Juan Modesto

Juan Modesto


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Juan Modesto was born in Spain in 1906. He joined the Spanish Army and served in Morocco. A member of the Communist Party (PCE), in 1933 he was appointed commander of the Milicias Antifascistas Obreras y Campesinas (MAOC).

On the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War the MAOC was integrated into the Fifth Army Corps which played an important role in the defence of Madrid in 1936.

In October 1936 Modesto was appointed commander of the Fifth Army Corps and took part in the battle of Jarama in February 1937. This outstanding soldier was involved in most of the major offensives over the next two years including Ebro (July-August 1938).

In March 1938 Juan Negrin promoted Modesto to the rank of general and gave him command of the Army of Ebro. He also promoted other communist leaders such as Antonio Cordon and Enrique Lister to senior posts in the army. Segismundo Casado, commander of the Republican Army of the Centre, now became convinced that Negrin was planning a communist coup.

On 4th March, Casedo, with the support of the socialist leader, Julián Besteiro and disillusioned anarchist leaders, established an anti-Negrin National Defence Junta. On 6th March José Miaja in Madrid joined the rebellion by ordering the arrests of Communists in the city.

Modesto fled to Latin America but later settled in Czechoslovakia. In 1969 he published his autobiography, I am of the Fifth Regiment.

Juan Modesto died in Prague in 1969.


Caporal del cos de regulars al Marroc espanyol, es va afiliar al Partit Comunista d&aposEspanya el 1930. El 1933 va organitzar les milໜies comunistes, després de rebre un curs de formació militar a la Unió Soviètica.

Quan va esclatar la Guerra Civil espanyola, Modesto fou un dels creadors i primers comandants del 5è Regiment de milໜies populars, un dels primers nuclis de l&aposExèrcit Regular, del qual va ser cap a l&aposoctubre de 1936. Va participar en l&aposassalt a la Caserna de la Muntanya a Madrid i va dirigir un batalló a la Província de Toledo, intentant contenir l&aposavanç franquista a la batalla de Talavera de la Reina. Es va distingir en les operacions de la Serra de Guadarrama i el Tajo durant la batalla de Madrid. El 1937, el general José Miaja, cap de la Junta de Defensa de Madrid, li encarrega el comandament de la 4a Divisió.

Després de la batalla de Guadalajara, la del Jarama i de Brunete se li assignà el comandament del V Cos de l&aposExèrcit Popular Republicà. El 1938 va dirigir les operacions militars durant la Batalla de l&aposEbre, amb el rang de coronel i tenint sota el seu comandament el V Cos d&aposExèrcit dirigit per Enrique Líster i el XV de Manuel Tag࿎༚. Després de la caiguda de Catalunya va passar a la zona centre, on Juan Negrín el va nomenar general, cas únic entre els oficials de milໜies i Cap de l&aposExèrcit del Centre el 2 de març del 1939. A l&aposacabar la guerra es va exiliar a la Unió Soviètica, on se li va reconèixer la seva graduació militar.


Juan Modesto - History

The Castro Family History of the LIPAN APACHE Band of Texas

The word Lipan means:
"Warriors of the Mountains".

The Lipan Apache Band called themselves the "Tindi"

The Lipan, or Lipan-Apache, were among the more important subgroups of Apaches in Texas. They ranged the furthest eastward and had the most contact with the early Texas settlements. The Lipan fought the Texans fiercely, but on some occasions in the nineteenth century they were allies.

The Castro Family History of the LIPAN APACHE Band of Texas The word Apache means, "People of the Mountains," the word Lipan means, "Warriors of the Mountains." However, to the Lipan Apache Band of Texas, they called themselves the "Tindi," which means the above mentioned in their Native language.

The origins of the Castro Family start in the northern part of the State of Texas. The Castro Family comes from proud Indian heritage that has lost some of its culture over the years, but has gain some ground in recovering its glory. The origins of the Lipan Apache Band of Texas can be traced back to the time when it received its Spanish surname. Colonial Spanish missionaries at San Saba Mission de la Santa Cruz gave Lipan Apache Band Chief Cuelga de Castro surname. Cuelga's Apache name means "moving among the trees". The "Castro, "surname was that of a rich Spanish land baron had taken the lands belonging to the Lipan Apache Band of Texas and settled it in the name of progress.

Before 1725 the Lipan Apache Band village sites ranged throughout the state with many favorites of which one of them was found some 250 miles Northwest of modern-day Austin, Texas. In 1740, the Lipan Apache Band village site was spotted some 50 miles Northwest of todays San Antonio, Texas at Tancahe Camp on the Rio Colorado de Texas. In 1757, the Colonial Spanish Government built the Mission San Saba de la Santa Cruz for the Lipan Apache Band of Texas. Mission San Saba de la Santa Cruz is found ninety miles Northeast of San Antonio, Texas and is found on the banks of the San Saba River. During the mid 1700's, Spanish Missionaries wishing to convert the Native American peoples of Texas would give Native Americans peoples Spanish names before converting them into Christianity. Castro Family oral history suggests that Cuelga de Castro was born in 1762, in the Lipan Apache village on the banks of the San Saba and Colorado Rivers of Texas. These rivers are found near what they called Lipan's Field between the strip of land between the Rio de Los Llanos and Guadalupe Rivers. In the year 1768, missionaries spotted the Lipan Apache Band camped on the banks of the Rio Grande de Norte or today's Rio Grande River between Texas and Mexico. In the year 1772, colonial missionaries were constantly visiting the Lipan Apache between the Nueches, Frio and Rio Grande Rivers of Texas, living in that area in hopes of converting them into Christianity.

