November 11 , 1966 Gemini 12 - History

November 11 , 1966 Gemini 12 - History


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November 11 , 1966 Gemini 12

Gemini 11 blasted off on September 12, 1966, piloted by Charles Conrad, Jr., and Richard F. Gordon, Jr. Within one orbit of the earth, the craft rendezvoused with an Agena booster. The two then set a new height record by blasting to a height of 853 miles. On the second day of the flight, Gordon undertook a space walk. Unfortunately, like Cernan on Gemini 9, Gordon fogged up his visor and he was forced to cut the spacewalk short.


Project Gemini

Project Gemini ( IPA: / ˈ dʒ ɛ m ɪ n i / ) was NASA's second human spaceflight program. Conducted between projects Mercury and Apollo, Gemini started in 1961 and concluded in 1966. The Gemini spacecraft carried a two-astronaut crew. Ten Gemini crews and 16 individual astronauts flew low Earth orbit (LEO) missions during 1965 and 1966.

Gemini's objective was the development of space travel techniques to support the Apollo mission to land astronauts on the Moon. In doing so, it allowed the United States to catch up and overcome the lead in human spaceflight capability the Soviet Union had obtained in the early years of the Space Race, by demonstrating: mission endurance up to just under 14 days, longer than the eight days required for a round trip to the Moon methods of performing extra-vehicular activity (EVA) without tiring and the orbital maneuvers necessary to achieve rendezvous and docking with another spacecraft. This left Apollo free to pursue its prime mission without spending time developing these techniques.

All Gemini flights were launched from Launch Complex 19 (LC-19) at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station in Florida. Their launch vehicle was the Gemini–Titan II, a modified Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). [note 1] Gemini was the first program to use the newly built Mission Control Center at the Houston Manned Spacecraft Center for flight control. [note 2]

The astronaut corps that supported Project Gemini included the "Mercury Seven", "The New Nine", and the 1963 astronaut class. During the program, three astronauts died in air crashes during training, including both members of the prime crew for Gemini 9. This mission was flown by the backup crew.

Gemini was robust enough that the United States Air Force planned to use it for the Manned Orbital Laboratory (MOL) program, which was later canceled. Gemini's chief designer, Jim Chamberlin, also made detailed plans for cislunar and lunar landing missions in late 1961. He believed Gemini spacecraft could fly in lunar operations before Project Apollo, and cost less. NASA's administration did not approve those plans. In 1969, McDonnell-Douglas proposed a "Big Gemini" that could have been used to shuttle up to 12 astronauts to the planned space stations in the Apollo Applications Project (AAP). The only AAP project funded was Skylab – which used existing spacecraft and hardware – thereby eliminating the need for Big Gemini.


Today in History: Nov. 11

In 1918, fighting in World War I came to an end with the signing of an armistice between the Allies and Germany.

American troops cheer after hearing the news that the Armistice has been signed, ending World War I in Nov. 1918. They are located on the front northeast of St. Mihiel, France. Similar celebrations took place all along the line where the Americans were engaged in an offensive. (AP photo)

In 1921, the remains of an unidentified American service member were interred in a Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery in a ceremony presided over by President Warren G. Harding. Here, Harding places a wreath on the casket of an unknown soldier from World War I in the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol, Nov. 11, 1921 in Washington. (AP Photo) In 1938, Irish-born cook Mary Mallon, who’d gained notoriety as the disease-carrying “Typhoid Mary” blamed for the deaths of three people, died on North Brother Island in New York’s East River at age 69 after 23 years of mandatory quarantine. The bungalow she lived in is shown here on Jan. 16, 1948. (AP Photo) In 1966, Gemini 12 blasted off from Cape Kennedy with astronauts James A. Lovell and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin Jr. aboard. (AP Photo) In 1984, Rev. Martin Luther King Sr. – father of slain civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. – died in Atlanta at age 84. Here, he is seen with Coretta Scott King in 1984. (AP Photo) In 1990, Stormie Jones, the world’s first heart-liver transplant recipient, died at a Pittsburgh hospital at age 13. Jones is shown during a check up at the University of Texas Health Science Center in Dallas, Tex., May 30, 1984. (AP Photo) In 2005, Syrian-born Hollywood film producer Moustapha Akkad died from wounds sustained in the bombing of a Jordanian hotel two days earlier he was 75. Akkad is seen here at the Cairo International Film Festival in Nov. 2004. (AP Photo/Mohamed al Sehety) In 2010, a disabled Carnival Splendor cruise liner inched into San Diego Bay after three nightmarish days adrift on the Pacific, bringing cheers from passengers who described trying to pass the time with limited food, backed-up toilets and dark cabins. Here, tugboats are seen bringing the disabled cruise ship to dock in San Diego, seen in the background, on Thursday, Nov. 11, 2010. (AP Photo/Lenny Ignelzi)

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Today is Sunday, Nov. 11, the 315th day of 2018. There are 50 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Nov. 11, 1921, the remains of an unidentified American service member were interred in a Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery in a ceremony presided over by President Warren G. Harding.

