Concord and Montreal RR 4-4-0 - History

Concord and Montreal RR 4-4-0 - History

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Boston, Concord & Montreal Railroad System Map

Comparing an earlier, 1878 system map, shown below, to the 1880-1882 map above, one notices several differences in New Hampshire. The earlier map does not show 1) The spur from Whitefield to the Waumbek House in Jefferson. The spur, which was chartered on July 11, 1878 by the Brown Lumbering Company, was “probably one of the first out-and-out lumbering railroads in the United States”, and was leased by the BC&M in 1879. 2) The 10-mile spur from Bethlehem to the Profile House in Franconia Notch, which was completed on June 25, 1879. 3) Completion of the Portland and Ogdensburg Railroad Vermont Division from St. Johnsbury to Swanton, VT. 4) The Manchester to North Weare Railroad. This Railroad had been completed in 1851, but service was unreliable, as “serious washouts resulting from heavy freshets have at times delayed the traffic over the road…”

The earlier map boasts that “Palace Cars and first-class Coaches, equipped with Westinghouse Air Brakes and Miller Platform, are run on all trains…The Shortest and Most Direct route from Philadephia, New York, New London, Worcester, Providence, Pawtucket, Newport, Fall River, Bedford, Taunton, Boston, Lowell, Lawrence, Salem, etc., to the Lake and Mountain Region of New Hampshire…The only Route to which tourists can reach Lake Winnepesaukee, Plymouth, Littleton, Bethlehem, Twin Mountains, Fabyans, Summit Mt. Washington, Lancaster, Northumberland and the White and Franconia Mountains early same day without change of Cars.

An 1875 map, from “Keyes’s Hand-Book of Northern and Western Pleasure Travel to the White and Franconia Mountains, St. Lawrence and Saguenay Rivers, The Northern Lakes, Montreal and Quebec, and the Great West”.

Detail from the above map.

An 1845 map, showing the proposed route of the Concord, NH to Haverhill, NH line, was curiously orientated with North pointing to the right, rather than up. The original proposed route would have skirted Weirs Beach entirely! The planned route along the west shore of Paugus Bay would have headed inland at Pickerel Cove and not returned to the shore of Lake Winnipesaukee until reaching Meredith..

This pass would have let the holder ride for free on any of the BC&M’s lines in 1883.

Concord and Montreal RR 4-4-0 - History

Canadian Pacific Railway

Steam Locomotive Gallery

Elesco equipment The Superheater Co.
Brochure September 1936

1067 and B&M 2649 at Newport, VT. 9/01/1947 Bud Laws Collection

5432 with westbound No 13 The ‘Mountaineer’ dropping down the Field Hill between Cathedral siding and Field BC.
Discontinued during WWII this train was restored for summer 1947 season.

Eastbound passenger train exiting Connaught Tunnel running left hand track for engineer's better visibility. Circa 1920.

1201 turns on the wye following ceremony at Craigellachie, BC commemorating
100th anniversary driving of the Last Spike. November 7, 1885.
Business Car 76 was present at the original event!
Preserved at Heritage Park, Calgary.

D10 882 with fireman taking water at Galt, ON 1959. Likely the Stone Train from Lambton Yard.

Pontiac Pacific Junction

Incorporated 1880 to build from Hull to Pembroke including a bridge over Ottawa River.
Amalgamated 1902 with Ottawa Northern and Western (incorp. 1871) Ottawa to Waltham, QC.
Note: ON&W originally incorporated 1879 as Ottawa and Gatineau Valley to build from Hull to Maniwaki.
Also, Ottawa Interprovincial Bridge Co. a railway and vehicular bridge between Ottawa and Hull
amalgamated 1902 with PPJ. ON&W leased November 1, 1902 to CPR for 999 years.

NEW Article about first use anywhere of acetylene for interior passenger car lighting. Circa 1900.
Note: Mentions later use of first electric headlight on a steam locomotive CAR 26.

PPJ 4 L.R.Church became ONW 4 later CP 53. Danforth Locomotive & Machine 1341 1/1882.
Fort Coulonge, QC 1893 Mattingly Collection/CSTM

Note: Levi Ruggles Church was president of the PPJ.