In the year 1819 the Lipan Apache camped on the banks of the Rio Grande west of Laredo, Texas with little or no movement until the Spanish Empire involved itself into a second revolution in 1821. This revolution ended more than three hundred years of Spanish rule and created the Mexican government headed by Agustin de Iturabide. In August 1821, Mexican Emperor Iturabide ruled the newly formed government of Mexico. They recognized the following chiefs from the Lipan Apache Band of Texas Cuelga de Castro, Jose Chiquito, Yolcna Pocaropa, Flacco, and El Mocha. The following Lipan Apache leaders all signed he first Lipan Apache Band of Texas Treaty with Mexico in Monclava, Mexico in 1821, and Northern Frontier Commandant General Gaspar Lopez constructed this treaty. Chief Cuelga de Castro, Jose Chiquito, Caboe, and Flacco all signed this treaty.

In the year 1822 Texas Governor Stephen F. Austin claimed that the Lipan Apache Band of Texas helped in supporting the Revolution in the Province of Texas in the year 1812.

To tell the Castro Family history better, I will use excerpts from Colonial French explorer Jean Louis Berlandier. The French explorer Berlandier reports meeting Cuelga de Castro on February 7, 1828, camped on the banks of the Rio Grande in Laredo, Texas. Berlandier also mentions three other chiefs of the Lipan Apache Band. The chiefs included El Cojo, Yolcna, and Pocaropa, whom they documented as witnesses to the official Coronation of Mexican Emperor Iturbide in August of 1822. While in Mexico City the chiefs noted all signed a peace treaty and alliance against the Comanches Indians with the Mexican Government on August 17, 1822.

In 1836, after the defeat of the Mexican Army at San Jacinto, the United States Government recommended the enlistment of the Lipan Apache as raiders against Mexican settlements. The Lipan, Texas Militia and farmers all participated in raids for ten years between 1836 and 1846, to secure Texas's independence from Mexico. In 1838 R. A. Iron U.S. Government Indian Commission for Texas made reference that Chief Cuelga de Castro was a sagacious, shrewd and intelligent man who vowed eternal hatred for the Mexican as quoted by Cuelga de Castro January 8, 1838.

Between 1822 and 1844 the Lipan Apache lived and camped in on the banks of the Cibolo Creek, near Live Oak, Texas. The Castro oral history has verified that this area contains the remains of its buried dead and is located above the low rolling hills and flood plains located on the creek and is one of the most important spiritual sites to the Lipan Apache. For the Lipan Apache this was their spiritual and social center and like most Native American peoples, their villages were always located in the vicinity of their dead.

Cuelga de Castro of the Lipan Apache Band of Texas signed a treaty with The Republic of Texas on January 8, 1838. The location site of the treaty signing was at Live Oak Point, Texas in the rural northeastern part of San Antonio, Texas.

On February 15, 1839 Cuelga led a large group of Lipan Apache warriors and a battalion of Texas soldiers attacked the Comanches Indian village camp at Spring Creek in the San Saba Valley of Texas. In 1844 Ramon Castro replaced his father Cuelga de Castro as chief of the Lipan Apache. Unfortunately, Cuelga de Castro died of what might be called liver cirrhosis, and was said to have died in the year 1852. He is buried in the Old Missionary Cemetery of San Antonio, Texas. Family records have confirmed that Cuelga de Castro was buried in San Antonio Mission, but historical records have been changed, damaged or lost making it unverifiable.

In 1861 Ramon Castro and some followers were forced to settled at Fort Belknap, Texas, as a condition of their allegiance to the U.S. Government, but it was also an attempt to exterminate the Lipan Apache, so the U.S. Governments moved the Lipan Apache people as prisoners of war. In 1867 they transferred the Lipan to Fort Griffin near Albany, Texas. By 1885 less that 20 Lipan Apache Band members were alive and the U.S. Government later transferred them to the Oklahoma Agency.

In researching Cuelga de Castro Family, I have only found the names of five male Castro's. Castro Family members known are as follows: Simon Castro, Ramon Castro, Seuge Castro, Lemmas Castro, and Juan Castro, a.k.a. John Castro . The Castro Family histories suggest that Juan Castro, a.k.a. John Castro, was born in 1812, in the City of Beeville, or Three Rivers, Texas encompassing the Bee and Live Oak Counties.

