on Sycamore Creek James Mitchell, on Elk Fork of Red River Archer Cheatham, on Sulphur Fork, near Springfield Josiah Fort and Jesse Hewing, on Red River James H. Fuqua, on Spring Creek Benjamin Porter, on War Trace Creek James Byrnes, on Caleb's Creek William B. Gorham, on Sulphur Fork, one and one-half miles northwest of Springfield.

In July, 1799, the court house was ready for occupancy, and that session of the county court was held there. It was a rude log building, and stood on the public square. This house was used until May, 1819, when it was ordered by the county court to be sold, and Thomas Johnson, Benjamin Tucker, Archer Cheatham, James Sawyers and John Hutchison were appointed commissioners to superintend the erection of a new brick court house upon the site of the old one, or a little to the east of it. A log jail was built at about the same time as the first court house. This building stood at the southeast corner on the lot now occupied by the hotel of A. L. Ragsdale. It soon proved to be insufficient for jail purposes, and it was necessary to employ guards whenever prisoners were confined in it. This proved to be too expensive, and in 1813 Thomas Johnson, Archer Cheatham, John Hutchison and James Tunstall were appointed commissioners to build a new jail. This was also built of logs. A third jail was erected in 1829. This building is now used by D. S. Pepper as a saloon. It contained a debtor's room with a dungeon underneath, the only opening into which was through a trap-door in the floor of the room above. In 1859 the jail and lot were sold, and a new lot, situated on Wilson Street, was purchased, upon which was erected the present jail. M. S. Draughon, Solomon Fiser, J. B. Clough and John W. Smith were appointed commissioners to superintend its construction, and county warrants to the amount of $7,000 were issued.

January 6, 1879, the old court house having been declared unsafe, it was decided to erect a new building, and John E. Garner, G. A. Washington, G. W. Walker, John Woodard and H. C. Crunk were appointed a committee to superintend its construction. William C. Smith, of Nashville, was employed as supervising architect. The contract was awarded for $17,250. The building was completed in 1881 at a total cost, including the furniture, fencing and grading, of about $24,000. It is one of the best court houses in the State, and is better than many buildings erected at twice the cost.

[p.836] Robertson County has always provided liberally for its poor. Previous to the purchase of a poor house confirmed paupers were farmed out to the lowest bidder, while those who were partially able to support themselves were rendered the necessary assistance. In 1839 Henry Frey, James Woodard and William Seal were appointed commissioners to select a poor farm, and about 200 acres of land, which is still used for that purpose, were accordingly purchased. Several log houses have been built upon it, and many of the county's poor have been cared for there. For the year ending January 1, 1853, Henry Frey, commissioner, reported the number of inmates as varying from ten to eighteen, and the total expense to the county $485.05. This institution, as it is now maintained, can scarcely be said to be an honor to the county. The present commissioners are G. A. Farmer, M. D. Crockett and S. Clinard.

Since the organization of the county in 1796 several changes have been made in its boundaries. By an act to annex a portion of Robertson to Montgomery County, passed November 8, 1809, Joseph Woolfolk, of Montgomery County, was appointed to mark the boundary between the counties as follows: "Beginning at a point twelve and one-half miles due west from the meridian of Clarksville, which point is a corner in the offset of the present line near to Capt. James Blackwell's on Parson's Creek thence a direct course to a point on the south bank of Sulphur Fork of Red River about midway between the dwellings of Maj. James Norfleet and Cordall Norfleet thence down Sulphur Fork to the point where the present line of the county crosses the same thence due north with said line to the Kentucky line." Such line, when run by the said commissioners, to be the true boundary between the two counties. In 1856 a portion of Robertson County was taken to form a part of Cheatham County. Other minor changes have been made at different times. The following is the population of the county by decades:

1800 4,280 1850 16,145
1810 7,270 1860 15,265
1820 9,938 1870 16,166
1830 13,272 1880 18,881
1840 13,801

Previous to 1834 the civil divisions of the county were based upon the militia companies, of which there were fifteen. After the adoption of the constitution in that year, Warren L. Payne, James S. Ellis and James Woodard were appointed to lay off the county into fifteen magisterial districts. Since that time three new districts have been added. The population of these districts, in 1880, was as follows: First District, 861 Second, 1,342 Third, 1,130 Fourth, 965 Fifth, 685 Sixth, 1,183 Seventh, 782 Eighth, 1,217 Ninth, 2,643 Tenth, 1,221 Eleventh, [p.837] 1,105 Twelfth, 1,122 Thirteenth, 963 Fourteenth, 689 Fifteenth, 1,412 Sixteenth, 663 Seventeenth, 898. The Eighteenth was formed since the census of 1880.

The following is a complete list of county officers, with the date of election or qualification of each: Registers: Bazel Boren, 1796 John Hutchison, 1809 John Hutchison, Jr., 1836 Perry Payne, 1840 W. E. Bugg, 1864 A. Pike, 1866 G. H. Thomas, 1870 R. C. Anderson, 1874. County court clerks: Thomas Johnson, 1796 James Tunstall, 1810 William Seal, 1819 William Shelly, 1837 William Seal, 1839 J. E. Winfield, 1840 Robert H. Murphey, 1852 John Y. Hutchison, 1874. Circuit court clerks: Thomas Johnson, 1810 Dr. Samuel King, 1826 William Dortch, 1828(?) John S. Hutchison, 1837 Jesse Davis, 1840 H. I. Couts, 1848 E. M. Reynolds, 1850 John S. Hutchison, 1850 Robert H. Murphy, Jr., 1866 John Y. Hutchison, 1872 G. B. Jones, 1874 Charles M. Palmer, 1878 W. W. Eckles, 1882. Sheriffs: Hugh Henry, 1796 James Menees, 1799 John B. Cheatham, 1805 John Howell, 1810 Anderson Cheatham, 1812 Henry Frey, 1818 Benjamin Kirby, 1823 Washington Reyburn, 1826 Richard R. P. Powell, 1830 Josiah W. Hicks, 1833 Green Benton, 1840 R. H. Murphey 1846 Alfred Pike, 1852 G. A. Randolph, 1858 M. L. Woodard, 1865 B. H. Boone, 1868 James S. Jones, 1878 G. M. Batts, 1882. Trustees: Josiah Fort, 1796 Martin Duncan, 1808 John Draughon, 1838 Thomas Cook, 1850 Leonard Dozier, 1854 Daniel P. Braden, 1864 George M. Fiser, 1866 J. W. Stark, 1868 Milton Green, 1874 W. R. Shaw, 1878 G. P. Martin, 1880. Coroners: Isaac Brown, 1796 George Briscoe, 1801 Daniel Holman, 1802 Joseph Washington, 1805 Benjamin Tucker, 1814 Plummer Willis, 1816 Benjamin Tucker, 1819 Joel Ragsdale, 1825 Henry Stoltz, 1827 Chistopher Marlowe, 1836 John C. Straughon, 1838 A. L. Fortune, 1840 Robert H. Murphey, 1842 A. R. Thompson, 1846 Joseph Hardaway, 1848 D. L. Holland, 1865 J. M. Patton, 1871 Perry Payne, 1872 James I. Holman, 1879.

County Surveyors: Henry Johnson, 1796 Anderson Stewart, ---- Thomas Shaw, 1836 William S. Perry, 1837 S. H. Benton, 1848 J. T. Mathews, 1855 M. O. Mason, 1859 Elois Benson, 1865 J. H. Woodard, 1866 S. R. Moody, 1871 J. S. Atkins, 1875 J. M. Covington, 1883. Clerks and masters of the chancery court: E. M. Reynolds, 1844 Joseph C. Stark, 1844 E. M. Reynolds, 1851 Miles Draughon, 1852 W. B. Lowe, 1870 H. C. Crunk, 1885. County Superintendent of Public Instruction, George W. Walker, 1867-69 James L. Watts, 1873-76 W. C. Denson, 1876-79 W. L. Haynie, 1879-83 P. D. West, 1883-85 B. F. Fyke, 1885.

[p.838] The following is a list of the legislative officers and members of constitutional conventions: Representatives, Territorial Assembly, 1794-95, Tennessee County, James Ford State Legislature, 1796, Tennessee County, Thomas Johnson and William Fort 1797, Tennessee County, William Fort and James Norfleet 1799, Robertson County, John Young 1801-07, same, Anderson Cheatham 1809, Robertson, Dickson and Hickman Counties, John Coleman 1811-13, same, Sterling Brewer. The remainder represented Robertson County only: 1815, James Norfleet 1817, William C. Conrad 1819-23, Anderson Cheatham 1825-31, Richard Cheatham 1833, Richard R. P. Powell 1835, D. West 1837, William Seal 1839-41, Matthew Powell 1843, Robert Cheatham 1845-47, W. W. Pepper 1849-51, W. Woodard 1853, Ed. S. Cheatham 1855, E. A. Fort 1857, Sylvanus Benton 1859-61, John Woodard 1862 (Confederate Legislature), John E. Garner 1865, J. S. Mulloy 1867, John Woodard 1869, W. R. Sadler 1871, B. M. Cheatham 1873, G. A. Washington 1875, J. A. Bell 1877, J. E. Washington 1879, D. D. Holman 1881, John Woodard 1883, W. A. Buntin 1885, H. C. Crunk. Senators: 1796, Tennessee County, James Ford 1797, Robertson and Montgomery Counties, James Ford 1799, same, James Norfleet 1801-05, same, Parry W. Humphreys 1809, same, John Shelby 1811-13, Robertson, Montgomery, Stewart, Dickson, Hickman and Humphreys, James B. Reynolds 1815, Robertson, Hickman and Dickson, Robert West 1817, same, Sterling Brewer 1819, same, James R. McMeans 1820, Robertson, Hickman, Dickson and Wayne, Sterling Brewer 1821, same, John A. Cheatham 1823-27, same, Henry Frey 1829-39, Robertson, Montgomery and Dickson, Henry Frey 1841, Robertson and Montgomery, Henry Frey 1843, same, Nathan H. Allen 1845-47, same, John D. Tyler 1851, same, Joseph C. Stark 1853-55, Robertson, Montgomery and Stewart, Hugh Robertson 1857, same, T. Menees 1859-61, same, Judson Horne 1862 (Confederate Legislature) Edward S. Cheatham 1865, same, B. R. Peart 1867, same, Benjamin Lyle 1869-71, same, John S. Hart 1873, same, Robert Brandon 1875, same, W. A. Quarles 1877, same, A. E. Garner 1879, same, Nathan Brandon 1881, same, W. M. Daniel 1883-85, Trousdale, Sumner and Robertson, J. W. Blackman. Members of Constitutional Conventions: 1796, Tennessee County, Thomas Johnson, James Ford, William Fort, Robert Prince and William Prince 1834, Robertson County, Richard Cheatham 1870, Robertson County, John E. Garner.