On this date:

In 1620, 41 Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower, anchored off Massachusetts, signed a compact calling for a “body politick.”

In 1831, former slave Nat Turner, who’d led a violent insurrection, was executed in Jerusalem, Virginia.

In 1909, President William Howard Taft accepted the recommendation of a joint Army-Navy board that Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands be made the principal U.S. naval station in the Pacific.

In 1918, fighting in World War I ended as the Allies and Germany signed an armistice in the Forest of Compiegne.

In 1942, during World War II, Germany completed its occupation of France.

In 1960, South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem survived a coup attempt by army rebels. (However, he was overthrown and killed in 1963.)

In 1966, Gemini 12 blasted off on a four-day mission with astronauts James A. Lovell and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin Jr. aboard it was the tenth and final flight of NASA’s Gemini program.

In 1972, the U.S. Army turned over its base at Long Binh to the South Vietnamese, symbolizing the end of direct U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War.

In 1987, following the failure of two Supreme Court nominations, President Ronald Reagan announced his choice of Judge Anthony M. Kennedy, who went on to win confirmation.

In 1992, the Church of England voted to ordain women as priests.

In 1998, President Clinton ordered warships, planes and troops to the Persian Gulf as he laid out his case for a possible attack on Iraq. Iraq, meanwhile, showed no sign of backing down from its refusal to deal with U.N. weapons inspectors.

Ten years ago: President George W. Bush marked his last Veterans Day as president at a New York pier, speaking to a crowd of thousands gathered for the rededication of the USS Intrepid Sea, Air and Space Museum. San Francisco’s Tim Lincecum won the National League Cy Young Award.

Five years ago: Iran and the United States blamed each other for the failure to reach agreement on a deal to limit Iran’s uranium enrichment in exchange for an easing of Western sanctions. Bowing to pressure from Jewish groups and art experts, the German government made public details of paintings in a recovered trove of 1,400 pieces of art that might have been stolen by Nazis and said it would put together a task force to speed identification. Jose Fernandez of the Miami Marlins and Wil Myers of the Tampa Bay Rays were selected baseball’s Rookies of the Year.

One year ago: The annual Pacific Rim summit stuck to its tradition of promoting free trade and closer regional ties, shrugging off the “America First” approach that was brought to the summit by President Donald Trump. After talking with Russian President Vladimir Putin on the sidelines of the summit, Trump told reporters that Putin had again insisted that Moscow had not interfered in the 2016 U.S. elections, and Trump said he believed Putin was sincere in making that claim he accused Democrats of trying to sabotage relations between Washington and Moscow.

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Published 6:00 am Wednesday, November 11, 2020

Today is Wednesday, Nov. 11, the 316th day of 2020. There are 50 days left in the year. Today is Veterans Day.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Nov. 11, 1918, fighting in World War I ended as the Allies and Germany signed an armistice in the Forest of Compiegne (kohm-PYEHN’-yeh).

In 1620, 41 Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower, anchored off Massachusetts, signed a compact calling for a “body politick.”

In 1831, former slave Nat Turner, who’d led a slave uprising, was executed in Jerusalem, Virginia.

In 1889, Washington became the 42nd state.

In 1921, the remains of an unidentified American service member were interred in a Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery in a ceremony presided over by President Warren G. Harding.

In 1929, the Ambassador Bridge spanning the Detroit River between Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada, was dedicated.

In 1942, during World War II, Germany completed its occupation of France.

In 1965, Rhodesia proclaimed its independence from Britain.

In 1966, Gemini 12 blasted off on a four-day mission with astronauts James A. Lovell and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin Jr. aboard it was the tenth and final flight of NASA’s Gemini program.

In 1972, the U.S. Army turned over its base at Long Binh to the South Vietnamese, symbolizing the end of direct U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War.

In 1987, following the failure of two Supreme Court nominations, President Ronald Reagan announced his choice of Judge Anthony M. Kennedy, who went on to win confirmation.

In 1992, the Church of England voted to ordain women as priests.