John Castro was a participant of the San Saba Treaty between the Republic of Texas, the U.S. Government and the Lipan Apache Indians signed on October 28, 1851 at San Saba in Bexar County, Texas. Cuelga de Castro, Seuge Castro, and Ramon Castro were participants in the Tehuacama Creek Treaty Negotiations between the Republic of Texas Government and Lipan Apache Indians signed on October 9, 1844, at Tehuacama Creek, Texas. They listed Lemas Castro, John Castro, and Ramon Castro as leaders in the Tehuacama Creek Treaty Tribal Leadership List for the Republic of Texas Government. The Lipan Apache Band signed it on January 15, 1845, at Tehuacama Creek, Texas. Ramon Castro was also listed as a leader in the Tehuacama Creek Treaty Tribal Leadership List, dated January 16, 1845, at Tehuacama Creek, Texas. Ramon was the only witness at the Treaty Council of Texas Tribes at Tehuacama Creek, Texas.

This was an agreement with the Republic of Texas Government and U.S. Government from August 27, 1845 to September 27, 1845, signed at Tehuacama Creek, Texas. Simon and Ramon Castro presented themselves at the Military Post Campo Cibolo, Texas requesting reimbursement from the Republic of Texas Government and U.S. Government for property stolen by white settlers. On May 30, 1845 they filed a complaint in San Antonio, Texas. Based on oral family history Juan Castro, a.k.a. Porfirio Castro died in the year 1887, in the City of Pettus, in the County of Bee, in the State of Texas. His wife, Francisca Gonzalez was born in 1823, in the City of Cerralvo, in the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Juan Castro married Francisca Gonzalez in 1854, in the City of Monterrey, in the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

The only four known children of John Castro and Francisca Gonzalez were Calixtro Gonzalez Castro, Juanita Gonzalez Castro, Albino Gonzalez Castro, and Manuel Gonzalez Castro. In their prime, Juan (John) Castro was a respected Lipan Apache War Captain, who resided in the Rio Grande Valley region, which the Lipan Apache Band proclaimed as their ancestral winter grounds. Juan's wife Francisca Gonzalez was said to be a home servant in the City of Laredo, in the State of Tamaulipas, Mexico. In 1861 Juan (John) Castro, along with several leaders of his tribe, refused to move to Fort Griffin. They decided to move his people to Laredo, in the northern Mexican State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Through his genius, Juan (John) Castro took charge of his tribal village on the banks of the Mexican Rio Grande River.

He would often defend his people against Texan and Mexican soldiers who periodically raided their village. The second Castro Family Ranch, or Lipan Apache Band stronghold village, was founded in the Mexican State of Nuevo Leon. The name of the small town was Cerralvo and is some forty miles northeast of the Mexican and United States border. This small town provided the Lipan Apache people with a mountainous terrain, which was well suited by its natural protection.

During the second Mexican Revolutionary War, the Porfirio Diaz Government of Mexico ordered guerilla fighters to raid and set fire to all Indian villages and ranches found within the boundaries of the northern state provinces of Mexico. Mexican soldiers were also directed to kill all occupants living there despite age, gender, or sex. The Diaz government was retaliating for acts committed by Apaches bands, and other renegade tribal bands in The Rio Grande region. Diaz also suspected all Indian peoples of hiding resistance fighters, who were trying to overthrow the regional governors in the provinces of northern Mexico. The Diaz Government therefore justified the mass killings of the Indian peoples based on misleading accounts from various regional governors and hacienda owners. This was the excuse used by the Diaz Government to say that the Indians were harboring resistance fighters.


Juan Romero, Busboy Who Cradled Dying RFK, Dies At 68

Juan Romero earlier this year at his home in Modesto, Calif., holding a photo of himself and Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, taken by The Los Angeles Times' Boris Yaro on June 5, 1968. Romero died this week at age 68. Jud Esty-Kendall/StoryCorps hide caption

Juan Romero earlier this year at his home in Modesto, Calif., holding a photo of himself and Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, taken by The Los Angeles Times' Boris Yaro on June 5, 1968. Romero died this week at age 68.

On June 5, 1968, hotel busboy Juan Romero raced to congratulate Sen. Robert Kennedy moments after his victory in the California presidential primary. He had met the candidate the day before, bringing him room service at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles.

As Kennedy briefly paused to shake the hand of the 17-year-old, a man named Sirhan Sirhan gunned down Kennedy in front of Romero. A remarkable photograph captured the scene: young Romero, an immigrant from Mexico, cradling the glassy-eyed Kennedy, member of an American political dynasty.

StoryCorps

The Busboy Who Cradled A Dying RFK Recalls Those Final Moments

Romero died on Monday at age 68. A friend, Rigo Chacon, told the Los Angeles Times that Romero had died following a heart attack he suffered a few days earlier.

Romero spoke to StoryCorps earlier this year and recounted the events of that night — a night that would haunt him for decades.