The plan for choosing the presidential electors in 1796 was to select three persons for each county, who chose the county elector. Those appointed for "the late County of Tennessee" were George Nevill, Sr., [p.839] Josiah Fort and Thomas Johnson. The same plan was pursued in 1800, John Baker, John Jones and Thomas Johnson being appointed to cast the vote for Robertson County. From 1825 until 1860 the county was solidly Whig, with the exception of one election. The vote for President in 1832 stood Jackson, 1,685 Clay, 1.

1836 Van Buren and Johnson 609 White and --- 862
1840 Van Buren and Johnson 650 Harrison and Tyler 1,177
1844 Polk and Dallas 871 Clay and Frelinghuysen 1,193
1848 Cass and Butler 839 Taylor and Fillmore 1,236
1852 Pierce and King 769 Scott and Graham 1,013
1856 Buchanan and Breckinridge 928 Fillmore and Donelson 1,089
1860 Breckinridge and Lane 930 Bell and Everett 2 1,309
Douglas and Johnson 3 79
1864 No election
1868 Seymour and Blair 406 Grant and Colfax 212
1872 Greeley and Brown 1 1,592 Grant and Wilson 887
1876 Tilden and Hendricks 2,058 Hayes and Wheeler 764
1880 Hancock and English 2,107 Garfield and Arthur 951
Weaver and Chambers 4 61
1884 Cleveland and Hendricks 1,977 Blaine and Logan 794
1 Democrat and Liberal Republican. 2 American. 3 Douglas Democrat. 4 Greenback.

The following is the gubernatorial vote from 1837 to 1884, inclusive:

1837 Cannon 1,174 Armstrong 435
1839 Cannon 1,067 Polk 692
1841 Jones 960 Polk 680
1843 Jones 1,199 Polk 764
1845 Foster 1,128 A. V. Brown 808
1847 Niell S. Brown 1,196 A. V. Brown 804
1849 Niell S. Brown 1,165 Trousdale 920
1851 Campbell 1,169 Trousdale 889
1853 Henry 1,133 Johnson 763
1855 Gentry 1,256 Johnson 804
1857 Hatton 1,129 Harris 983
1859 Netherland 1,274 Harris 1,077
1861 W. H. Polk 161 Harris 1 1,607
1867 Brownlow 348 Etheridge 493
1869 Senter 2,361 Stokes 2 381
1870 J. C. Brown 335 J. C. Brown 1,621
1872 A. A. Freeman 842 J. C. Brown 1,749
1874 Maynard 632 Porter 1,649
1876 Thomas 708 Porter 2,106
Maney 128 Yardley 13
1878 Wight 318 Marks 1,558
Edwards 2 48
1880 Hawkins 907 Wright 732
Wilson 2 1,474
Edwards 2 13
1882 Hawkins 616 Bate 1,983
Fussell 2 47
Beasly 2 74
1884 Reid 812 Bate 1,963
1 Confederate.   2 Independent or Greenback.
NOTE.--Andrew Johnson and William G. Brownlow served during, and at the close of, the war.

[p.840] The original site for the town of Springfield was obtained from Thomas Johnson and Archer Cheatham. The town was soon after laid off into lots, containing seventy-seven square rods. These were sold at a uniform price of $8 each. The first purchasers were Archer Cheatham, William Lusk, George Bell, Archer Cheatham, Jr., John Phillips, Thomas Johnson, Richard Mathews, Robert Curry, Joseph Pankey, Charles Simmons, John Hutchison, Joseph Wray, John Cheatham, Jacob Young, Lucy Parker and Thomas Stewart. Not all of these persons, however, erected buildings upon their lots, and in 1808 there were only four families living in the town. These were the families of Archer Cheatham, John Hutchison, Jonathan W. Ferguson and a Mr. Dickson. The growth of the town was quite slow from the beginning, and as late as 1835 the population did not exceed 100.

Probably the first store in Springfield was conducted by George Bell, who was in business as early as 1799. Nothing definite is known as to how long he continued in business, but in 1808 there was no store in the town. About three years later William S. Bradburn opened a store in a frame or log building on the lot afterward occupied by George C. Conrad. Soon after Daniel Horton began business in a building standing about where the postoffice now is. The first brick building was erected by Stump & Cox, who for a time did a large mercantile business. These earlier merchants were succeeded by Richard Cheatham and George C. Conrad, who for several years controlled the greater part of the trade of the entire county. These men were rivals in all their business operations. Each owned a cotton-gin, and each was engaged in raising fine stock. They both accumulated a large amount of property, and the growth of the town was greatly retarded by their unwillingness to sell lots or land. Cheatham's store stood on the corner now occupied by Anderson Bros., and Conrad carried on his business in a brick building on the site of W. E. Ryan & Co.'s store. Joseph Mathews had a dry goods store on the lot now occupied by E. A. Hick's office, some time during the "thirties." Other merchants with small capital began business from time to time, but were unable to compete with Cheatham and Conrad. Some manufacturing in a small way peculiar to those times was carried on. John W. Ferguson had a hattery, as also did Solomon Payne. George C. Conrad had a wool-carding machine. Thomas Farmer, William and Richard Crunk and Isaac England were shoe-makers. Miles and Archer Kirby made harness and saddles. William Gorham had a tan-yard, the one now run by William Orndorff. At that time no ready made clothing was sold, and tailoring was an important business. Among the tailors were D. P. Braden, R. J. Smith, Robert Harsey and [p.841] Granger & Hooper. The first persons licensed to keep a tavern in Springfield were John Pankey and Lucy Parker, in 1800, and Archer Cheatham, in 1801. They were followed by John L. Cheatham and John Hutchison, whose house stood on the ground now occupied by Judge Garner's office.

The first physician to locate in Springfield was Levi Noyes about 1809. He had previously lived in the country east of town. A Dr. Clark also came at about the same time. These men were succeeded by Archie Thomas, B. Bell, --- Priestly and --- Allen, and at a later date by Willis Farmer, Robert K. Hicks, Thomas Menees and J. M. Jones. The first postmaster was Jonathan W. Ferguson, who held the office until 1844. An institution which gave the town considerable importance as an educational center was Liberty Academy, which will be mentioned in another place.

Among the men who did business prior to the war were Thomas J. Ryan, James Ryan, E. S. Cheatham, J. and A. G. Green, W. P. Mathews, John Stewart, William T. Peck, H. P. Frey, John F. Couts, I. A. Eckles, H. D. Featherstone, George Benton, Richard A. and G. W. Davis, J. G. Woodard, Nicholas Ryan, A. H. Judkins, E. M. Reynolds, Reuben Payne, Milton Green, William Porter, W. S. Warner, Robert Manlove, Benjamin Kirby, Miles Childress, J. B. Bell, Aaron Burr and W. H. Bugg. Among the later manufacturing enterprises is the flourishing Springfield steam flouring-mill, built in 1854 by Stark & Williams. It has since been considerably enlarged, and is now owned and operated by Sadler, Bell & Co.

The Stewart steam flouring-mill was built by Charles Palmer in 1865 as a machine shop and planing-mill. This not proving remunerative he sold out to Davis & Ogburn, who converted it into a flouring-mill, which they have since operated. A saw-mill was erected at the head of Black Branch by W. B. Jones in 1879. In 1876 C. C. Bell & Co. began the business of stemming tobacco and sending it to foreign markets. They now ship from 250 to 300 hogsheads yearly. In January, 1884, Bell Bros. engaged in the manufacture of twist and smoking tobacco. About a year later they erected a new factory with all the latest improved machinery for making plug tobacco. The other business interests of Springfield are represented at present by W. T. Peck, Mrs. John Goldnamer, J. H. Cartwright and S. Rosenberg, dry goods Sadler & Huey, J. H. Mason, Jesse Warren and W. E. Ryan & Co., groceries Davis & Ogburn and Anderson Bros., groceries and hardware Henry Bros., hardware and implements Hurt & Tanner and Menees & Patton, drugs T. M. Henry, paints and oils Wesley Kiger and James Kiger, [p.842] confectioneries H. V. Maury and S. J. Alley, harness-makers J. M. Binkley and H. C. Izor, blacksmiths Oliver & Allen, carriage manufacturers William Hooper, stoves and tinware J. S. Brown, J. W. Stark & Co., J. R. Bridges & Co. and Daniel Woodard, wholesale liquor dealers T. S. Woodrow and N. T. Langford, undertakers D. A. Payne & Co., commercial fertilizers C. J. Davis, insurance agent C. C. Bell & Co., and Charles Hallums & Co., tobacco dealers L. O. Connell, lumber dealer H. H. Kirk, contractor and builder D. R. Featherstone and T. A. Izor, livery and feed stables W. B. Cartwright, hotel A. L. Ragsdale, hotel and saloon William Trevathan, meat market G. R. Pearson, provisions J. A. England, shoe shop Robert Benton, barber A. C. Baggett, H. C. Fletcher, D. S. Pepper, Miles Blackburn, A. Cohea and William Deberry, saloons all others are mentioned elsewhere.

Springfield was incorporated by an act of the General Assembly passed November 14, 1825. John Hutchison, Richard Cheathan, George C. Conrad, John L. Cheatham, John W. Ferguson, Solomon Payne, Samuel King, Pinckney Gunn and Daniel P. Braden were appointed a board of commissioners with power to draft ordinances for the regulation of the town. No provision was made for any elections, and it is not probable that much was effected by this incorporation. December 23, 1845, a second act was passed, which vested the town government in a mayor and six aldermen. This charter was amended and the authority of the board of aldermen increased by an act passed March 2, 1854. The records of the town having been destroyed during the war, it is impossible to obtain an accurate list of the municipal officers, or any account of the proceedings of the board of aldermen. In 1842, by an appropriation made by the county court, the public square was graded and graveled, and a wall was built along the street on the east side. The square at that time was a rough, uneven space, broken by gutters. During the winter months the streets around it were almost impassable, and it was not uncommon to see wagons mired upon them. In 1847 John E. Garner became mayor, and the work of graveling the street was begun.