In 1998, President Clinton ordered warships, planes and troops to the Persian Gulf as he laid out his case for a possible attack on Iraq. Iraq, meanwhile, showed no sign of backing down from its refusal to deal with U.N. weapons inspectors.

Ten years ago: A disabled Carnival Splendor cruise liner inched into San Diego Bay after three nightmarish days adrift on the Pacific, bringing cheers from passengers who described trying to pass the time with limited food, backed-up toilets and dark cabins. A dispute between the U.S. and China over currency values overshadowed a meeting of Group of 20 nations in Seoul, South Korea. Marie Osborne Yeats, a silent film child star who was known as Baby Marie Osborne, died in San Clemente, California, six days after turning 99.

Five years ago: The world’s two biggest beer makers, AB InBev and SABMiller, announced they would join forces in a $107 billion merger to create a company that would produce almost a third of the world’s beer. Phil Taylor, 61, a former drummer with the heavy metal band Motorhead nicknamed “Philthy Animal,” died in London.

One year ago: A day after stepping down amid election fraud allegations, former Bolivian President Evo Morales said he was headed for Mexico his supporters and foes clashed on the streets of the Bolivian capital following his resignation. (Morales would settle in Argentina he said after his party’s victory in October elections that he planned to return to Bolivia.) SpaceX launched 60 mini satellites from a Falcon rocket they joined 60 others that had been launched in May. Australia’s most populous state, New South Wales, declared a state of emergency because of unprecedented wildfire danger.

Today’s Birthdays: Country singer Narvel Felts is 82. Former Sen. Barbara Boxer, D-Calif., is 80. Americana roots singer/songwriter Chris Smither is 76. Rock singer-musician Vince Martell (Vanilla Fudge) is 75. The president of Nicaragua, Daniel Ortega, is 75. Rock singer Jim Peterik (PEE’-ter-ihk) (Ides of March, Survivor) is 70. Golfer Fuzzy Zoeller is 69. Pop singer-musician Paul Cowsill (The Cowsills) is 69. Rock singer-musician Andy Partridge (XTC) is 67. Singer Marshall Crenshaw is 67. Rock singer Dave Alvin is 65. Rock musician Ian Craig Marsh (Human League Heaven 17) is 64. Actor Stanley Tucci is 60. Actor Demi Moore is 58. Actor Calista Flockhart is 56. Actor Frank John Hughes is 53. TV personality Carson Kressley is 51. Actor David DeLuise is 49. Actor Adam Beach is 48. Actor Tyler Christopher is 48. Actor Leonardo DiCaprio is 46. Actor Scoot McNairy is 43. Rock musician Jonathan Pretus (formerly with Cowboy Mouth) is 39. Actor Frankie Shaw is 39. Musician Jon Batiste is 34. Actor Christa B. Allen is 29. Actor Tye Sheridan is 24. Actor Ian Patrick is 18.


Today in History: November 11, 2019

Today is Monday, Nov. 11, the 315th day of 2019. There are 50 days left in the year. Today is Veterans Day.

Today's Highlight in History:

On Nov. 11, 1972, the U.S. Army turned over its base at Long Binh to the South Vietnamese, symbolizing the end of direct U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War.

In 1620, 41 Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower, anchored off Massachusetts, signed a compact calling for a "body politick."

In 1831, former slave Nat Turner, whoɽ led a violent insurrection, was executed in Jerusalem, Virginia.

In 1918, fighting in World War I ended as the Allies and Germany signed an armistice in the Forest of Compiegne (kohm-PYEHN'-yeh).

In 1921, the remains of an unidentified American service member were interred in a Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery in a ceremony presided over by President Warren G. Harding.

In 1929, the Ambassador Bridge spanning the Detroit River between Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada, was dedicated.

In 1942, during World War II, Germany completed its occupation of France.

In 1960, South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem survived a coup attempt by army rebels. (However, he was overthrown and killed in 1963.)

In 1966, Gemini 12 blasted off on a four-day mission with astronauts James A. Lovell and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin Jr. aboard it was the tenth and final flight of NASA's Gemini program.

In 1990, Stormie Jones, the world's first heart-liver transplant recipient, died at a Pittsburgh hospital at age 13.

In 1992, the Church of England voted to ordain women as priests.

In 1998, President Clinton ordered warships, planes and troops to the Persian Gulf as he laid out his case for a possible attack on Iraq. Iraq, meanwhile, showed no sign of backing down from its refusal to deal with U.N. weapons inspectors.

In 2004, Palestinians at home and abroad wept, waved flags and burned tires in an eruption of grief at news of the death of Yasser Arafat in Paris at age 75.