Montreal and Atlantic

See history under earlier name South Eastern

M&A 417 is really a CPR standard D4g
CPR 2/1915 transferred 10/1924 M&A (one of 5) returned 1932.
Sault Ste. Marie circa 1930 Dale Wilson collection

Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa and Occidental

CPR bought 6/1882 the Western Division between Montreal and Aylmer,
with branches this totalled 138 miles. Also, 14 out of 35 locomotives
all of them 4-4-0's except for two 0-4-0T's inc. one for CPR.

QMO 17 Argenteuil and 14 St-Laurent doubleheading over Salmon Creek, Quebec.
17 4-4-0 63" drvs. Manchester Locomotive Works 752 8/1877 Acq. 6/1882 re# CP 248.
14 4-4-0 69" drvs. Manchester Locomotive Works 741 11/1876 Acq. 6/1882 re# CP 241

Incorporated 1866 as South Eastern Counties Junction Railway Co. to build from Farnham, Quebec to the US border near Newport, Vermont. Amalgamated in 1872 with Richelieu, Drummondville and Arthabaska Counties Ry. Co. 1887 became South Eastern Division of the CPR. This provided the CPR with its own route between Montreal and Boston.
1891 renamed Montreal and Atlantic. October 1, 1931 leased to CPR for 999 years!

Work train 4-4-0 12 with pile driver on wooden trestle. Knowlton, QC.
John A. Wheeler/Ian Walker collection

South Eastern John Dodsworth Rhode Island Locomotive Works 1028 10/1881
Richford, Vermont. Collection of Louise Bridge

Vanceboro, Maine. Circa 1890's Digital restoration Gordon Kennedy

Plow Extra with an amazing SIX engines! No caption but paint style on tender indicates pre-1927.

109 one of earliest 0-6-0 switchers. Cyl. 17" x 24" Drv. 51" Hinkley 1605 6/1883
Re# 2/1903 U1a 2013. Re# 1/1913 U1a 6013 Scrapped 6/1917

P1n class 5248 is relatively new (CPR May 1949) freight engine yet it was assigned to yard work in Banff in the summer
where a large number of passenger trains brought tourists from around the world to stay at the famous Banff Springs Hotel. Sleepers and other passenger cars were added and subtracted from these trains. July 1951 Ray Matthews

Note: There was an advantage to using a road engine for this temporary assignment rather than a yard switcher as it would not require its rods to be removed for dead movement at 20 mph to a roundhouse for monthly washout or other work. There
being no enginehouse at Banff removing the rods would be a difficult task. Road engine could move light at normal speed.

2214 with crew posing on platform at West Toronto depot.
Mounted on cardboard designed for photographs.
Circa 1920. Collection of R. L. Kennedy

L2b 3116 compound 20"+30" x 24" cyl. 2-8-0 51" drv. Baldwin 13252 2/1893
Ogden shops c.1914 (retired 3/1914) Doug Phillips Collection

CLC 2000 builders photo at Kingston. This was Canadian Locomotive Company's 2000th locomotive. July1942
It was so painted only on one side! Soon renumbered CP 2396 before delivery.

CPR G2 2644 in a dramatic night scene near the end of the steam era at the coal chutes in McAdam, NB.
December 28,1959. James A. Brown

"Distributed Power" in the steam era! Work train near Winnipeg 1957. Note extra water tender behind first engine.
Joseph Testagrose Collection.

This photo was taken on the construction of the Drywood Spur south of Brocket, Alberta in 1957 the work train is hauling ballast to unload on the south end near Drywood, Alberta. British American (BA), later Gulf Oil, constructed a sulphur loading facility at Drywood.

In later years the line was extended from near Drywood to the Shell Plant at Pecten. The two spurs were combined to become what today is known as the CPR’s Pecten subdivision.

The two locomotives where required to take the heavy ballast up the steep grade to the yard at Drywood. Because of the new and soft track condition the engines were separated by a number of cars, the one engine acting as a pusher or helper.

5427 is equipped with a ‘Prairie tender’ as there was no watering facilities on the spur, as diesels were to do the later work on the new line. When the construction was completed these engine and others used to build the line were some of the last steam engines to work the old Lethbridge Division and almost all were then tied up.