When incorporated the limits of the town were quite restricted, and were not greatly enlarged until 1881, when an election was held to vote upon a proposition for a considerable extension. This was carried by a large majority, and the following year the town was divided into four wards, from each of which two aldermen are elected. The municipal government has been economically administered, and though considerable amounts have been expended in improvements, the town is out of debt, and January 1, 1886, had a surplus of nearly $800 in the treasury. The following have been the mayors since 1864: John E. Garner, 1865 [p.843] G. W. Davis, 1866 J. W. Judd, 1870 B. M. Cheatham, 1872 R. H. Murphy, Jr., 1872 J. H. Webber, 1876 W. W. Garrett, 1878 W. T. Peck, 1880 H. C. Crunk, 1884, and W. R. Sadler, 1885. The town has met with a few destructive fires. January 2, 1872, a large part of the east side of the square was destroyed, but as the buildings were nearly all old, the loss was not great. February 28, 1882, the Methodist Church and a building occupied by the girls' school were burned. Three days later the entire south side of the square was laid in ashes. The loss in these two fires was considerable.

The first paper published in the county was The Cumberland Presbyterian . It was, as its name implies, a religious weekly devoted to the interests of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. It had previously been published in Nashville, and was removed to Springfield in 1839. The editors were Rev. James Smith and Rev. D. R. Harris. At the end of six months its publication was suspended. In 1847 Grant & Ligon established The Springfield Spy , a six-column folio, devoted to the interests of the Whig party. Two years later the publication was transferred to Kirk & McNelley who changed the name to Robertson Backwoodsman , and afterward to The Springfield Intelligencer . In 1853 they sold the office to J. L. Davis who published The Dollar Weekly American until the close of 1855. During the next year The Robertson Democracy was established by Mason & Shropshire, but was suspended during the same year. In 1859 G. W. Davis & Co. began the publication of a Whig paper called The Springfield Speculator . In 1862 Morgan's cavalry took charge of the office and printed one edition of his Vidette , a war sheet. In a few weeks thereafter a command of Federal troops took posession of the town, and learning that Morgan had used the office, broke the press, and threw the type, etc., out of the second story window. In April, 1866, M. V. Ingram and Archer Thomas, under the firm name of M. V. Ingram & Co. established The Robertson Register , a little folio only fourteen by eighteen inches in size. In October 1868, Ingram removed the material to Clarksville, Tenn., leaving Thomas with a small job office. April 16, 1869, the first number of The Springfield Record was issued by Thomas Bros. who continued its publication until 1881 when B. F. Thomas withdrew leaving Archer Thomas as sole editor and proprietor. March 6, 1882, his office with all its contents was burned. With characteristic energy, Mr. Thomas immediately procured a new outfit, and on March 23 The Record appeared again. In November, 1883, he sold the office to the Record Publishing Company, but on April 1, 1885, repurchased it, and is now sole proprietor. The Record is Democratic in politics, has a large circulation and exerts a wide influence.

[p.844] The Springfield National Bank was organized in August, 1872, with a capital of $60,000. The directors were C. C. Bell, Thomas Pepper, Wiley Woodard, John Woodard and John W. Stark. John Woodard was made president, and W. H. Brown cashier. The bank has always done a large business and possessed the entire confidence of the business men of the county. Its deposits range from $150,000 to $250,000. C. C. Bell is now president and Thomas Pepper cashier.

One of the oldest Masonic lodges in the State is Western Star Lodge, No. 9, of Springfield. It was first organized as Rhea Lodge, at Port Royal, Tenn., June 24, 1812, under a dispensation from the Grand Masters of North Carolina and Tennessee. The charter members were John Baker, W. M. Jack E. Turner, S. W. James Norfleet, J. W. G. T. Ware, S. D. Elijah Hughs, J. D. Henry H. Bryan, Secretary and Treasurer, and David Gould. It received its charter as Western Star Lodge in February, 1813, from the Grand Master of North Carolina and Tennessee. A new charter from the Grand Master of Tennessee was received October 1, 1814. The lodge was removed to Springfield November 22, 1817. The first meeting thereafter was held at the residence of Daniel Horton, January 14, 1818. Meetings continued to be held at private residences until a suitable hall could be rented. In 1850 a one-half interest in a brick store-house on the east side of the public square was purchased from John F. Couts, and six years later the lodge became the owner of the entire building. The present hall was erected in 1870 at a cost of about $10,000. Springfield Royal Arch Chapter received its charter October 1, 1856.

Springfield Lodge, No. 87, I. O. O. F., was organized about 1854. Among the charter members were Milton Green, Judge W. W. Pepper, M. C. Banks, H. Harrison, Samuel Jamison and W. B. Adams. The organization was maintained until 1882, when the hall, with all the property of the lodge, was destroyed by fire. Since that time it has not been revived.

Springfield Lodge, No. 224, K. of H., was instituted on the 8th of February, 1876, with the following charter members: J. W. Cullom, W. C. Denson, J. H. Webber, J. W. Dean, Archer Thomas, William Clotworthy, J. C. Stewart, A. B. Porter, J. S. Moulton, J. Goldnamer, William Barner and J. S. Brown. The lodge has been uniformly prosperous, and has paid several benefits since its organization.

Adams Station, an enterprising town of 400 people, is situated on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, about one mile east of Red River. Previous to 1858 the site of the town was owned by Reuben Adams. In that year the railroad was completed, and a depot was erected by the people [p.845] of the surrounding country. The first store-house was built and occupied by Adams & Holloway, who carried on a grocery business. At about the same time B. O. Crenshaw opened a dry goods store. During the war nearly all the buildings were destroyed, and in 1866 there were only three dwellings in the town. About 1865 C. M. Brown & Co. established a general merchandise business in the depot. A little later Capt. Thomas Mallory built a store-house on the lot now occupied by J. C. Moody's drug store, and a business was conducted there under the firm name of J. E. Ruffin & Co. The present business interests of the town are represented by J. E. Gaines, W. S. Miller and Redding & Cobb, dry goods J. C. Murphey and Winters & Head, groceries W. H. Howsley, general merchandise J. S. Moody, drugs Crouch & Co., and Hallums & Edwards, tobacco dealers, G. A. Farmer, flouring-mill Alsbrooke & Robinson, blacksmiths J. T. Bell and J. C. Moody, physicians. The town has two churches, Methodist and Missionary Baptist. The school under the principalship of S. A. Link is one of the best in the county.

Greenbrier is situated on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, in the southern portion of the county. It is the youngest town in the county, having been built up since 1876. About 1858 E. S. Cheatham established a saw-mill on the present site of Greenbrier, and carried on an extensive business, but this had all disappeared before the foundation of the town. The first store was opened by John Hinkle about ten years ago. The proximity of a large distillery which furnishes work for a large number of coopers and other employes, is the chief cause for the rapid growth of the town. The business industries of the present are John Hinkle, dry goods A. C. Dale, drugs and groceries Browning Bros., Ed Oglesby, John Guinn, C. Jones, groceries A. Rodgers, dry goods and notions B. F. Webster, cooper shop Lemuel Briggs, tobacco dealer Mathew Cole, livery stable --- Gavitt, blacksmith.

Sadlersville, a station on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, in the northwest part of the county, was located in 1871. In that year W. R. Sadler, who was operating a mill on Elk Fork, built a depot, but it was not recognized as a station until two or three years later. The first store-house was built and occupied by Mr. Sadler in 1871. Soon after A. M. Jones opened a dry goods store. The individuals and firms engaged in business there at present are R. T. Hollins, dry goods J. S. Johnson, groceries Hallums Bros., and John Lockard, tobacco dealers T. J. Mitchell, grain dealer, and Clark Talley, blacksmith. The town has a good school, and the erection of a church is under contemplation.

Cedar Hill, a thriving village on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, about seven miles west of Springfield, has a population of about 300. [p.846] The town has been entirely built since the completion of the railroad in 1858, when the citizens of the vicinity erected a depot. The land upon which the town is built belonged to Jefferson W. Gooch, who sold all lots with the proviso that liquor in quantities less than a quart should not be sold thereon. As a result no saloon has ever been established. The first store was built and occupied by Bartlett & Morris as a dry goods store. Miles Jackson built the first dwelling, and a little later B. H. Boone built a dwelling and grocery store. The present business interests are represented by T. J. Ayers and W. R. Featherstone, dry goods J. F. Ruffin, groceries J. W. M. Gooch, drugs and groceries W. L. Melvin, undertaker J. M. Hunter and Joshua Gardner, blacksmiths, Long & Bell and Braswell & Co., tobacco dealers Mathews & Son and E. S. Hawkins, physicians. The Methodists erected a church in 1860, and have a large congregation. The town also has a good school. Thomas McCulloch Lodge, No. 302, F. & A. M., was organized about 1861, and Beulah Lodge, A. O. U. W., in 1881.

Coopertown, a village in the Thirteenth Civil District, was formerly called Naive's Cross-roads from David Naive, who settled there about 1825. In 1850 the Sons of Temperance erected a building with a hall above and a store-room below. The following year a postoffice was removed to that place, and a stock of goods put in by W. W. Glover and James Graves. The place was named Coopertown from the large number of men in that vicinity engaged in making barrels for the Red River mills. The town has never had a saloon, and but very little liquor has been sold there. The business industries are now carried on by Davis & Son and Hinkle & Glover, general merchandise R. G. Glover, drugs F. M. Watts, steam flouring-mill J. J. Reeves, undertaking Scruggs & Reeves, blacksmithing S. W. Frey and R. G. Glover, physicians. A church and a good school are maintained.

Turnersville, in the Seventh Civil District, was formerly of considerable importance as a shipping point for tobacco, etc., but since the building of the railroad the business has passed to other points. The place took its name from Maj. Turner. The first store was opened by William Bell in 1820. About 1846 a Masonic lodge was organized, but in 1858 it was removed to Port Royal, Montgomery County. The only store in the place is now conducted by E. J. Rawls. The physicians are J. R. & J. W. Dunn and E. J. Rawls.