Ten years ago: For the first time since World War I, the leaders of Germany and France held a joint ceremony to commemorate the end of the conflict, saying it was time to celebrate their countries' reconciliation and friendship. Longtime CNN host Lou Dobbs announced he was leaving the network. Taylor Swift won four awards, including Entertainer of the Year, at the Country Music Association Awards.

Five years ago: Leaders of Asia-Pacific economies meeting in China agreed to begin work toward possible adoption of a Chinese-backed free-trade pact, giving Beijing a victory in its push for a bigger role in managing global commerce. Henry "Big Bank Hank" Jackson, 57, a member of the pioneering hip-hop group The Sugarhill Gang, died in Englewood, New Jersey. Carol Ann Susi, 62, a character actress best known as the unseen Mrs. Wolowitz on "The Big Bang Theory," died in Los Angeles.

One year ago: World leaders including President Donald Trump and Russia's Vladimir Putin solemnly marked the 100th anniversary of the end of World War I at a ceremony in Paris.

Thought for Today: "I hate war as only a soldier who has lived it can, only as one who has seen its brutality, its futility, its stupidity." — President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969).


VETERANS DAY IS ITS STAR, BUT NOVEMBER 11 IS A MEMORABLE DAY FOR OTHER EVENTS IN AMERICAN HISTORY

Since 1919, November 11 has held a special place in Americans’ hearts. That year, we celebrated Armistice Day for the first time, commemorating the one-year anniversary of the end of World War I that came on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month. Then, in 1954, President Eisenhower renamed it Veterans Day to honor all who served.

Brothers Scott and Billy hold their flags as marines from El Toro pass in Armistice Day parade in Long Beach. November 11, 1952.

What you might not know is many other events of note in American history also fell on a November 11. Here is a sampling of other notable November 11s:

In 1620, 41 passengers of the Mayflower signed the Mayflower Compact, which became the first laws and rules of the Plymouth Colony, near Cape Cod in Massachusetts.

In 1861, the Union used a balloon for the first time to observe Confederate positions along the Potomac River. “We had a fine view of the enemy’s camp-fires during the evening, and saw the rebels constructing new batteries at Freestone Point,” Thaddeus Lowe wrote in his report.

Dr. Mary Edward Walker.

In 1865, Dr. Mary Edward Walker, already the Army’s first female surgeon, became the first and only woman to receive the Medal of Honor. President Andrew Johnson presented the medal for her work as a field doctor at the battles of Bull Run, Chickamauga, and Atlanta. She also was a Confederate prisoner of war held in Richmond, Virginia.

In 1885, George S. Patton was born in San Gabriel. He became a tank officer in World War I, went on to become one of the United States’ most tenacious, though obstinate generals during World War II, and was the subject of the Oscar-winning movie “Patton.”

In 1889, Washington became the 42nd state in the Union.

In 1909, the Navy began building the base at Pearl Harbor, which the Japanese bombed 32 years later pulling the U.S. officially into World War II.

In 1920, World War I veteran Lenah S. Higbee became the first woman awarded the Navy Cross.

In 1921, on the third Armistice Day, President Warren G. Harding dedicated the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia although the tombstone itself wouldn’t be completed until 1932 bearing the inscription Here Rests in Honored Glory an American Soldier Known but to God.”

Now, about the Jeep. Willys introduced its “Quad” model on November 11, 1940, after winning a contract over a company named Bantam, to produce the rugged vehicles as the United States ramped up for World War II. The Quad begat the MB model – Willys made 300,000 MB’s during World War II. The MB was the base design for the CJ and Wrangler series of Jeeps that ultimately became – and remain – hugely popular. Ford also made 300,000 nearly identical models know as GPWs. These vehicles were vitally important to the Allied war effort.

On November 11, 1942, Congress lowered the draft age to 18 and set the upper limit at 37 years old. Due to racism the new draft-age spectrum, however, did not include African Americans, because it could lead to mixed-race forces. A year later, a quota limited blacks drafted to their percentage of the total population, which was 10.6 percent.

Gemini 12 astronauts Buzz Aldrin and James Lovell.

November 11 in history

In 1778, Seneca Indians in central New York state killed more than 40 people in the Cherry Valley Massacre.

In 1831, former slave Nat Turner, who had led a violent insurrection, was executed in Jerusalem, Va.

In 1918, fighting in World War I came to an end with the signing of an armistice between the Allies and Germany.

In 1921, President Harding dedicated the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery.

In 1942, during World War II, Germany completed its occupation of France.