"I kneeled down to him and I could see his lips moving, so I put my ear next to his lips and I heard him say, 'Is everybody OK?' I said, 'Yes, everybody's OK.' I put my hand between the cold concrete and his head just to make him comfortable."

"I could feel a steady stream of blood coming through my fingers," Romero said. "I remember I had a rosary in my shirt pocket and I took it out, thinking that he would need it a lot more than me. I wrapped it around his right hand and then they wheeled him away."

1968: How We Got Here

50 Years After His Death, Making RFK More Than A Ghost And A Mural

The photo of that moment — light illuminating the fallen senator's face, the young man crouched at his side — locked Romero into the public memory of RFK's assassination. And it left him with an uncomfortable legacy.

Letters addressed to "the busboy" began arriving at the Ambassador Hotel — including a couple of angry ones.

"One of them even went as far as to say that 'If he hadn't stopped to shake your hand, the senator would have been alive,' so I should be ashamed of myself for being so selfish," he told StoryCorps.

He said it had been "a long 50 years."

Los Angeles Times columnist Steve Lopez met with Romero a number of times over the years. Romero lived near San Jose and worked paving roads and driveways.

The Picture Show

Bill Eppridge, Photographer Who Captured RFK's Death, Dies at 75

Romero told Lopez that that he wasn't perfect, but had tried to work hard and live according to the values that Kennedy had advocated.

"Maybe I don't have the tools to become a politician and change the laws," Romero said. "But maybe I can help everyone understand there were people who tried to correct injustice."

He told Lopez in 2015 that after many years of trying not to look at the photos of that night, he was finally able to face them once more.

"I saw a person in need," he wrote to Lopez, "and another person trying to help him."

Romero traveled to Arlington National Cemetery in 2010 to visit Kennedy's grave.

"I felt like I needed to ask Kennedy to forgive me for not being able to stop those bullets from harming him," he told StoryCorps.

He bought his first-ever suit before the visit.

"When I wore the suit and I stood in front of his grave, I felt a little bit like that first day that I met him. I felt important. I felt American. And I felt good."

StoryCorps producer Jud Esty-Kendall contributed to this report.


Vida inicial Editar

Nascido em Porto de Santa Maria, em Cádis, Juan Guilloto trabalhou em uma serraria antes de ingressar no Exército Espanhol. Ele serviu em Marrocos, tornando-se um cabo das tropas coloniais Regulares baseadas em Larache. [ 1 ]

Juan Guilloto era afiliado ao Partido Comunista da Espanha (PCE) a partir de 1930, e em 1933 foi encarregado das Milicias Antifascistas Obreras y Campesinas (MAOC) em Madrid, que constituíam uma força paramilitar para o Partido. [ 2 ] Ele organizou o Sindicato de Ofícios Varios y el Socorro Rojo, que coordenou as relações com o Socorro Rojo Internacional.

Guerra Civil Espanhola Editar

Quando a Guerra Civil Espanhola irrompeu em Julho de 1936, Juan Guilloto participou do assalto ao Cuartel de la Montaña, e na Batalha de Guadarrama lutou na Cordilheira de Guadarrama. Ele foi um dos líderes do Quinto Regimento, tornando-se seu comandante a partir de Outubro de 1936 em diante. Ele lutou em Talavera de la Reina, Santa Olalla e Illescas (Setembro de 1936), na defesa de Madrid e na Segunda Batalha da Estrada da Corunha, [ 3 ] bem como na Batalha de Jarama (Fevereiro de 1937). [ 4 ]

Juan Guilloto foi promovido a tenente-coronel do Exército Popular e comandante do 5º Corpo do Exército, participando das batalhas de Belchite, Brunete (Julho) e Teruel [ 5 ] (Janeiro de 1937 e Dezembro de 1938). Em 26 de Agosto de 1938, ele foi promovido a coronel [ 6 ] e tornou-se chefe do Exército do Ebro. [ 7 ]

Após a queda da Catalunha para o exército rebelde, ((Juan Negrín|Negrín]] nomeou Modesto general e chefe do Exército Central em 2 de Março de 1939. [ 8 ]

Exílio Editar

Após o golpe de Casado, em 6 de Março, Modesto deixou a Espanha em um avião. [ 9 ] Então ele foi para a União Soviética, cujo governo reconheceu o seu posto militar.

Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, ele serviu com o Exército Vermelho e as forças Comunistas Búlgaras. Derrotado na luta com José Díaz pelo controle do PCE, ele foi para Praga.

Modesto escreveu um livro sobre a sua experiência durante a guerra no 5º Regimento, intitulado Soy del Quinto Regimento (publicado em Paris em 1969). [ 10 ] Ele morreu em Praga em 1969.


"I was born to play football": Elche CF's legend Nino

ANI
11th June 2021, 21:37 GMT+10

Elche [Spain], June 11 (ANI): LaLiga and Elche CF's legend, Juan Francisco Martinez Modesto 'Nino' was feeling very emotional and reiterated how he was born to play football in aftermath of his retirement from the club.