Barren Plains in the Fourth Civil District was settled about 1830. The first stores were conducted by G. B. Mason, Isaac Farmer, D. W. Taylor and Darby Ryan. The business men of the present are Holman & Scott, and S. W. Dalton & Son, general merchandise. W. J. Benson [p.847] has a saw-mill W. A. Duer is a painter W. T. Jones, carpenter Paige & Bagbee, blacksmiths John Scott and Miles Scott, physicians.

Cross Plains is the second oldest town in the county. The first building was a double log house erected by William Randolph in 1819, and used as a tavern. A stone house was built the next year by Louis Yates, and a little later a store was opened by Cook & Cole. The town is situated in the midst of a fine agricultural region, and has a good trade. The individuals and firms now doing business there are Villines & Jernigan, Durrett & Shannon, Pitt & Randolph and P. O. West, general merchandise W. R. Yates, dry goods, drugs and groceries L. Carr, undertaker Meredith McMurray, tobacco dealer Smith Kinney, grist and saw-mill Walter Cunningham, blacksmith John Yates, shoemaker. The population of the town is about 300.

Mitchellville, a little village on the line between Robertson and Sumner Counties, before the era of railroads, was of some importance as a station on the Louisville and Nashville pike. The first building was a tavern erected by one Mitchell about 1798. A large grist and saw-mill was built by James A. Stewart about 1848. It is now owned by Hammond Bros. Other business men of the present are Wright & Wright and Miller & Borthick, dry goods Shaub Bros., tobacco dealers.

Orlinda is one of the most thriving of the younger villages of the county. The first store-house was built and occupied by H. J. Crocker in 1869. The business interests are now represented by H. J. Crocker & Son, general merchandise R. E. Moore, drugs B. L. Wilson & Son, undertaking Kelly & Clayton, blacksmithing Sprouce & Beasley and E. L. & J. M. Crocker, tobacco dealers. The town has a good school, and a church has been completed during the past year.

Black Jack is a small village in the northern part of the county. It was located by Mr. Phillips in 1848, when he built a store-house and dwelling. There are two mercantile firms now doing business there--Samuels & King and Mr. True. Drs. Moore and Brodie are the physicians, and Kelly Bros. the blacksmiths. Crystal Fount Lodge, A. F. & A. M., was organized in 1859 with the following members: John S. Hart, W. M. T. O. Tarperly, S. W. J. A. McMillan, J. W. J. W. Felts, S. D. John Weir, J. D. A. C. Cook, treasurer J. M. Henry, secretary C. W. Warren, Tyler Henry Hart, Ed T. Hart, J. Babb, H. J. Crocker, G. W. Featherstone, J. Cheek, J. W. Howse and S. B. Jeringan. The following is a list of the Worshipful Masters since the organization: J. S. Hart, J. A. McMillan, T. O. Tarperly, T. M. Gorham, D. W. C. Randolph, T. J. Willis, J. Q. Ford and Dr. J. E. Moore.

Under the old constitution previous to 1835 the county court had [p.848] jurisdiction over many of the civil and nearly all the cases of misdemeanor. The county court was organized in July, 1796, at which time Samuel Donelson was appointed county solicitor. The first grand jury assembled at the October term in that year, and was composed of the following men: Jonathan Price, Jesse Martin, Joseph Carmack, Moses Boren, John Crane, Nimrod McIntosh, John Johnson, William Byrd, James W. Stark, William Duncan, John Husk and Archer Cheatham, Jr. The petit jurors at the same term were Philip Parchment, Joseph Payne, Robert Lancaster, Walter Stark, James Yates, John Powers, William Briscoe, Charles McIntosh, Isaac Fleming, Moses Brown, John Couts and Thomas Yates. In the earlier history of the courts the most of the indictments were for assault and battery, of which there were a great number. The first person tried was James Stewart, who was convicted of committing an assault and battery upon the body of Isaac Brown "at the race-paths in the Barrens" September 25, 1796. The latter was a frequent offender himself, and a short time after he with four others were found guilty of the same offense. It seems to have been a sort of free fight, of which the result was not serious, as the fines assessed ranged from 1 to 6 cents. The numerous public gatherings of all kinds, militia musters, political meetings and elections, at all of which whisky was freely imbibed, afforded frequent opportunities for working off surperfluous energy and cultivating the manly art. The results of these pugilistic encounters were not more serious than blackened eyes and sore craniums, as the use of weapons was very rare. The first attorneys licensed by the county court were Robert Seacy, Parry W. Humphreys, L. D. Powell, James R. McMeans, Ephraim T. Payne and Patrick Darby. The last named became notorious for working up litigation over land titles, agreeing to manage the cases for a share of the profits. He carried this to such an extent that a law was passed by the General Assembly in 1819 to prevent his further operations.

The circuit court was organized April 10, 1810, by Judge Parry W. Humphreys, who appointed Thomas Johnson, clerk of the court. For several years no cases of especial interest were tried. Though several indictments for murder were found there were no convictions. Previous to the organization of this court, however, two citizens of the county paid the death penalty for murder. They were Charles Pickering, the jailer at Springfield, and Thornton, a tailor. One of the prisoners, named Gardner, who was placed at work outside of the jail, escaped to Montgomery County. He was followed by Pickering and Thornton who captured him, and having pinioned his arms and fastened him to their saddles, compelled him to walk behind. They then increased the speed [p.849] of their horses until Gardner was thrown down and dragged to death. They were arrested and taken to Davidson County, where they were tried, convicted and hanged. Their bodies were brought back to Springfield for interment.

The first representative of the county to the penitentiary was a half-witted boy, Edwin Clark, who was sentenced to a year's imprisonment for stealing a pocket handkerchief valued at 5 cents. For many years nearly all the attorneys who practiced in this county resided at Nashville or Clarksville. Among them were Cave and Wiley B. Johnson, O. B. Hays, Bennett Searcy, William K. Turner, W. L. Brown, N. H. Allen, George C. Boyd and many others. The first lawyer to locate in Springfield was Thornton A. Cook. He had only a limited practice and spent the greater part of his time in repairing clocks and watches. H. S. Kimble and William H. Dortch also resided in the town and practiced law for a short time during the "thirties." In 1840 W. W. Pepper entered the profession. He had previously worked at the blacksmith's trade with his father, and had only a limited education, but being possessed of great native ability and fine practical sense, he achieved considerable success as a lawyer. In 1851 he was elected judge of this judicial circuit by the Legislature, and after the change in the Constitution was elected to the office by the people, a position which he filled until his death in 1861. He possessed by nature a judicial mind and his rulings gave general satisfaction to the bar. Judge Pepper succeeded Mortimer A. Martin on the bench. Martin was a native of Sumner County and the son of an able Methodist preacher. After acquiring a practical education he studied law settled first at Springfield, but soon after removed to Clarksville, where he lived until his death. Though not extensively read he was an able lawyer, his strong native sense enabling him to grasp the salient points of a case and to arrive at correct conclusions by mental analysis. In his "Reminiscences of the Clarksville Bar," G. A. Henry says of him: "He was an able and incorruptible judge and gave such satisfaction on the judgment seat that the bar and country felt that his place could hardly be filled when he died. His habit was to be attentive to the reading of the declaration and the pleas, and he saw in a moment the legal point in controversy. His instructions to the jury were as clear as a sunbeam, and candidly and fairly stated in language so plain that the jury easily understood the case and rarely failed to render a satisfactory judgment. He used to say some one of the judges, perhaps Judge Turley, said of his opinions, if he did not know what the law was he guessed better than any man he knew. In view of all this I say he was a lawyer by nature, and the ablest circuit judge in the State."

[p.850] The predecessor of Martin was Parry W. Humphreys, who organized the court, and who served as a circuit judge for fifteen years. A brief sketch of him appears in another chapter of this work. During 1841 and the following year Joseph C. Stark, Washington B. Lowe and John E. Garner, all destined to become eminent in the profession, located in Springfield for the practice of law. The first named is now judge of the Tenth Judicial Circuit, having been elected in 1878. He is a man of very equable and conservative character, and is disposed to be somewhat lenient when dealing with the frailties of humanity. He had a high reputation as a counselor and advocate, and on the bench his decisions and rulings are generally satisfactory to the bar. Maj. Lowe was a man of great force and decision of character, and though somewhat eccentric possessed all the qualities which constitute a successful practitioner. He was elected attorney-general for the district in 1856, and discharged the duties of his office very creditably to himself until the war. He immediately entered the service, and was killed at the battle of Munfordville, Ky. John E. Garner ranks among the best advocates in Tennessee. He has a remarkably retentive memory and untiring energy is shrewd, active, and quick to grasp the strong points of a case. Placed on the defense in criminal cases he probably has no superior and few equals in the State. He is skilled in working up testimony and examining witnesses, and though not eloquent, is a logical reasoner and a thoroughly effective speaker. Of the many important trials in the history of the county only a few can here be mentioned. A case which created great interest throughout the county was that of Strain vs. Walton, in which the plaintiff, Miss Tabitha Strain, charged Dr. Thomas J. Walton with breach of promise of the marriage contract and seduction. Damages to the amount of $25,000 were claimed, and judgment for $9,500 was rendered. In summing up the evidence in this case Maj. Henry, of Clarksville, is said to have made one of the greatest efforts of his life. This occurred at the February term, 1845. Another case which excited wide-spread interest was that of the State vs. Capt. S. R. and Ben Simpson. Capt. Simpson and his son were indicted for the murder of S. H. Benton, a prominent attorney of Springfield, on June 29, 1869. A feud had existed between the parties for some time, growing out of domestic difficulties. Benton met Simpson and his son at their shop, and during the altercation which ensued the former was shot. A change of venue to Sumner County was obtained, and the trial resulted in the acquittal of the defendants.

At a special term of the court held in March, 1870, Thomas Clinard and Richard Burgess were tried for the murder of a man by the name of [p.851] Smith. Clinard became possessed of the idea that Smith had bewitched him, and according to his statement of the case he, with the assistance of Burgess, attempted to arrest Smith. The latter drew a revolver and fired, when Clinard emptied both barrels of his shot-gun into him. During the trial the subject of witchcraft was thoroughly discussed, and the jury were probably somewhat influenced by their own superstitions. A verdict of not guilty was returned.