New T1a 2-10-4 5902 (MLW 67923 8/1929) poses with little D4 4-6-0 to show comparison of massive Selkirk type.
D4g 464 (MLW 50456 1/1912) worked Revelstoke-Arrowhead to connect with Columbia River boat service.
Revelstoke 1929 Canadian Pacific Railway/Steve Morris Collection

Wartime headlight shroud to reduce visibility from the air on west coast. 1943 Doug Phillips Collection

Oil-fired G2s 2572 with the summer-only No. 112 Winnipeg Beach Special racing through Weston Yard in
Winnipeg with a solid consist of wooden equipment dating from decades earlier time still earning revenue for the CPR.
Monday, May 30, 1955. Robert E. Wanner

Winnipeg Beach was a very popular destination for the folks in Winnipeg. CPR built a very large amusement park at the beach side but sold off most of the properties during WWII. There was also a very large roller coaster at the park. The park which was developed by the CPR before WWI was very popular with dance halls etc. Doug Phillips

2644 4-6-0 MLW 96553 10/1909 Renumbered 3/1913 D10f 844

Looking west towards station beyond bridge in the distance. Brandon. Bud Laws Collection

A1e 4-4-0 29 repainted with correct lettering style applied by Streamline Studios.
CPR headquarters Gulf Canada Square Calgary June 27, 2012 Rick Janzen

4-4-0 82 and new 4-6-2 2301 size comparison. Walter Pfefferle Collection

D10 934 on the table at Woodstock, NB circa 1959. Old Time Trains Digital Archives.

Note the one-of-a-kind backup window on the tender! There was also one on the fireman's side.
A vestibule cab G2 would have been a much better choice.
Note also the rear combination pilot also a rare thing. This, and the
full-size backup headlight indicates an assignment requiring a lot of
tender-forward running. The pilot was a BTC requirement for backing up over
unprotected (no lights) level crossings above 25 mph. TWO spare scoops!

1026 (re# 3230) Only 2-8-0 Camelback. Built by Richmond Locomotive Works #2804 3/1899
Built as a compound with Wooten firebox to burn anthracite coal.
This engine and five D11 camelback 4-6-0's all worked west out of Medicine Hat.

Unknown G3 class 2300 with short passenger train at French River, Ontario.
What is most interesting in this old undated photograph is the extremely short siding!
Likely used to set off a coach for charter groups of sportsmen.
A CPR Bungalow Camp was located on the hill to the left.
Canadian Pacific Railway/Steve Morris Collection

No. 42 engine 2394 doing headend work. Overnight sleeper train from Montreal to Saint John, NB.
Mc.Adam, NB Sat. 5/24/1952 Ken MacDonald/Bruce Chapman Collection

Number 42 was scheduled to be in Mc.Adam for 25 minutes between 9:00 A.M. and 9:25 A.M. having been due to depart Montreal the night before at 7:30 P.M. (Daily Except Sunday.) It was due to arrive in Saint John at 11:35 A.M. These G3
class 75-inch drivered 4-6-2's were very capable engines and well liked by all. Therefore an On Time performance was to be expected. Note the reflection on the side of the tender and running board, proof of its clean condition.

G2s 2592 with last steam powered passenger train into Lethbridge. 1958.

Note: 2592 no longer has a Worthington Feed Water Heater. It and 2212 on Eastern Lines were so equipped in trial before 1200 and 1201 were built and also equipped. Photo 2592 and Worthington data (scroll down).

The above photo is of the Medicine Hat – Lethbridge portion of the Kettle Valley Express, train number 45. In March 1958 the service went RDC along with the rest of the southern BC service Lethbridge through to Vancouver BC at that time. From time to time this train had diesels as CLC units were in this route as early as 1952. It is very likely the last steam in ‘regular passenger’ service into Lethbridge.

Effective Tuesday March 4th 1958 CP's conventional coach trains were replaced by stainless steel RDC's. Daily train service retained Vancouver-Penticton and Nelson-Medicine Hat, with 3-days a week Nelson Penticton. Five RDC cars 9194-9199 are assigned to this service, but 9194 is held back at Montreal and replaced by 9022. 9194-9199 are the last new "Dayliner’s" purchased by the CPR.

So the shot is likely March 03, 1958…..must have been a warm winter…no snow, or a Chinook had been blowing. 2592 was scrapped December of 1958.

H1b 2816 (MLW #68535 12/1930) when it was just another 2800. Who would have ever guessed its future?
On the table at the Glen off the suburban train below. 6/22/1959 Bob Krone

No. 354 eng. 2822 tender 2816! That is right. 2816 today has a tender off another 2800!
Not all that unusual since tenders were often interchangeble.
Tenders had their own builders plate as well but were often missing.