"I didn't want to start crying but I cannot hold it anymore. I just want to thank everybody in this club and in others that helped me throughout my career. I will always be appreciated and I will always carry you all in my heart," Nino said in a statement.

Juan started his career in the youth team of Real Madrid until he signed for Elche CF 'B' in 1997. He was promoted to the senior Elche CF team in 1998 and since then, he played for Levante UD, CD Tenerife, CA Osasuna, and then returned to Elche CF where he finished his career after these last 5 seasons at the Ilicitan club.

He is the player with the most appearances for the team (475) and the top scorer of the club's history with 135 goals. This last season, the striker appeared in 16 games in LaLiga and 3 in Copa del Rey, scoring one goal against CD Bunol.

"Lots of emotions, really. Over time I came to the realisation that it was time to take the decision to retire. But on the other hand, football is something you'll miss for the rest of your life. Not just now, or two weeks, or a year. I was born to play football, it's what I've done all my life. It's brought me joy, and some hard moments too. But on the whole, it's been incredible. If 20 years ago you told me how things would turn out, I wouldn't believe you. I couldn't have asked for a better ending," Juan added.

In January this year, at the age of 40, Nino competed in Elche's 1-0 La Liga away defeat to Athletic Bilbao. In doing so, he became the first player to reach 700 games in Spain's two professional divisions. Juan felt grateful to the fans and thanked them for the love which they showed him during his time at the club.

"Wonderful memories, I'm sure that I'll look back in the future with a lot of fondness and gratitude. Every player wants to reach the top, professional football, and to feel the love of the fans.

On my last day, there weren't many in the stands, but I felt the love of the whole city, singing my name. Unique moments that make being a footballer worthwhile. Moments that I'll never, ever forget. And it was wonderful that my family could live those moments too, for me that's very important."Nino announced his retirement from professional football on 9 June 2021, one day shy of his 41st birthday. (ANI)


Índice

Xuventude e adestramento Editar

Naceu en El Puerto de Santa María nunha familia de traballadores das adegas da zona. Foi compañeiro de estudos do poeta Rafael Alberti, que narra no seu libro La arboleda perdida o seu reencontro no Madrid republicano e en Alacant, última etapa do seu exilio en España. Serrador de profesión, foi profundamente influenciada polos sucesos e as ideas da Revolución de Outubro en Rusia e acabou uníndose ao PCE en 1930.

Na súa mocidade trasladouse ao Marrocos español para entrar no corpo de regulares, no que estivo activo durante algúns anos. Alí alcanzou os seus primeiros coñecementos militares e foi ascendido a cabo de regulares, aínda que máis tarde foi degradado e expulsado do corpo. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] . Logo da proclamación da Segunda República, o partido enviouno á Unión Soviética para recibir adestramento militar na Academia Militar Frunze do Exército Vermello, onde as materias estaban baseadas na disciplina operacional-táctica, o marxismo-leninismo, a historia do PCUS, a historia militar, as linguas estranxeiras etc. Tamén aprendeu algo de ruso, unha lingua que máis tarde lle sería moi útil. [ 3 ]

Volveu a España e a partir de 1934 tomou parte na organización das milicias comunistas, as chamadas Milicias Antifascistas Obreiras e Campesiñas (MAOC), creadas para a protección dos líderes comunistas e como forza de defensa para as seccións locais e militantes contra os ataques de grupos violentos, como a Falanxe. Tamén participou na organización do Sindicato de Oficios Varios e na sección española do Socorro Vermello.

Segundo Santiago Carrillo, o pseudónimo de Modesto foi adoptado por Guilloto como "nome de guerra" mentres desenvolvía actividades clandestinas. [ 4 ]

Guerra Civil Española Editar

Cando estalou a guerra civil, estaba en Madrid, onde dende días antes do 18 de xullo estaba a prepararse para o esperado golpe de estado. Cando se estendeu pola capital o rumor de que o Cuartel da Montaña se unira ao levantamento militar, foi alí con membros da milicia comunista das MAOC, participando no posterior asedio e asalto final ao edificio. [ 5 ] As milicias comunistas ocuparon o colexio-convento dos Salesianos situado no distrito de Tetuán e fixeron dela a súa sede onde naceu o 5º Rexemento de Milicias Populares, unha milicia comunista que co tempo se faría célebre e alcanzaría unha gran influencia pola súa eficacia militar con respecto a outras milicias. [ 6 ] O certo é que o 5º Rexemento converteuse nunha escola de futuros líderes militares e oficiais do futuro Exército Popular da República, como Líster, Etelvino Vega ou o propio Modesto, entre outros. [ 7 ] Juan Guilloto foi un dos organizadores e primeiros comandantes do V Rexemento, do que se converteu en xefe en outubro de 1936. [ 1 ] Durante estas primeiras semanas da guerra distinguiuse nas operacións da Serra de Guadarrama ao mando das milicias comunistas, trasladándose máis tarde ao sur.