In February, 1872, the body of an old Welshman, Thomas Nicholas, was found secreted in a ravine in the edge of town. It was evident that he had been murdered. Certain statements made by Hiram Poole and C. J. Mahaffy fixed the crime upon them, and they were arrested. Circumstances also pointed to them as the perpetrators of the deed. The first trial resulted in a verdict of murder in the first degree. The case was appealed to the supreme court and was remanded for another hearing. On the second trial the case was severed, but the jury failed to agree upon a verdict in either case. A third trial was had, which resulted in each being sentenced to the penitentiary for a term of ten years. The defense was conducted by John E. and A. E. Gamer, of Springfield, and John F. House, of Clarksville.

A murder, the details of which are too revolting to be described, was committed August 30, 1880. L. S. La Prade, a bachelor, living entirely alone, near the village of Saddlersville, was supposed to have received a large sum of money from an estate in France, and it was thought that he had secreted it in his house. A conspiracy was formed by a number of negroes to rob him. They went to his house and calling him to the door they threw a rope around his neck and dragged him out into the yard. To make him tell where his money was secreted they tortured him in every way which fiendish avarice and malignity could invent. He repeatedly told them that he had no money, but this only served to enrage them. After completing their barbarous work they threw the body into a sink-hole, where it was found about ten days afterward. Steps were at once taken to discover the perpetrators of the crime, and Jack Bell and Arch Jamison were arrested. They were lodged in the jail at Springfield, from which, on September 11, they were taken by a mob and hanged in a grove, about five miles west of town. Soon after seven other negroes were arrested for the same crime, and their case came up for a hearing at the February term of the circuit court. Two of them, William Murphy and Andrew Duffy, turned State 's evidence and were released. On February 14, 1881, while the trial was in progress, a mob of twenty-five or thirty men surrounded the jail and demanded the prisoners. Judge Stark and Atty.-Gen. Bell appealed to [p.852] the crowd, who, after exacting promises of a speedy trial, dispersed. On the following Friday, February 18, as the prisoners were leaving the court room, after an evening session, a mob took them from the guards and hanged them to the east balcony of the court house. The men hung were Jim Elder, Jim Higgins, Bob Thweat, Lum Small and Sock Mallory. Although the best citizens of the county deplored the lynching, yet all believed that the victims received their just deserts.

Probably the most ably contested case in the history of the county was that in which S. B. Hopkins was tried for the murder of Dr. John W. Nuckolls. The latter married Hopkins' sister. After living unhappily together for a time they separated. A difficulty arose concerning the custody of their child, which culminated in Nuckolls attempting to shoot his father-in-law. The defendant, S. B. Hopkins, was then residing in Nashville and upon learning of Nuckolls attempt upon the old gentleman's life, came to Springfield armed with a double-barreled shot-gun. The next morning, Feburary 28, 1882, as Dr. Nuckolls was passing down the street leading to the depot, he was shot by Hopkins the prosecution claimed from the window of a saloon. The theory advanced by the defense was that Hopkins was on the sidewalk, and that Nuckolls was shot while attempting to draw his revolver. No one saw the shot fired, and much conflicting testimony was produced. The case was tried, on a change of venue, in Davidson County, and resulted in the acquittal of the defendant. Much popular indignation was aroused by the verdict, as Hopkins had a bad reputation, and had been acquitted of the murder of E. C. Kirk, a few years before. The principal attorneys for the defense were A. J. Caldwell, J. M. Quarles and John E. and A. E. Garner. The prosecution was assisted by Col. J. J. Turner, of Gallatin, and several others. Of the many persons tried for murder in this county only one has been executed under sentence from the court. That one was Ned, a negro, hanged for the murder of his master, David Walton, in 1851. Eleven have, however, been disposed of by lynch law. For three years during the civil war, from February, 1862, to February, 1865, no session of the circuit court was held. At the close of that period, owing to the great revolution which had taken place in society and the unsettled condition of the country, a large amount of litigation arose and many crimes were committed. During the past few years, however, the amount of legal business in this county has been small.

The Robertson County bar will compare favorably in point of ability with that of any other county. Only a brief mention of its members can be made. John E. and A. E. Garner are both prominent. The former has already been mentioned. A. E. Garner in character is similar to his [p.853] father. He is a close student, and is thoroughly acquainted with all branches of his profession. He is indefatigable in his efforts for his client, and in presenting his cases has few equals. He is a close reasoner and an effective speaker, and has met with eminent success in his practice in both the circuit and supreme court. John W. Judd has been engaged in the practice of his profession for twenty years, and is one of the best read lawyers at the bar. He is a man of great force of character and is plain and open in his dealings. As a speaker he is exact, logical, and talks to the point. E. A. Hicks is the next oldest member of the bar. He is a pleasant and affable gentleman, possesses a high sense of honor, and never condescends to petty deceptions or legal quibbles to gain advantage over an opponent. He has a good general education and his knowledge of the law is extensive. Louis T. Cobbs is a comparatively young man in the profession, but is rapidly gaining an enviable reputation as an advocate. He possesses considerable ability as an orator, and is considered the most eloquent member of the Robertson County bar. H. C. Crunk, while continuing the practice of law, has also held various offices since locating in Springfield in 1875, and is now clerk and master of the chancery court. He is a man of fine talents and possesses an incisive mind, quick and lively perceptive powers, and a sound and discriminating judgment. He is an effective speaker, possessing a power of irony and ridicule rarely excelled. John L. Stark, W. W. Pepper and Joel B. Fort are all men of good ability, but have been engaged in practice but a short time, and, in a measure, have their professional reputations to make.

The judges who occupied the bench from 1861 to 1878 were Thomas Wisdom, John A. Campbell and James E. Rice. At the death of W. W. Pepper Judge Wisdom succeeded him, and continued until 1866, but owing to the suspension of the courts for three years of that period presided at only a few terms. Upon the reorganization of the courts John A. Campbell was appointed to the office by Gov. Brownlow. He was considered one of the ablest men who ever filled the position was well read, straightforward and impartial. Judge Rice, who had been State's attorney under Campbell, was chosen to the office at the next election. Though personally well liked, he was not a strong man on the bench.

From the Indian wars of the frontier to the Rebellion the people of Robertson County never failed to respond when called upon to furnish troops to protect their homes or to maintain their rights, and in common with other Tennesseeans these troops have proved their valor on almost every American battle-field of this century. The constant warfare with the Indians, and the many trials of marksmanship in hunting and shooting [p.854] matches, trained the pioneer riflemen who did such effective work at Talladega, Horseshoe and New Orleans and under the old militia system the martial spirit was kept alive, and young men and old alike knew something of military life. In later years the drills and musters degenerated into little more than occasions for social gatherings, carousings and political speakings. At first in the drills guns were carried, but later sticks and corn stalks were used, hence arose the term "corn stalk" militia.

From 1812 to 1815 the county furnished its full quota for service in the Indian wars and against the British in New Orleans. The enlistments were mostly for only a few months' service, although many enlisted two or three times. A company of mounted infantry was raised by Capt. John Crane, of which James Cook was first lieutenant, and Josiah D. Hudelston second lieutenant. Among the privates of this company were John Ferguson, John Duncan Alexander, Benjamin and James Rawls William, John, James and Nathaniel Crockett Matthew Morris, Daniel Clark, Samuel Farmer, Patrick Martin and William Mansco. The company was at the battles of Talladega, Horseshoe and New Orleans. At the latter battle it was under the command of James Cook. In 1814 Capt. Richard Crunk raised a company of infantry which participated in the battle of New Orleans. The first lieutenant of this company was Henry Stoltz. Other members were Matthew Luter, James Byrnes, Hugh Lemaster, James Martin, Joseph Gunn, Peter Frey, Matther Powell, Horatio Sory James, William and Robert Long, E. Losson and David Alsbrook. During the Seminole war of 1818 one of the companies of the Second Regiment, Tennessee Mounted Infantry, was raised in Robertson County by Capt. James Cook. Of this company Burrill Pitts was first lieutenant Cornelius Carmack, second lieutenant, Moses McCarley, third lieutenant J. W. Crabtree, orderly sergeant, and John Cook, second sergeant. They were mustered into service some time in January, 1818, and returned to their homes in July of the same year.

In 1836 a company was organized under a call from Gen. Gaines for service on the frontier of Louisiana against the Mexicans. The captain of the company was L. J. Henry first lieutenant, G. F. Niell second lieutenant, A. J. Izor. Among the privates and non-commissioned officers were William Morris, Dr. George E. Draughon, Jesse B. Taylor, D. D. Holman, Harrison M. Pitt, Williamson C. Pitt, Harrison Bigbee, Henry Frey, Edwin Williams, Moses Fountain, Robert Procter, Vincent Rose, Jack Rose, Andrus Holman, J. E. Rice, Wiley Savage, Westey Williams, Joseph Harris, Miles Harris, James Head, Bailey Boren, Eaton Brakefield, Albert Williams, William Long, John W. Gorham, [p.855] Joachim Green, William Powell, James N. Cannon, Dempsey Mason, Wesley Walker, Iredel McIntosh, Simmons Walton and Pinckney Gunn. Gunn was afterward made first lieutenant. On July 4, 1836, the company reached Fayetteville, Tenn., when it was placed in the Second Regiment Tennessee Infantry, commanded by Col. Trousdale. The regiment served for about seven months in Alabama and Florida, experiencing the hardships incident to Indian wars. Pinckney Gunn was killed and Wesley Walker and Iredel McIntosh wounded. Simmons Walton died at Tallahassee. Only four of the company are now living in the county. They are Col. D. D. Holman, Jesse B. Taylor, Dr. George E. Draughon and William Morris. In 1846 Jo C. Stark organized a company for service in the Mexican war, but before they reported for duty the quota was filled.