Number 354 at Three Rivers (Trois Rivieres), Quebec.
9/11/1952 Roger Boisvert/Bruce Chapman Collection

2818 being "wheeled" in backshop. c. 1930's Note the large Whiting hoists used for this heavy work.
Whiting Equipment/Tom Rendall Collection

Royal Hudson 2840 (MLW 68953 9/1937) outside Union Station Toronto. One of four H1c class engines assigned to The Dominion 811 miles between Toronto and Fort William. Posing for CPR photographer taking photos for CPR travel brochure promoting cross Canada travel. Note the backup airhose attached to front of engine indicating it was not fired up and was moved by another engine. Circa 1952 John C. Clarke Collection

Ontario District engine crews for 1939 Royal Tour trains. 2855 was used as a backdrop only.
It was not used for the Royal trains. John Street April 28, 1939. Collection of H.M. (Mac) Allen

N2a class 3642 leads a P1 class 5100 and another engine on the Hochelaga Transfer
in the Montreal Terminals as the sky is blackened during the climb upgrade.

N2b class 3700 crossing the swing bridge over the Lachine Canal in Montreal early 1950's.
Canadian Pacific Railway/Steve Morris Collection

N3b 3899 with what looks like a grain train. This engine would soon be rebuilt 1/1926
into N2b 3699 trading in its inside admission piston valves at the same time.
Calgary October 3, 1924 Cy Littlebury/Bruce Chapman Collection

5468 on display at Revelstoke Railway Museum. July 2, 2008 Robert (Rob) Brown
The interior of a steam locomotive cab is as complex looking as an aircraft cockpit to the uninitiated.
Slightly different angle (below) in black and white tends to back date the photo to the steam era.

Signal foam meter to monitor boiler water condition. Mounted on backhead of boiler on Royal Hudsons

R3b 5752 with employee train running from Outremont to new St.Luc hump yard. Ron Ritchie

R3c 5766 on westbound passenger train complete with large pilot plow for mountain winter conditions. 1927

T1b 5927 taking oil at South Edmonton. Reg Kearns Collection

T4a 8000 one-of-a-kind experimental three cylinder high pressure boiler 2-10-4. CPR 5/1931
Cyl. 15 1/2" x 28" and 24" x 30" Drv. 63" Press. 850 lbs. and 250 lbs. t.e 83%
Oil 4, 100 gals. water 11,500 gals. Retired 12/23/1936 Scrapped 12/1940

The Maine Central Railroad Mountain Division

Found a reference to the "Eagle Gray Granite Co." located at the north east foot of Starks Hill in
Fryeburg and another referring to the Osgood Quarry at the same location. Transportation was
said to be by cart- a railroad spur may have come later?

Re: The Maine Central Railroad Mountain Division

Re: The Maine Central Railroad Mountain Division

I can't think of any really .

Sent from my Pixel 2 XL using Tapatalk

Re: The Maine Central Railroad Mountain Division

Re: The Maine Central Railroad Mountain Division

Well. The Beecher Falls branch extended northward from Quebec Junction to Lime Ridge, Quebec at one time. MEC cancelled the Hereford RR lease in 1925 and stopped all operations north of Beecher Falls. CP and QC picked up portions and operated smaller pieces into the 1960's. The piece between
Lancaster and North Stratford was abandoned in 1948 with MEC using trackage rights over B&M and GT.
MEC finally pulled the plug on the branch in 1977 with the final run on Feb 17.

As for logging and shortlines, east to west there were:
Bridgton and Saco River at Hiram, ME
East Branch RR and Rocky Branch RR at Glen, NH
Bartlett and Albany RR at Bartlett, NH
Sawyers River RR at Sawyers River, NH
Saco River RR at Carrigain, NH
Moose River Lumber Co. at North Concord, VT
Kilkenny Lumber Co at Lancaster, NH
Connecticut River Lumber Co at Terrills Cut ( north of Beecher Falls )

Most of these logging operations expired before the Great Depression- some prior to WW1.

1848: Arrival of the Railroad

Steam locomotive pulls a single passenger car south out of the Bradford village station. It was not uncommon to have three trains each way daily (photo: Bradford Historical Society).
This 1853 double-decker bridge connected the Boston, Concord & Montreal line in Woodsville with the Connecticut and Passumpsic Wells River.

A Boston, Concord and Montreal steam locomotive.