As batallas en torno a Madrid Editar

A finais de agosto trasladouse á provincia de Toledo, onde liderou un batallón que intentou conter o avance franquista cara a Madrid. Distinguiuse especialmente nas loitas coas tropas do Exército de África ao longo do río Texo durante o seu avance a Madrid, destacando as súas intervencións en Talavera, Santa Olalla, Toledo ou Illescas. Durante os combates na área de Talavera-Santa Olalla revelouse como un verdadeiro líder militar ao lograr coordinar as accións de milicias e unidades regulares (Garda de Asalto) baixo o seu mando. En novembro destacou de novo durante a defensa de Madrid.

Inicialmente tiña mandado a 18ª Brigada Mixta durante a súa etapa de adestramento. O 31 de decembro de 1936, o xeneral Miaja encargoulle o mando da 4ª División, situada ao oeste da capital. Foi a súa división a que recibiu plenamente a nova ofensiva franquista cara á estrada da Coruña o 3 de xaneiro de 1937. [ 1 ] [ 8 ] A división de Modesto sufriu grandes baixas e as brigadas mixtas integradas nela chegaron a perder a cohesión entre si, pero a mediados do mes esgotouse a forza da ofensiva franquista e os republicanos conseguiron manter as súas posicións. A principios de febreiro os franquistas atacaron de novo, esta vez pola área do Jarama, ao sur da capital. Os republicanos quedaron sorprendidos con esta nova ofensiva e non esperaban un ataque con tanta furia como o levado a cabo pola columna de García-Escámez. [ 9 ] Modesto foi enviado ao Jarama para apoiar a defensa coa súa división. [ 10 ] A coordinación das unidades republicanas baixo o control de Modesto revelou de novo a súa capacidade de mando, mentres que a ofensiva franquista chegou a cruzar o Jarama pero foi detida e finalmente fracasou. [ 11 ] Despois das loitas do Jarama e da súa participación destacada, foi ascendido a tenente coronel e o 22 de marzo foille asignado o mando do recentemente creado V Corpo de Exército, recentemente creado. [ 12 ] O máis tarde famoso V Corpo foi o grupo onde quedaron encadradas as divisións comunistas como a 11ª de Líster ou a 46ª de El Campesino. [ 13 ]

O 6 de xullo, Modesto e o seu corpo do exército (formado polas divisións 11ª, 46ª e 35ª ) participaron na ofensiva republicana de Brunete, que tiña como obxectivo rodear as divisións franquistas que asediaban Madrid. Casa de Campo e a Cidade Universitaria. [ 14 ] Os avances republicanos foron importantes, pero o día 15 a ofensiva republicana quedou detida e comezou algúns días despois o contraataque franquista, que conseguiu recuperar terreo e as operacións déronse por rematadas. As perdas do V Corpo foron moi altas aínda que logrou preservar algunhas cidades reconquistadas. [ 15 ] Con todo, a actuación de Modesto durante a batalla recibiu eloxios dalgúns comandantes republicanos, como os feitos polo coronel Menéndez López no seu informe:

Fronte de Aragón Editar

Un mes máis tarde Modesto e o V Corpo foron enviados á Fronte de Aragón, onde interveu na ofensiva de Zaragoza (26 de agosto), tendo un bo rendemento nos primeiros días, aínda que os avances republicanos foron detidos rapidamente e a operación fracasou. O que comezou inicialmente como unha loita por Zaragoza acabou converténdose na Batalla de Belchite, unha cidade de certa importancia que se viu rodeada o primeiro día da ofensiva e que mantivo unha resistencia implacable contra o mellor do Exército Popular. O 6 de setembro, os últimos defensores de Belchite rendéronse e as operacións quedaron finalizadas. [ 17 ] Modesto interveu nas últimas etapas da batalla de Teruel. [ 18 ] Esta praza fora conquistada polos republicanos o 7 de xaneiro de 1938, tras dúas semanas de cerco polas súas tropas. [ 19 ] A finais de febreiro os exércitos franquistas contraatacaron e rodearon algunhas unidades republicanas na cidade, como a 46ª División do Campesiño. Valentín González acusou máis tarde a Modesto e Líster de que o abandonaron á súa sorte, unha acusación que os republicanos negaron. [ 20 ]

Despois dos combates en Teruel, produciuse a gran ofensiva franquista en Aragón e a conseguinte retirada de todas as divisións republicanas a Cataluña e o Levante. As unidades baixo o mando de Modesto lograron deter ás tropas de Franco en Tortosa, aínda que quedaron rodeados en Cataluña e separadas do resto da zona republicana. [ 21 ]