At the beginning of the dissension between the North and the South, in 1860-61, the large majority of the people of Robertson County were in favor of settling the difficulty peaceably. At an election held in March, 1861, to vote upon the question of calling a convention to determine upon secession the majority against the proposition was large, but after the attack upon Fort Sumter and the call for troops by President Lincoln a decided change of sentiment took place. At an election held in May the vote was almost unanimous for secession. In fact the election was little more than a form, as active preparation for war had already begun.

The first troops to leave the county were Companies C and I, of the Fourteenth Regiment. They were organized in May, 1861, under the first call of Gov. Isham G. Harris for troops to serve in the war between the States. Of Company C, Washington Lowe was elected captain A. C. Dale, first lieutenant J. S. Mulloy, second lieutenant, and G. B. Hutchison, third lieutenant. The sergeants were G. M. Fiser, P. M. Fiser, B. Glasgow and J. T. Randolph. Of Company I, William P. Simmons was made captain W. S. Winfield, first lieutenant D. W. C. Randolph, second lieutenant, and Thomas White, third lieutenant. The regiment was organized at Camp Duncan, near Clarksville, and a short time after moved to Camp Quarles, where arms and accouterments were received. About the middle of July, 1861, the regiment was ordered to Virginia to join the force under Beauregard. This order was countermanded before the troops reached their destination, and it was not until the battle of Cheat Mountain that they received their first baptism of fire. Between that time and the close of the war the regiment participated in thirty-three pitched battles and double as many skirmishes, a more detailed account of which appears in another chapter. In April, 1862, the [p.856] regiment and companies were reorganized. Capts. Lowe and Simmonds, being old men, were broken down in the service and wished to retire. Accordingly Lieuts. Dale and Winfield were promoted to the command of their respective companies.

Among those of Company C who were killed in battle or died from wounds received were George H. Dale, John Haley, Jr., Robert G. Highsmith, Thomas N. Simmons, James H. Fisher, George B. Powell, Louis L. Reeder, H. J. Ellison, Thomas H. Baldwin, Andrew P. Mowdy, B. F. Anderson, Thomas Ballentine, W. E. Benson, James Fiser, Joseph Gambriel, R. B. Holman. G. B. Hutchison, W. B. Irwin, William McMannus, R. K. Matthews, P. W. Pike, James Powell, Titus Powell, A. T. Samuel, William Stambach, J. E. York, W. L. McDonald. Of Company I the killed were Henry J. Owens, H. C. Davis, Francis M. Carden, John Hazlewood, W. H. Cox, E. S. Adams, T. W. Baker, Richard Chandler, H. J. Owen, Thomas J. Murphy, G. A. Sprouse, R. S. Showman, William Savage, J. N. Wigner, J. S. Baldwin and J. H. Long.

Company F, of the Eleventh Regiment, was also organized in May, 1861. The officers were as follows: James A. Long, captain Martin V. Norris, first lieutenant W. H. (Button) Winn, second lieutenant Samuel J. Alley, third lieutenant W. H. Crowder, first sergeant J. A. Bell, second sergeant J. Batts, third sergeant E. W. Gwinn, fourth sergeant B. F. Batts, first corporal B. E. Linebaugh, second corporal J. W. Stroud, third corporal and J. W. M. Gooch, fourth corporal. The company, after having been sworn into service, were sent to "Camp Cheatham," when the regiment was organized May 22, 1861.

In the latter part of July, 1861, the regiment was ordered to East Tennessee, and in the following October the first encounter with the Federals was experienced at "Wild Cat" in Kentucky. The regiment was then placed in a garrison at Cumberland Gap, where it remained until May 1862, when the companies were re-enlisted and reorganized. J. A. Long was re-elected captain, J. H. Darden was chosen first lieutenant, T. B. Jones, second lieutenant, and W. H. Winn, third lieutenant. >From this time forth the regiment made as gallant a record as any in the service. The losses of Company F were unusually large the following is as complete a list as could be obtained of those who were killed or died while in service: J. G. Baldwin, S. P. Baldwin, G. J. Balthrop, J. H. Barnes, Capt. J. Batts, B. F. Batts, W. R. Batts, W. J. Black, M. T. Bryant, H. D. Connell, Capt. J. H. Darden, G. W. Draughon, T. J. Ellis, M. A. Gunn, W. B. Gunn, A. Goff, J. E. Hornburger, W. H. Hawkins, E. W. Hughes, J. M. Hutchison, G. M. Jackson, J. W. Jackson, T. B. Jones, E. W. Jones, S. M. Johnston, M. F. Long, T. J. Luter, I. [p.857] Morgan, M. V. Morris, G. J. Morris, W. J. Newton, S. Northington, J. W. Powell, R. L. Powell, R. Powell, P. M. Quarles, J. W. Stroud, R. T. Sherrod, R. Tally, N. T. Usrea, J. W. Van Hook, W. B. Woodruff, C. W. Woodruff. Col. J. A. Long was killed at Jonesboro.

The regiment containing the greatest number of representatives from Robertson County was the Thirtieth Tennessee Infantry, four companies of which were raised within its limits. After their organization in the latter part of the summer of 1861, the companies went into camp at Red Springs, where the regiment was formed in October. The following were the officers of Company A during its existence: B. G. Bidwell and E. R. Crockett, captains W. J. Benson and R. B. Crockett, first lieutenants James M. Barbee and Robert Pool, second lieutenants A. Thomas and J. W. Crunk, third lieutenants G. T. Williams, Eugene Burr, J. S. Clinard, J. M. Binkley, R. H. Kizer, W. E. Nave, I. G. Martin, sergeants J. L. McIntosh, J. C. Bean, F. M. Watts, H. H. Hockersmith, Harris Dowlin, J. W. Murphy and W. G. Martin, corporals. The commissioned officers of Company B, when organized, were William A. Buntin, captain Robert O. Bigbee, first lieutenant George Stark, second lieutenant Samuel Pearson, third lieutenant Bennet Woodard, orderly sergeant. Of Company H, the officers were R. E. Mays, captain John De Mombreun, first lieutenant Thomas Bell, second lieutenant George Hockersmith, third lieutenant William Holmes, orderly sergeant. Company K, was commanded by J. L. Jones. The first lieutenant was H. L. Covington second lieutenant, W. M. Burney third lieutenant, S. B. Jarnigan sergeants, C. J. Frey, Jesse Evans, J. H. Burney and K. P. Luton corporals, R. C. Tate, L. K. Barry, J. Luton and J. T. Jarnigan.

In November the regiment was ordered to Fort Donelson, where it remained until the surrender of that fort in the following February. After that event the privates were sent to Camp Butler, Illinois, the company officers to Johnson's Island, near Sandusky, Ohio, and the field and staff officers to Fort Warren. They remained at their respective prisons until September, 1862, when they were exchanged, the field officers at Harrison's Landing, and the company officers and privates at Vicksburg. The exchanged prisoners were ordered into camp at Jackson, and were directed to reorganize the companies and regiments. Capt. Bidwell was elected major, and E. R. Crockett was chosen to command Company A. Capt. Mays, who had died in prison, was succeeded by C. S. Douglas. The other captains remained the same as before.

After the reorganization of the regiment it was ordered to Holly Springs to aid in checking Grant, and from that time until the surrender of Johnston in May, 1865, it was almost continuously in active service, [p.858] participating in over twenty hard-fought battles. The following lost their lives in the service: Company A--E. R. Crockett, R. H. Kizer, J. N. Brakefield, W. L. Dozier, W. L. Fuqua, J. J. Felts, A. G. Lipscomb, J. L. McIntosh, W. F. Sayers, J. M. Pope, J. W. Hallie, W. J. Porter, Amos Woodard, A. G. Benton, A. Binkley, Young Babb, M. Clinard, Brown Clinard, F. Frey, J. G. Frey, W. R. Highsmith, A. J. Head, R. Holland, J. G. Kizer, George Lipscomb, Baxter Powell, J. M. Stark, C. W. Sawyers, T. S. Watts, J. B. Fuqua, J. S. Clinard, J. N. Freeman, D. J. Holt, W. G. Martin, S. F. Martin, T. W. Berkley. Company B--Daniel B. Eubank, Robert O. Bigbee, Samuel A. Pearson, Daniel B. Woodard, Samuel Austin, Martin V. Adams, Thomas J. Bigbee, Henry Cummings, Clayton J. Faullin, Thomas Greer, George W. Garrett, Oliver Gossette, Samuel Henderson, George E. Jones, William D. Murray, Thomas H. Summerville, Joseph W. Taylor, William H. Summerville, Thomas H. Smelsor, Thomas Wezt, W. A. Warren, A. H. Williams, D. F. Taylor, G. E. Willis, O. P. Taylor, J. W. Fizer, J. W. Greer, T. W. Greer, J. P. Gallaher, R. T. Jones, T. J. Moor, J. N. Rose, H. B. Willis. Company H--A. M. Reading, W. H. Bell, G. W. Browning, A. Hall, W. C. Hall, A. Jackson, H. Moody, Samuel Robbins, William Rodgers, F. Wahler, J. A. Webb, E. P. Grubbs, H. C. Day, Capt. R. E. Mays, H. Choat, Lieut. Choat, Lieut. Bell. Company K--Capt. J. L. Jones, J. K. Link, J. T. Candill, J. Byram, Z. Boyd, W. M. Burney, K. P. Luton, J. H. Barry, T. D. Empson, T. J. Freeland, B. L. Link, J. W. McMillan, W. H. L. Roney, W. C. Stewart, H. M. Toliver, H. C. Wilkes, B. Wilson, R. H. Dyer, J. A. Jones, D. W. Terrill, C. Armstrong, H. Burney, George Scroggs, H. Aaronburg, Daniel Mulloy, B. Rogers, W. A. Dorriss, J. M. Ford, J. P. Griffin, A. G. Jarnegan, D. Mallory, W. H. Pitt, G. H. Roney.