The 38-mile track of the Montpelier and Wells River RR was constructed in 1873 (photo: Baldwin Memorial Library).
Copper ore mined in Corinth was hauled to Bradford to be shipped to manufacturing centers. This train is stopped between Bradford and Fairlee (photo: Bradford Historical Society).

1914 postcard of Wells River Station



Originally published on October 8, 2008 republished Valley News, Feb. 21, 2015
Journal Opinion

In 1854, Henry David Thoreau wrote “the whistle of the locomotive penetrates my woods summer and winter.” By then, residents of our area were quite familiar with that sound. The railroad came six years earlier. The first train arrived at Bradford’s Calcutty location (Piermont Crossing) on October 11, 1848.

According to accounts of that day, the Connecticut and Passumpsic train was greeted by large crowds and a 28-gun salute, one for each of the 28 miles between White River Junction and Bradford. The anticipation had been great. Sixteen-year-old Julia Ann Davis of Bradford wrote “for months, little else had been thought or talked about.”

The line continued to be built, reaching Bradford village several days later. The company’s directors held their Third Annual Meeting in Bradford on October 31, 1848. Their report to the stockholders outlined plans for the line. By early November, the railroad was opened to Wells River, McIndoes in October, 1850 and St. Johnsbury a month later.

The Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers Railroad Company was first chartered in 1835, rechartered in 1843 and organized in Wells River in 1846. The plan was to build from the junction of the White River to the Canadian border and a connection to Montreal. The first tracks were laid in Norwich in July, 1848. Officers included president Erastus Fairbanks of St. Johnsbury, vice president Asa Low of Bradford and directors Henry Keyes of Newbury and later Joseph Sawyer of Piermont.

It was the Low’s influence that led the railroad to build on the Vermont side of the Connecticut River. The decision to build on the New Hampshire side had been the subject of a large meeting at the Carlton Hotel in Orford, but the Vermont supporters won. For villages such as Bradford and Wells River, that made a tremendous difference in their futures. Equally significant was the decision to build the line on the flood plain at Bradford rather than through the village.

The second railroad to reach into the area was the Boston, Concord & Montreal. The line came up from Concord, through Plymouth and reached East Haverhill in the fall of 1852 and Woodsville in May, 1853. According to Katherine Blaisdell’s History of Haverhill, the route was one laid out fifty years earlier by John McDuffee of Bradford for the Coos Turnpike. Despite a battle over the extension of this line into Vermont, the BC&M connected with the Passumpsic at Wells River in May, 1853. This connection was made possible by building a double-decker bridge across the Connecticut with rail traffic using the top level and highway traffic, the lower.

The White Mountains Railroad Company was chartered in1848, to take advantage of the lucrative mountain tourist trade. It opened a connection along the Ammonoosuc River between Wells River and Littleton on August 1, 1853. Progress beyond that connection was slow. Rail service did not reach Lancaster until 1870 and Groveton two years later.

In 1849, the Montpelier and Connecticut River Railroad Company was chartered to connect Newbury to the Vermont Central line at Montpelier. Frederic Wells’ History of Newbury mentions these plans included having the line cross the Connecticut at South Newbury and “pass up the valley of Hall’s brook, to South Ryegate.” As nothing came of this plan, the Montpelier and Wells River Railroad was chartered in 1867 work began in 1871 and the thirty-eight mile track was opened between the two communities in November, 1873.

This local growth of railroads mirrored the enthusiasm for railroads within the two-state area and throughout the nation. By the time the first construction in Vermont took place at Windsor in 1848, there were 8,000 miles of rail laid in the nation. At the beginning of the Civil War, there were 21,625 miles in the North and 9,001 in the South.

A recent visit to the Southern Museum of Civil War and Locomotive History in Kennesaw, Georgia helped this writer to understand the significant role of rail in both Southern defense and Union victory. After the war’s end, railroad track mileage grew exponentially for the rest of the century: 1870-52,922 1880-93,267 1890-163, 597 and 1900-193,346.

The construction of these rail lines was not without controversy. As with the building of the interstate highway a century later, some towns competed to have access while others avoided it. In New Hampshire, Orford avoided, while West Fairlee and Topsham in Vermont wanted to be included. An initial proposal to link the two to the railroads never went beyond that stage. Rail locations increased nearby land values. The location of a depot could shift the economic center within a town.

One such controversy erupted in 1875 when the Connecticut & Passumpsic was petitioned to open a depot at the Piermont Crossing. The February 20, 1875 edition of the Bradford Opinion reported when the President of the company testified that in order to comply with the petition they would have to close the Bradford village depot, it “created quite a stir among the citizens of our village.”