In 1965, Rhodesia proclaimed its independence from Britain.

In 1966, Gemini 12 blasted off from Cape Kennedy with astronauts James A. Lovell and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin Jr. aboard.

In 1981, stuntman Dan Goodwin scaled the outside of the 100-story John Hancock Center in Chicago in nearly six hours.

In 2001, a Pakistani newspaper (Ausaf) published the second part of an interview in which Osama bin Laden was quoted as saying he had nothing to do with the anthrax attacks in the United States, and declared he would never allow himself to be captured.

In 2004, Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat died at a military hospital in Paris at age 75.


November 11 , 1966 Gemini 12 - History

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Gemini 12 crewmates Buzz Aldrin and Jim Lovell to mark mission's 50th at gala

Buzz Aldrin and Jim Lovell, seen here in a 1966 Gemini 12 photo, will celebrate their mission's 50th anniversary in Florida.

&mdash Buzz Aldrin and Jim Lovell will mark the 50th anniversary of their 1966 Gemini 12 mission at a gala hosted by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation.

The celebration, to be held on Saturday, Nov. 12, as a part of the Foundation's annual Space Rendezvous weekend in Cape Canaveral, Florida, will bring together the two former crew mates, along with more than two dozen of their fellow astronauts for the special evening.

Proceeds from the Gemini 12 50th anniversary dinner, as well as the weekend's other planned activities &mdash including an astronaut autograph and memorabilia show held at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex &mdash will benefit the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation, which rewards students who are excelling in science and engineering degrees.

"It is a great way to honor Gemini 12 and all the missions accomplished," said Tammy Knowles-Sudler, the executive director of the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation (ASF).

Official Gemini XII mission emblem as worn by the crew.

Lovell and Aldrin lifted off atop a Titan II rocket on the four- day Gemini 12 mission on Nov. 11, 1966. The tenth and last flight of NASA's two-seater space capsule, the historic mission demonstrated in Earth orbit what was required to send astronauts, including Lovell and Aldrin, to the moon.

In addition to achieving a rendezvous and docking with an Agena target vehicle, the Gemini 12 crew also conducted the world's first productive extravehicular activity (EVA), or spacewalk. Over the course of his three excursions, Aldrin logged a total of five and a half hours floating outside the Gemini, demonstrating astronauts could work while in the vacuum of space.

With their splashdown on Nov. 14, 1966, Lovell and Aldrin ended the Gemini program. Two years later, Lovell flew aboard Apollo 8, the first crewed mission to orbit the moon. Seven months later, Aldrin and Neil Armstrong became the first land and walk on the lunar surface on Apollo 11.

"The weekend is about honoring heroes who have defined the space program and about the future missions for this country," said Knowles-Sudler. "Being able to have the two astronauts who ended the Gemini program and began the Apollo program is a dream for space enthusiasts and we are happy to bring this once-in-a-lifetime experience to the public."

In addition to Aldrin and Lovell, the gala guests will include Glynn Lunney, who was Flight Director in Houston Mission Control for the Gemini 12 mission. Thomas Stafford, who flew on both Gemini 6 and Gemini 9, is also scheduled to attend, as are Apollo astronauts Alan Bean, Vance Brand, Walt Cunningham, Charlie Duke and Al Worden.

Jim Lovell and Buzz Aldrin, as seen together in 2014, at Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

The Foundation's Space Rendezvous will also feature a Friday evening (Nov. 11) Fireside Chat with children of the Apollo astronauts, who will share their unique perspectives on their parents' legacies, and an astronaut autograph and memorabilia show on Saturday (Nov. 12).

The event is also timed to coincide with the premiere of "Heroes and Legends, featuring the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame," an attraction opening at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex that celebrates the pioneers of the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programs.

The ASF, which oversees the selection of the Hall of Fame inductees, is also honoring the 35th anniversary of the first space shuttle missions, STS-1 and STS-2, at a separate gala being held at Space Center Houston on Sept. 17.

Tickets for both the shuttle anniversary dinner in Houston and Gemini 12 50th anniversary gala dinner in Florida, as well as the overall Space Rendezvous weekend, are now available through the Foundation's website. The Gemini 12 event venue, along with further details about the evening, will be announced in the coming weeks.

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Events in History on November 11

308 The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Maxentius and Licinius to be Augusti, while rival contender Constantine I is declared Caesar of Britain and Gaul.