Comandando o exército do Ebro Editar

O 30 de abril de 1938 foi posto ao mando da Agrupación Autónoma do Ebro, unha nova formación militar que agrupou ás unidades republicanas que quedaran rodeadas ao norte do Ebro. [ 22 ] O mes seguinte reestruturouse esta formación e foi creado o Exército do Ebro, que quedou baixo o mando de "Modesto". [ 23 ] O novo exército estaba composto polos Corpos de Exército V, XII e XV e dirixidos respectivamente polos oficiais Líster, Vega e Tagüeña. [ 24 ] Os republicanos preparaban a maior ofensiva de todas as que se organizaran durante a guerra: a idea era que as unidades republicanas no sur de Cataluña, o exército do Ebro, cruzasen o río e alterasen as comunicacións de Franco co leste, paralizando as súas operacións nesa zona. De ser posible, deberían dirixirse cara ao sur ao encontro dos seus compañeiros do Exército do Levante, volvendo unir de novo as dúas zonas republicanas illadas, aínda que esta era unha posibilidade moi remota. [ 24 ]

Na noite do 24 ao 25 de xullo, cun ceo sen lúa, as forzas republicanas comezaron a cruzar o Ebro nunha fronte de máis de 50 km que ía de Mequinensa a Amposta, preto da desembocadura do río. Nun rápido movemento, conseguiron establecer varias cabezas de ponte e moverse profundamente cara o interior, onde chocaron cunha resistencia moi forte en Gandesa. Detido o seu avance, as tropas comezaron a cavar trincheiras. [ 25 ] O tenente coronel Modesto planeara bombardear Gandesa pero a aviación republicana (como dende o primeiro día da ofensiva) aínda non aparecera no sector do Ebro, con gran indignación por parte da infantería republicana. [ 25 ] O impacto da ofensiva republicana era enorme tanto en España como en Europa, xa que se cría pouco máis que imposible que unha ofensiva de tal calibre puidese ser realizada por un exército ao que se daba por derrotado. [ 26 ] A alegría na España republicana foi inmensa, así como as felicitacións a Modesto pola súa competente dirección durante as operacións, sendo recompensado coa promoción a coronel. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] Para o xeneral Franco, o reto desta ofensiva republicana non era algo que puidese asumir politicamente e, consecuentemente, foi á fronte do Ebro coas súas mellores unidades militares, listo para eliminar esta ameaza. [ 28 ] Nunha sanguenta loita de case 4 meses, os dous exércitos mantiveron unha longa lista de combates dos que finalmente saíu vencedor o exército franquista. Modesto, con todo, mostrou as súas mellores habilidades de organización e mando durante a batalla, pero non puido evitar o resultado final e a mediados de novembro, el e os seus homes tiveron que cruzar o río de novo. [ 29 ]

O 23 de decembro comezou a ofensiva final franquista sobre Cataluña, atopando unha gran resistencia dalgunhas unidades republicanas. Nese momento o Exército do Ebro estaba moi esgotado tanto en tropas humanas como materiais, aínda que mantivo unha resistencia na medida das súas posibilidades (sen poder evitar a caída de Barcelona). A principios de febreiro, os restos do exército do Ebro chegaron ao norte de Cataluña, onde intentaron organizar unha liña de defensa [ 30 ] aproveitando o novo equipo militar que chegaba ao outro lado da fronteira francesa, aínda que foi imposible. [ 31 ] Modesto propuxo evacuar a Francia os restos do exército do Ebro para, unha vez alí, trasladalos á zona central, onde continuar a loita, pero era unha idea completamente fóra de lugar para as circunstancias reais. [ 32 ] O 9 de febreiro, el e a maioría dos seus homes xa estaban no outro lado da fronteira francesa.

Final da guerra Editar

Tras a caída de Cataluña, foi a Francia, de onde volveu á zona centro con outros líderes e militares comunistas. Alí estaba o presidente Negrín na coñecida como Posición Yuste, en Alacant, onde se estableceran el e o seu goberno ademais dos principais líderes do PCE. A principios de marzo foi ascendido ao rango de xeneral e, segundo algúns autores, estaba previsto que fose nomeado comandante en xefe do Exército do Centro. [ 33 ] Con todo, hai discrepancias con respecto a este último punto. Nese momento, o 5 de marzo produciuse o golpe de estado do coronel Casado. Nos momentos de incerteza antes do golpe de estado, Modesto estaba xogando ao xadrez co ministro Julio Álvarez del Vayo, sen saber moi ben o que sería del ou dos que o acompañaban. Finalmente, xunto co presidente Negrín, Líster e outros líderes republicanos ou do PCE, o 6 de marzo deixou España en avión camiño ao exilio. [ 34 ]

Exilio Editar

Ao finalizar a guerra e refuxiouse na súa militancia no Partido Comunista de España, conseguiu trasladarse á Unión Soviética xunto con outros militares españois do PCE como Enrique Líster, O Campesiño, O Esquinazau, etc. As autoridades soviéticas recoñeceron as súas graduacións adquiridas no Exército Popular da República. Durante a súa estancia foi asignado de novo á Academia Militar Frunze para ampliar os seus estudos. Cando o 22 de xuño de 1941 a Alemaña nazi invadiu a URSS, el e outros españois solicitaron a súa incorporación á fronte, unha petición que foi desestimada polas autoridades soviéticas. Stalin argumentou que deberían reservarse para a súa futura loita en España, polo que continuou a servir na Academia Frunze. Coa guerra máis avanzada foi destinado ao Exército Búlgaro comunista que loitou contra os nazis xunto coas tropas do Exército Vermello durante a retirada alemá dos Balcáns no outono de 1944.