Company C, Forty-ninth Tennessee Infantry, was raised in Robertson County. The captain was M. V. Fyke. The other commissioned officers were T. J. Morris, first lieutenant H. V. Harrison, second lieutenant M. J. Draughon, third lieutenant, and James P. Ownly, orderly sergeant. The company consisted of the above officers, three other sergeants, five corporals and fifty privates when first organized. It was engaged with the remainder of the regiment at the battle of Fort Donelson, and was surrendered to Gen. Grant February 16, 1862. The field officers were sent to Fort Warren, the company officers to Johnson's Island and the privates to Camp Douglas. The regiment was exchanged at Vicksburg September 17, 1862, where the officers met the men, having been exchanged at City Point, in Virginia. The regiment was reorganized at Clinton, Miss., and entered upon the campaign of north Mississippi and [p.859] Louisiana. The movements of the regiment from this time until the close of the war will be found described in the general history of the State. Among those who lost their lives while in the service were Wiley Powell, W. A. Maury, T. J. Morris, G. W. T. Walker, J. G. Atkins, G. W. Blanton, E. G. Dupree, R. C. Dickson, J. S. Dunwiddy, H. Farmer, R. T. Hagood, M. J. Pace, T. H. Stephens, E. G. Smith, H. N. Taylor, William Knight, A. C. Murphy, G. W. Porter, James Prest, Jasper Matthews, J. M. Thomas, J. H. Porter, and J. W. Grimes.

The last troops raised in the county formed the greater part of Company E, of the Fiftieth Tennessee Regiment, organized in October, 1861. Some of the privates and a few of the officers of this company were from Montgomery County. The captain was C. A. Sugg first lieutenant, John B. Dortch second lieutenant, J. E. Ruffin third lieutenant, C. W. Tyler. The company, numbering about ninety men, went to Fort Donelson where the regiment was organized in the following December. Capt. Sugg was made lieutenant-colonel and Lieut. Dortch was promoted to fill the vacancy. The company was engaged in the battle at that place, and after the surrender was disposed of in the same manner as Company C, of the Forty-ninth. On September 20, 1862, the regiment having been exchanged, the company was reorganized at Jackson, Miss., Thomas Mallory being elected captain. From that time until the close of the war the regiment of which this company formed a part did much hard fighting and lost a large number of its members. Among those belonging to Company E, who were killed or died in service, were J. S. Dunn, George Flowers, John Crunk, George McCauley, Robert Ogg, John Cannon, W. G. Dudley, John W. Gunn, Timothy Goodman, J. T. Johnson, Robert Fleeter, Walter Seay, Henry Tate, N. T. Watts, William Walthall. Col. Suggs, the first captain of the company, was mortally wounded at Missionary Ridge.

There were many other enlistments from Robertson County besides those of the companies mentioned, but no other full company was made up. It is probably not too high an estimate to say that the county furnished 1,200 men to the Confederate Army.

In April or the early part of May, 1861, a camp of instruction was established about three miles west of Springfield, and was known as "Camp Cheatham." Several regiments, among which were Maney's First, the Second and Eleventh, were there drilled and prepared for service.

In March, 1862, Springfield was occupied by a regiment of Pennsylvania cavalry under the command of Capt. Williams. These troops remained until October, 1863, when they were replaced by Capt. T. H. [p.860] Bunch's Company, Ninth Tennessee Cavalry, with headquarters at the old Cheatham Hotel. After about six months this company was withdrawn and a company of the Tenth Tennessee, under Sterling Hambright, took possession of the post. In the fall of 1864 they were relieved by the Fifteenth Regiment United States Colored Infantry, Col. T. J. Downey, commanding, which remained until May, 1865. During this time the post was made a branch of the quartermaster's. A number of saw-mills were operated, and other manufactures were carried on, employing a large number of persons.

In the early days of the county there were no schools which afforded more than an elementary education. They were usually taught in rude log houses built in some old field, and were supported by subscription, or the tuition of pupils. The curriculum embraced reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar and geography the first three receiving the greater part of the attention. The teachers were frequenty of very limited education, and one who could take a class through the ordinary arithmetic was considered an excellent scholar.

Limited as was the course of study it was suited to the simple wants of the times, and many a successful business man has received his only instruction in those schools. One of the first teachers in the county was a Frenchman, named Rousseau, who taught for several years in the vicinity of what is now the First Civil District. Among the other early teachers in that neighborhood were Wilson C. Nimmo, Robert James, Pendleton Gaines and an old man by the name of Farrar. It has also been stated that the first school in the county was taught by Robert Black, on Sulphur Fork, near Capt. Isaac Dortch's, about 1789. John Edwards and Thomas Bowles taught in vicinity of Springfield as early as 1805. The first teacher in the town was one Clark, who taught in a house where David Pepper now lives in 1811. James Gunn, a local preacher, opened a school about three miles north of Cedar Hill in 1812. Among his pupils were Jeremiah Batts, Thomas and William Martin, James Christy, James, Joseph, William and Edward Gunn. The tuition paid was 50 cents per month. Other teachers in that locality were John Southern, William McGee, Garrett Pickering, Thomas Plasters and James Menees. As early as 1799 William Black taught a school on Sulphur Fork, near the mouth of Brush Creek. Curtis Gray and Stephen Carney also taught in that vicinity at a little later date.

The first mention found of an academy in the county was an act passed by the General Assembly September 13, 1806, appointing John Baker, Sr., Thomas Johnson, Josiah Fort, James Norfleet and John Coleman "body politic and corporate," to be known as "trustees of the [p.861] Liberty Academy in the county of Robertson." Nothing more is heard of this institution until 1811, and it is probable that no action was taken by these trustees. In the latter year John Hutchison, William Adams, Anderson Cheatham, Ethelbert C. Williams, William Armstrong, James Gambell, James A. Bryan, Jack E. Turner, William Connell, John B. Blackwell, Ephraim T. Payne and Charles Braden were appointed as a new board of trustees. A log house was soon after built upon or near the site of the old brick academy, which was erected about 1831. Samuel P. Howard was the first teacher. He was succeeded by an eccentric old man by the name of Trotter. Whether schools were taught in that house continuously up to 1826 is not definitely known, but about that time Jerome Loring was employed by the trustees. Loring was an Eastern man, well educated, and possessed extraordinary talents as a teacher. Under his management the school attained a high reputation, and as many as thirteen States were represented by pupils. Before taking charge of the institution he had been considerably dissipated, and after teaching several years he returned to his old habits. He was succeeded by Colfield, also an excellent teacher, but of dissipated habits. About 1839 Rice Harris opened a school in the Presbyterian Church, but soon after transferred it to the academy. The school continued to be known as Liberty Academy up to a few years ago. At first it was a mixed school, but later was monopolized by the male sex.

In 1881 a similar institution known as the Bell Academy was founded, with C. C. Bell, W. B. Lowe, J. S. Brown, J. W. Dean, R. C. Anderson, L. T. Cobbs and S. D. Ogburn as trustees. A good brick building was erected, and the school, under the management of Prof. W. E. Willett, is a credit to the town. In 1873 Neophogen College, at Cross Plains, was founded by Prof. J. M. Walton, who had previously taught a very successful school at that place. He erected a large frame building, which was soon after destroyed by fire, but was immediately rebuilt of brick by a stock company. The college was at one time one of the leading institutions of the kind in the State, and at the first session 250 students were enrolled, 150 of whom were from other counties and States. Owing to dissension among the trustees in regard to its management the college lost favor with its patrons and was discontinued, although a school enrolling 100 pupils is still taught by Prof. Walton. One or two academies exclusively for the education of girls have been incorporated, but have not been of much permanency. Several good private schools for girls, however, have been successfully conducted. An institution of this kind which enjoys a large patronage, has been carried on by Mrs. S. H. Benton at Springfield for several years. The first appropriation of [p.862] money for education at public expense was made in 1816, when a special levy of taxes was made for the purpose of educating the children of soldiers who were killed in the second war with Great Britian. Hugh Henry, John Hutchison, Whitmel Fort and Andrew Stewart were appointed to take charge of said children. A portion of the surplus revenue distributed to the State during Jackson's administration was set apart for educational purposes, but the amount was not large enough to be of much practical value. Since the reorganization of the State a system of public schools has been established, and for the past few years a school tax has been levied by the county. The county has an efficient corps of teachers, but they are insufficiently compensated, and the shortness of the sessions in a measure neutralizes their best efforts for the advancement of their pupils. Most of the towns of the county have good graded schools, which are continued in session from eight to ten months in the year, the public funds being supplemented by subscription and tuition.

In the year 1791 was organized the Red River Missionary Baptist Church, the first in Robertson County. For a few years services were conducted at various private residences. At length a rude meeting-house was built on the left bank of Red River, near the Montgomery County line. The members of this church, the oldest in the Bethel association, as their congregations increased in size and their circumstances improved from time to time, built more commodious houses of worship, and they have lately erected at Adams' Station a large and handsome edifice, about eighty years after that was built in which their fathers worshiped. Most of the original members were Carolineans and members of Baptist Churches. At this church, in 1799, several ministers of the Presbyterian Church, Elders McGready, Hoge and Rankin, and two belonging to the Methodist Episcopal Church, Elders John McGee and William McGee, held a sacramental meeting, at which a large congregation was present.

A Presbyterian Church was organized in the eastern part of the county, at exactly what date is not known, but a small, log meeting-house was erected in 1793. This was called "Cane Ridge," or "The Ridge." There, in 1799 or 1800, was held the first camp-meeting in the United States. A vast concourse of people, estimated at as many as 20,000, from hundreds of miles around, assembled. The ministers in attendance were the same as at the revival described above, and the interest and excitement as great. The Ridge camp-ground was in the southeast corner of the Eleventh Civil District, near the Sumner County line.

[p.863] Formerly the Primitive Baptist was one of the leading denominations of the county, but owing to the division of the church the number has greatly decreased. Of this sect one of the first organizations was Red River Church formed in 1810, at which time a house of worship was erected on the North Fork of Red River, the members then being Thomas West, M. Eubanks, Reuben Wright, James Bigbee, Samuel Hutchison and others Morrow Fuqua and Jackson were early ministers. Spring Creek Church was organized and a house was built at about the same time as the one on Red River. It was situated at the head of Spring Creek where the railroad now crosses it. Jeremiah Batts, Miles Draughon, Thomas Shepard, William Carter and John and Nathan Fyke were members of this church previous to 1820. Thomas Plaster, William Carter, Jesse Mason and Sugg Fort preached to this congregation. The church in that neighborhood is now known as Fyke's Grove, and is the only one of the denomination at which services are now regularly held. Sulphur Fork and Cave Spring Churches were organized at nearly as early a date as those mentioned. The house of worship of the former was situated on Sulphur Fork, a little east of Springfield, and that of the latter on the farm now owned by John C. Holman, about four miles west of Orlinda.