Event of Interest

1158 Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa declares himself ruler of North Italy

    Otto van Wittelsbach chosen German king 4th Lateran Council (12th ecumenical council) opens in Rome Battle of Aleppo: Timur and his army defeat the forces of Sultan Faraj, Mameluke ruler of Egypt, 20,000 people reportedly massacred and a pyramid of their skulls built Oddo Colonna elected as Pope Martinus V

Historic Discovery

Papal Inauguration

    Duke of Alva's son Don Fredrik begins siege of Haarlem Turkey & Austria sign Treaty of Zsitva-Torok Mayflower Pilgrims make their first landing in America, at Provincetown Harbor, Massachusetts [1] Mayflower Compact signed by Pilgrims at Cape Cod, the 1st framework of government in the territory that is now the USA [N.S. Nov 21] Following pressure from Anglican bishop John Atherton, the Irish House of Commons passes "An Act for the Punishment for the Vice of Buggery". Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, impeached by the House of Lords on the evidence of John Pym, and imprisoned in the Tower of London he was later executed.

Event of Interest

1675 German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz demonstrates integral calculus for the first time to find the area under the graph of y = f(x) function

    Prince Willem III's invasion fleet sails to England A highway in Bronx is laid out, later renamed East 233rd Street

Event of Interest

    The F.H.C. Society, also known as the Flat Hat Club, was formed at Raleigh Tavern, Williamsburg, Virginia. It was the first college fraternity. Theresianische Military Academy opens in Vienna

Event of Interest

1775 Mohawk military leader Joseph Brant goes to London to solicit more support from the government and to persuade the Crown to address past Mohawk land grievances in exchange for their participation as allies in the impending war

    British Soldiers and Loyalists, allied with Iroquois and Seneca raiders, slaughter 40 in the "Cherry Valley Massacre" in central New York Chrysanthemums are introduced to England from China

Battle of Interest

1805 Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Dürenstein - 8000 French troops attempted to slow the retreat of a vastly superior Russian and Austrian force.

Historic Publication

1807 Washington Irving's Salmagundi periodical published - first to associate the name "Gotham" with New York City

    Cartagena Colombia declares independence from Spain Dresden surrenders to allied armies Chile declares war on Bolivia & Peru The Virginia Military Institute is founded in Lexington, Virginia. Alvan Clark patents telescope

Victory in Battle

1868 War of the Triple Alliance: Allied victory in the Battle of Avay leaves 3,000 Paraguayan soldiers dead, 600 wounded and the road to Asunción open

    Australian Bushranger and outlaw Ned Kelly is hanged at Melbourne Gaol Anarchist Haymarket Martyrs August Spies (b. 1855), Albert Parsons (b. 1848), Adolph Fischer (b. 1858) and George Engel (b. 1836) are executed. Construction of the Manchester Ship Canal starts at Eastham. Washington admitted as 42nd state of USA D McCree patents portable fire escape Bechuanaland becomes part of Cape Colony Jules Vandenpeereboom becomes Belgium's minister of War Samuel Pierpont Langley's Number 6 'heavier-than-air' aircraft model flies over 1,500 m (5,000 ft). Stuart/Rubens/Boyd-Jones' "Floradora" premieres in London High Commissioner Prince George declares amnesty for all leaders of the insurrection that has been disturbing Crete during the recent months - but which never gained mass support Ethel Smyth's "Standrecht" premieres in Leipzig Construction of US navy base begins at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii J M Synge's "Tinker's Wedding" premieres in London

The War's Over, But Don't Get Too Excited

1918 WWI Armistice signed by the Allies and Germany comes into effect and World War I hostilities end at 11am, "the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month"

    Pope Benedictus XV states Roman Catholics political and business views Great Britain's monument to her war dead, the Cenotaph in Whitehall, designed by Edwin Lutyens, unveiled The burials of unknown soldiers take place simultaneously in Westminster Abbey, London, and at the Arc de Triomphe, Paris

Event of Interest

1921 US President Warren G. Harding dedicates Tomb of Unknown Soldier at Arlington Cemetery

    Largest US flag displayed (150' X 90') expanded in 1939 (270' X 90') Eternal flame lit for the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier under the Arc de Triomphe in Paris Martin Beck Theater opens at 302 W 45th St NYC Palace of Legion of Honor dedicated in San Francisco Earnest Thalmann becomes chairman of German KPD Night of Kersten - Colijn Dutch government falls by SGP-amendement

Scientific Discovery

1925 American scientist Robert A. Millikan announces discovery of cosmic rays

    U.S. Route 66 is established from Chicago, Illinois to Santa Monica, California 2,448 miles (3,940 km) France's 5th government of Raymond Poincaré forms KXO-AM in El Centro CA begins radio transmissions