Despois da guerra, continuou a militar no PCE, pero foi derrotado nas loitas internas entre as distintas faccións do Partido Comunista de España para tomar o control da mesma e retirouse a Praga (capital de Checoslovaquia). Alí estaba cando foi sorprendido polos acontecementos da chamada Primavera de Praga en 1968, unha onda de cambios liberais no ríxido sistema comunista en Checoslovaquia. Os soviéticos temían que estes cambios significasen un debilitamento do sistema comunista en Europa do Leste, o coñecido como Pacto de Varsovia, polo que as tropas dos países comunistas invadiron o país para frear o proceso e asegurar a permanencia de Checoslovaquia no Bloque Oriental. Como moitos checoslovacos, Modesto opúxose á entrada de tanques soviéticos en Praga. Ao ano seguinte escribiu as súas memorias, Soy del Quinto Regimiento, publicadas en París, aínda que a súa morte tamén coincidiu nese ano.

O historiador Hugh Thomas describiu a Modesto como andaluz sarcástico e despótico, ás veces brutal e raramente sincero. [ 35 ] Pola súa banda Javier Reverte, autor da biografía ficcionada de Modesto El tiempo de los héroes, critica que Thomas tomase de forma acrítica as valoracións de Tagüeña, que detestaba persoalmente a Modesto. [ 36 ] Con todo, nas súas calidades militares constituíu un verdadeiro xefe militar, desprovisto de ambicións políticas pero dotado de amplas calidades de mando e estratexia. Aínda que Modesto e Líster foran compañeiros de armas dende a primeira hora, mantiveron xeralmente tensas relacións con fortes diferenzas entre eles, ao igual que a líder comunista Dolores Ibárruri ou o oficial militar Valentín González. [ 35 ] No seu traballo sobre o Exército Popular da República, o historiador militar Ramón Salas Larrazábal recoñece as súas habilidades militares e habilidades de mando, porque en pouco tempo pasou de ser comandante de milicia a xeneral do exército republicano, o único caso ocorrido na guerra civil española con oficiais saídos do cadro das milicias. O historiador Michael Alpert di del:

O xefe do Estado maior Central republicano, o xeneral Vicente Rojo, quedou moi impresionado polas súas cualidades. Durante a Batalla de Teruel, en febreiro de 1938, escribiu a Indalecio Prieto que Modesto lle inspiraba unha gran confianza. [ 38 ]


"I was born to play football": Elche CF's legend Nino

Elche [Spain], June 11 (ANI): LaLiga and Elche CF's legend, Juan Francisco Martinez Modesto 'Nino' was feeling very emotional and reiterated how he was born to play football in aftermath of his retirement from the club.
"I didn't want to start crying but I cannot hold it anymore. I just want to thank everybody in this club and in others that helped me throughout my career. I will always be appreciated and I will always carry you all in my heart," Nino said in a statement.
Juan started his career in the youth team of Real Madrid until he signed for Elche CF 'B' in 1997. He was promoted to the senior Elche CF team in 1998 and since then, he played for Levante UD, CD Tenerife, CA Osasuna, and then returned to Elche CF where he finished his career after these last 5 seasons at the Ilicitan club.
He is the player with the most appearances for the team (475) and the top scorer of the club's history with 135 goals. This last season, the striker appeared in 16 games in LaLiga and 3 in Copa del Rey, scoring one goal against CD Bunol.

"Lots of emotions, really. Over time I came to the realisation that it was time to take the decision to retire. But on the other hand, football is something you'll miss for the rest of your life. Not just now, or two weeks, or a year. I was born to play football, it's what I've done all my life. It's brought me joy, and some hard moments too. But on the whole, it's been incredible. If 20 years ago you told me how things would turn out, I wouldn't believe you. I couldn't have asked for a better ending," Juan added.
In January this year, at the age of 40, Nino competed in Elche's 1-0 La Liga away defeat to Athletic Bilbao. In doing so, he became the first player to reach 700 games in Spain's two professional divisions. Juan felt grateful to the fans and thanked them for the love which they showed him during his time at the club.
"Wonderful memories, I'm sure that I'll look back in the future with a lot of fondness and gratitude. Every player wants to reach the top, professional football, and to feel the love of the fans.
On my last day, there weren't many in the stands, but I felt the love of the whole city, singing my name. Unique moments that make being a footballer worthwhile. Moments that I'll never, ever forget. And it was wonderful that my family could live those moments too, for me that's very important."
Nino announced his retirement from professional football on 9 June 2021, one day shy of his 41st birthday. (ANI)


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Watch the video: Actuación de Juan Ramón en V7 Show 30-03-2017