The Missionary Baptists have always had a large membership in Robertson County. Hopewell Church, organized in 1826, is situated about a mile from the site of Cave Spring Church mentioned above. It now has a membership of about 250 in 1834, and for several years after, camp-meetings were held on a ground adjacent to the church. Pleasant Hill Church is situated in the First District. The organization was effected in 1847, and services were held for a time under a brush arbor. In 1852 the present church, a frame building, was erected. Pleasant Wright, Warren and Jacob Payne, William Ware, Pleasant Barry, L. C. Payne, Jacob Wright, and the West family were among the first members, the whole number being about twenty. The present membership is about 100.

Harmony Church was organized about 1825. Meetings were at first held in a schoolhouse, after which the present comfortable brick house was built. It is located on the Hopkinsville and Nashville road near Brush Creek. Among the first members were Andrew Atkins, Joshua Elliott, William Bourne, Ford Norfleet, Jesse and James Darden, Joseph Washington and wife, William Watson, and many others. Blue Spring Church was organized about 1840. William Elliott donated a site, and a log house was built on the head waters of Miller's Creek. The organization ceased to exist several years ago. Battle Creek, a church now [p.864] having a large congregation, was organized in 1840. William Jamison, Randal Felts, N. M. Felts, Henry Green, Jesse Clark and John Williams being among the first members. It is situated about two and one-half miles south of Coopertown. Lebanon Church, now of Barren Plains, was formed in 1857 by the union of two older organizations, Bethesda and Spring Hill. The members have just completed one of the best church buildings in the county. The first organization at Springfield was formed about 1847, but was disbanded again in a few years. The present church was organized in 1866 with less than twenty members, among whom were John E. Garner, M. V. Ingram and wife, Milton Green and wife, Mrs. E. J. Gilbert, Mrs. Martha Fort, Mrs. Joyce Davis and Misses Eudora and Amelia Fort. In 1875 a brick church was erected at a cost of $3,500. Bethany Church at Orlinda was first organized about 1828, at the house of Mr. J. Turner, about three miles north of that place. A few years later a log house was built upon land given by Isaac Steel and Olsie Babb, and there services were held until 1863, when it was replaced by a frame structure, which in 1885 was removed to Black Jack. The congregation then decided to transfer the organization to Orlinda, where they have just completed a fine house of worship. When organized the church had a membership of not more than fifteen or twenty it now exceeds 100. The first minister was Thomas Felts, who was succeeded by J. M. Bellingsby, B. Roberts, G. W. Featherstone and P. D. Clark. Mr. Featherstone was pastor of the church from 1858 to 1883, a period of twenty-five years. Bethlehem Church, an offshoot from Hopewell, was organized in 1838 by Rev. Robert Williams and John E. Baldry, the former of whom preached the first sermon and assumed pastoral charge. The following is a list of the first members: A. Baldwin, Rev. R. B. Dorris, A. D. Jones, Rev. W. D. Baldwin, W. P. Dorris, Caroline Dorris, Sarah and Elizabeth Baldwin, Nancy Williams and Susan Pinson. The present membership numbers 325. This church is the mother of two other churches, Ebenezer and Bethel. Since its organization it has ordained five ministers, one of whom, Rev. W. D. Baldwin, was immediately called to the pastoral charge of the church, a position which he retained until his death, twenty-three years later.

The Free-Will Baptists have had an organization in the western part of the county, near Turnersville, since 1798, when Nathan Arnett and Jonathan Darden gathered the members of that denomination into a church. After a few years the organization was allowed to lapse, but later was revived, and is now known as Head's Church, the land upon which the church is built having been donated by George Head. The number of organizations in Robertson County belonging to the Methodist [p.865] Episcopal Church South is very large. The oldest is Mount Zion, formed in 1798, by Jesse Walker. A private residence was the only place of worship until 1804, when the first church was built. The present building, one of the best in the county, is the third erected on the same site. For many years a large camp ground was maintained, upon which meetings were annually held and many persons converted. Among the traveling preachers who visited this church during its first years were Peter Cartwright, Bishops Morris, McKendree and Payne, Lewis Garrett and many others. Thomas and James Gunn, Patrick and Thomas Martin were some of the local preachers. Miller's Creek Church, near Turnersville, was organized at an early date, perhaps as early as 1815, but is not now in existence. The Glovers, Ellises and Jameses were among the first members. Andrews' Church was formed about 1824, and continued as an organization for about thirty years. William Andrews, Darden Luter, James Atkins, Elisha and Wiley B. Gossett and Elisha Luter belonged to this church. It was situated in the western part of the county, near Brush Creek. Ebenezer Church was organized about 1833, near where Cedar Hill now is, to which place it was removed in 1860. Mark Settles, Jefferson Gooch, James and John Long, Rollin Ward, Thomas Spain, William Thomas, James Byrnes, with their families, and the Gunns and Martins constituted the early membership. For many years a camp-ground was maintained in connection with the church. The church at Martin's Chapel, about three miles southwest of Coopertown, was organized by Patrick Martin about 1845, and now has a membership of over 100. Palestine Church, a small organization in the Sixteenth Civil District, was formed a short time before the war. Until the present church was built meetings were held at the house of William Kiger. About 1825 the church at New Chapel was organized at the house of Peter Fiser, in the Eighth Civil District. Several years ago a good building was erected, and the church is now in a prosperous condition.

The church at Turnersville was organized in 1868, and the house was built the following year. The original membership, which numbered thirteen, has now increased to seventy. Pleasant Grove Church was originally organized about three miles south of Cross Plains, in 1821, by Parsons Edwards and Jernigan. The church continued there for some years, after which it was removed to a place about three miles northeast of its original location, and was called Jernigan's Chapel, a log structure, which was the place of worship until 1833. In that year its location was again changed and a log church erected upon the site of the present frame house, which was built in 1857. The first circuit [p.866] riders were Black, Browder, William and Simeon Peters, Brown and Evans. Some of the first members were the Jernigan and Edwards families, Susan Gilbert, Lucy Cunningham, Nicholas Covington and wife and Stephen Cole. The church now has a congregation of about 200.

Salem Church, in the Seventeenth District, near Sadlersville, was organized in 1843, with the following members: Robert Mitchell and wife, Robert Shanklin and wife, James T. Gunn and wife, Thomas Williamson and wife, H. Sadler and wife, Richard Qualls and daughter, Tabitha Williamson and W. R. and Elizabeth Sadler. When the church building was erected, it stood in Montgomery County, but a change in the line, in 1870, threw it into Robertson County. The first minister was the Rev. Dye. The members of Wartrace Church held services, for the first few years after the organization was formed, in a cooper shop, known as Wynn's Shop, situated about two miles south of the site of the present church. Among the original members were J. B. Culbertson, James Culbertson, Margaret Culbertson, Elizabeth Bell, Rev. Charles Crawford, Lucy and Margaret Crawford, Lucy J. Lemaster and William Wynn and wife. A house was built in 1846, in which Charles Crawford preached the first sermon. The first pastor was Jesse J. Ellis. A new church was erected in 1868, at a cost of about $1,100. There are at the present time 142 names enrolled upon the church register. Salem Church, situated about three miles north of Orlinda, was organized at a log schoolhouse, known as the Willis Schoolhouse, about one-half mile east of the church afterward built. New Salem has been known since 1852, when a church building was erected upon land donated by Matthew Willis. Among the first members were Matthew Willis and wife, Aaron Ellison and wife, C. W. Warren and wife, Jesse B. Tapley, Betty Duer, Henriette Davis, Thomas and Frank Willis, and Harrison and Phoebe Clayton. The first minister was William H. Browning. Other ministers were William P. Hickman, F. S. Petway, Cato B. Davis, William Randall and G. M. Saunders. The congregation continued to hold services in the old church until 1870, when the present frame building was erected. The present membership numbers about seventy. Owen's Chapel, situated in the Tenth Civil District, was organized about 1846 but little could be learned in regard to the history of this church. It now has a congregation numbering nearly seventy members. Barren Plains Methodist Church was organized in October, 1883, with a membership of about thirty-five or forty, Dr. J. T. Scott, John H. Dunn and John R. Long being the trustees. One of the finest country church buildings in the county has been erected by the congregation at a cost of over $2,000. The church at Springfield was organized some time in the thirties with Daniel P. Braden, Thomas J. Ryan, John S. [p.867] Hutchison, George C. Conrad, Henry Hart, Thomas Martin and Isaac England as trustees. Among the other members were Joachim Green, Marshall Jamison, Dr. Archibald Thomas, Mrs. John E. Garner, Mrs. R. K. Hicks. Lot No. 57 was purchased from Dr. Thomas in 1837, and a frame house erected upon it. This house was replaced by a second frame one, which was destroyed by fire in 1882, when the present handsome and commodious brick building was erected. The church has been uniformly prosperous, and the members now number upward of 170.

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church has five organizations in Robertson County. Mt. Sharon Church was organized in 1824, the elders being Samuel Crockett, Shadrach Rawls and --- Houston. Among the other members were Benjamin, James, Joseph, Nancy and Sally Rawls, Nancy and Polly Parker, and Mary Binkley. John Beard, Eli and William Guthrie administered to the congregation in its early years. The church at Springfield was organized about 1837, the elders and trustees being Richard C. Cheatham, Benjamin Rawls, Daniel Clark, John Adams and William Seal. The present brick church was erected about 1839. McKissick Cumberland Presbyterian Church was organized about 1860 by W. J. McKissick, Dr. House and Richard Clayton, with twenty-five or thirty members, who have since increased to about forty. Their place of worship is a frame house built upon land donated by Mr. McKissick. Mt. Denson is the only other church of this denomination in the county.

The Christian Church has only two organizations in the county, at Coopertown and Springfield. The former was formed in the spring of 1866 with a membership of thirty-five or forty, among whom were R. G. Glover and wife, J. L. York and family and Albert Lipscomb and family. The members now number 140. The church was erected soon after the organization of the society. The members at Springfield own no house, but hold services in the Baptist Church. The organization was effected in 1878 with a membership of fifteen the number of members has since increased but little.

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