Historic Invention

1930 Patent number US1781541 is awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for their invention of the Einstein refrigerator

    "Great Black Blizzard" 1st of the great dust storms that created the dust bowl rips through South Dakota WOC-AM in Davenport Iowa splits from WHO-WOC & becomes KICK-AM Explorer 2 balloon sets altitude record of 72,000 feet over South Dakota German aircraft Messerschmidt ME-109V13 flies a new world air speed record for landplanes with piston engines of 610.95 km/h (379.62 mph) Nobel prize for physics awarded to American Clinton Joseph Davisson and Briton George Paget Thomson "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals" German & Austrian Jewish suffer 1 billion Mark damage in nazi Thousands of Paris students lay a wreath at the Grave of the Unknown Soldier Blizzard strikes midwestern US killing over 100 British Fleet Air Arm attack destroys half of Italian fleet at Taranto Willys unveiled its General Purpose vehicle ("Jeep") Czech premier General Eliasj arrested by Nazis -12] last German offensive in Stalingrad

Event of Interest

1942 745 French Jews deported to Auschwitz

    Germany completes its WWII occupation of France Jews in the Free Zone of France ordered to wear a yellow star of David Lt-general Kumakashi Harada becomes Japanese commander on Java

Event of Interest

1961 Molotov, Malenkov and Kaganovitsj expelled from USSR's communist party

    Stalingrad renamed Volgograd "Catch-22" by Joseph Heller is published by Simon and Schuster in New York Kuwait's National Assembly ratifies the Constitution of Kuwait Murray Schisgal's "Luv" premieres in NYC Rhodesian PM Ian Smith proclaims independence from Britain William Alfred's "Hogan's Goat" premieres in NYC Gemini 12 (Lovell & Aldrin) launched on 4-day flight Methodist Church & Evangelical United Brethren Church unite as United Methodist Church (USA) NASA launches spaceship Gemini 12 Maldives (in Indian Ocean) becomes a republic Ron Hill sets record 10-mile run (46:44) at Leicester England

Event of Interest

1971 Neil Simon's "Prisoner of Second Avenue" premieres in NYC

    Dow Jones Index moves above 1,000 for 1st time US Army turns over Long Bihn base to South Vietnamese army Angola gains independence from Portugal (National Day) Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam removed from office by Governor General Sir John Kerr - 1st elected PM removed in 200 yrs

Event of Interest

1975 Liberal leader Malcolm Fraser sworn in as caretaker Prime Minister of Australia after sacking of the Whitlam Government by Governor General John Kerr

    Maumoon Abdul Gayoom becomes president of Maldives Boston Court issues occupancy permit for Cambridge Buddhist Center Crew of Soyuz 35 returns to Earth aboard Soyuz 37 5th space shuttle mission: Columbia makes the first officially "operational" shuttle mission Gas explosion in Israeli army headquarters near Tyre kills 60 1st US cruise missiles arrive in Great Britain

Event of Interest

1983 President Reagan became 1st US President to address Japanese legislature

    Challenger flies back to Kennedy Space Center via Davis-Monthan Air Force Base Yonkers is found guilty of segregating schools & housing Houston's Astro Mike Scott (18-10) wins NL Cy Young Award Suriname government proclaims gold purification

Event of Interest

1987 Judge Anthony Kennedy nominated to Supreme Court

Event of Interest

1987 van Gogh's "Irises" sells for record $53.6 million at auction

    Oldest known insect fossils (390 million yrs) reported in Science Romanian students protest in Bucharest before the Communist Party congress, shouting "we want reforms", in a sign of the revolution to come Calif's Chuck Finley & Seattle's Randy Johnson combine to pitch a no-hitter in exhibition game between US & Japanese all-star teams The Church of England approves the ordination of female priests

Event of Interest

1993 Pope John Paul II hospitalized for 2 days for fractured shoulder

Event of Interest

1994 Bill Gates buys Leonardo da Vinci's "Codex" for $30,800,000

    Progress M-25 launched to space station Mir Last upside down date until January 1, 6000 Journalists Pierre Billaud, Johanne Sutton and Volker Handloik are killed in Afghanistan during an attack on the convoy they were traveling on top off. New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior dedicated at the National War Memorial, Wellington.

Election of Interest

2004 Yasser Arafat's death through unidentified causes confirmed by Palestine Liberation Organization, Mahmoud Abbas elected PLO chairman minutes later.

Event of Interest

2006 New Zealand war memorial monument unveiled by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in London, United Kingdom, commemorating the loss of soldiers from the New Zealand Army and the British Army

    The RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) set sail on her final voyage to Dubai. 12 people are killed by a magnitude 6.8 earthquake in Burma 4 people are killed and 8 are injured after a building catches fire in Mumbai, India 100 people are killed in a tropical cyclone in the Puntland region, Somalia The captain of the South Korean ferry which sank in April is found guilty of gross negligence and sentenced to 36 years in prison An Italian appeals court overturns a manslaughter conviction against 6 scientists for failing to give adequate warning of a deadly earthquake

World Record

2017 Largest Singles Day sales ever - Alibaba says its sales alone were $25.3 billion

End of World War I

2018 On centenary of WWI Armistice Day French President Macron urges world to reject Nationalism in speech to under Arc de Triomphe in Paris


Spaceflights similar to or like Gemini 12

1965 crewed spaceflight in NASA's Gemini program. The fourth crewed Gemini flight, the twelfth crewed American spaceflight, and the twenty-first crewed spaceflight including Soviet flights and X-15 flights above the Kármán line. Wikipedia

Spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, the spacecraft being operated directly by the onboard human crew. Spacecraft can also be remotely operated from ground stations on Earth, or autonomously, without any direct human involvement. Wikipedia

1965 crewed United States spaceflight in NASA's Gemini program. The mission achieved the first crewed rendezvous with another spacecraft, its sister Gemini 7. Wikipedia

The ninth crewed spaceflight mission of NASA's Project Gemini, which flew from September 12 to 15, 1966. The 17th crewed American flight and the 25th spaceflight to that time . Wikipedia

The Gemini astronauts were pilots who flew in Project Gemini, NASA's second human spaceflight program, between projects Mercury and Apollo. Used for ten crewed missions. Wikipedia

American expendable launch system derived from the Titan II missile, which was used to launch twelve Gemini missions for NASA between 1964 and 1966. Two uncrewed launches followed by ten crewed ones were conducted from Launch Complex 19 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, starting with Gemini 1 on April 8, 1964. Wikipedia

Informal 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union and the United States (US), to achieve firsts in spaceflight capability. It had its origins in the ballistic missile-based nuclear arms race between the two nations following World War II. Wikipedia

Gemini 5 (officially Gemini V) 1965 crewed spaceflight in NASA's Project Gemini. Wikipedia

The first crewed mission in NASA's Gemini program. On March 23, 1965, astronauts Gus Grissom and John Young flew three low Earth orbits in their spacecraft, which they nicknamed Molly Brown. Wikipedia

The first mission in NASA's Gemini program. An uncrewed test flight of the Gemini spacecraft, its main objectives were to test the structural integrity of the new spacecraft and modified Titan II launch vehicle. Wikipedia

The first crewed mission of the United States Apollo program, the undertaking to land the first man on the Moon. Planned to launch on February 21, 1967, as the first low Earth orbital test of the Apollo command and service module. Wikipedia

The first crewed spacecraft to leave low Earth orbit, and also the first human spaceflight to reach another astronomical object, namely the Moon, which the crew orbited without landing, and then departed safely back to Earth. Earthrise. Wikipedia

Deactivated launch site on Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, Florida used by NASA to launch all of the Gemini manned spaceflights. Also used by unmanned Titan I and Titan II missiles. Wikipedia

American astronaut who flew the Apollo 11 command module Columbia around the Moon while his crewmates, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, made the first crewed landing on the surface. Test pilot and major general in the U.S. Air Force Reserves. Wikipedia

March 1969 human spaceflight, the third in NASA's Apollo program. The second crewed Apollo mission that the United States launched via a Saturn V rocket, and was the first flight of the full Apollo spacecraft: the command and service module with the Lunar Module (LM). Wikipedia

The year 1966 saw the peak and the end of the Gemini program. The program proved that docking in space and human EVA's could be done safely. Wikipedia

Detailed list of human spaceflights from 1961 to 1970, spanning the Soviet Vostok and Voskhod programs, the start of the Soviet Soyuz program, the American Mercury and Gemini programs, and the first lunar landings of the American Apollo program. In addition to the above spaceflights, eleven flights of the North American X-15 reached a maximum altitude above 50 miles but below 100 kilometers, thus satisfying the U.S. definition of spaceflight but failing to surpass the Kármán line. Wikipedia

American former test pilot, United States Air Force pilot, aeronautical engineer, and NASA astronaut who flew in the Gemini and Apollo programs. The first crewed flight test of the Lunar Module and the complete set of Apollo flight hardware. Wikipedia


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