As rail junctions, both Wells River and Woodsville became major railroad centers for the area. According to Blaisdell, Woodsville saw tremendous growth due to the railroad. In the 1880’s and 1890’s, “new office buildings, engine houses and enlarged freight yards were built. At the same time, Woodsville kept all available workmen busy building houses, schools, stores and streets for its ever-increasing population of railroad workers.” The number of passengers changing trains in Wells River led to the growth of that village as well.

Irish workers were brought in to build the railroads, often with just picks and shovels. Admiring their work, Julia Ann Davis wrote: “We have seen the Irishmen with their carts filled with rocks and dirt and have heard their blasting, working their way through places which seem wholly impassable to us. Many of the workmen have lost their lives.”
The Vermont Watchman & State Journal of May 11, 1848 included the notice that Daniel ODonald of Stanstead or vicinity was so badly hurt on the railroad in Bradford on Monday, that he died the next day. He was only 14 years of age. His body was carried by stage north for interment by his friends. Apparently he was an inexperienced worker and sat between two carts of dirt and fell off leading to his death.

Their work was essential, but their presence created controversy. Wells relates how a “horde of men, women and children of that nationality invaded the town, where their brogue and actions excited aversion and fear.”

Once the lines were complete, they provided employment in operations and maintenance for many of these new immigrants as well as established families. Until engines began using coal, thousands of cords of wood were cut from area forests to fuel the steam locomotives. This offered employment for lumbermen and farmers and contributed the deforesting of Vermont.

It was not unusual for the companies to have money worries. Unanticipated construction delays, storms ruined rail beds and periodic recessions caused business downturns, affecting profits and dividends for investors. Periodic uncertainly plagued all rail lines well into the 20th century.

There were also train wrecks. The Bradford Opinion of March 27, 1875 reported that the Boston to Montreal express train on the BC& M “was thrown from the track Saturday night just North of Pike’s station.” Spreading of the rails was the cause. In December, 1878, the express freight train from Boston, with two engines, went into the river near Wentworth, the accident caused by the trestle having been swept away. On April 17, 1884, the north-bound night train hit a large stone on the tracks at Fairlee Mountain and was completely wrecked. The New York Times reported that “the engineer and fireman were badly bruised, but none of the twenty passengers sustained serious injury.” The Times also reported an accident in Woodsville in July 1897, when a fright train was wrecked by a washout, resulting in the death of three men.

Two head-on collisions occurred in 1876 on the Montpelier end of the M & WR. Both were “caused by an error on the part of a 16-year old assistant switchtender.” No one was seriously hurt in either accident. Later that year, the railroad began using a new telegraph line to improve the operational safety. Since most of the tracks were single lines, it is amazing that there were not more such collisions. Wagons and animals that collided with locomotives usually lost.

As was true in the nation as a whole, area railroads had tremendous social, economic and political impacts. Displacing stage, wagon and river traffic, they greatly increased the ease and speed of travel and communication. With connecting lines, the area was opened to diverse markets at a fraction of the previous cost. Copper ore from the mines at Union Village was shipped from the Ely station. The July 22, 1876 Bradford Opinion reported that 15 cars loaded with ore from the Union mines of Corinth left Bradford.

Industries grew up along all the lines, often with their own sidings. There were special stock and poultry trains and cars that carried wool, lumber and manufactured goods from the area. Refrigerated cars for butter, cheese and later fluid milk as well as berries and vegetables used ice cut each winter from area lakes and ponds. The same trains returned with manufactured products from all over the world for local consumers.

Blaisell’s Over the River and Through the Years and Robert C. Jones two-volume Railroads of Vermont provide details on the economic impact of area railroads. In the former, it was reported that “in just one week in September, 1894, William Ricker shipped from Woodsville, 1000 sheep, 290 swine, 144 calves and 27 cattle.” Mail shipment was also a major part of the rail’s impact. Letters mailed in the morning often reached their destination on the same day.

Passengers enjoyed regular and special excursion trains to and from the area. Special events such as the World Fair in 1876 and Montpelier’s Admiral Dewey homecoming in 1899 required additional trains. Through much of the period and on any given day, one could select from up to four trains in each direction. In each town, station wagons met trains and provided local transportation for salesmen and tourists. Students often rode the train to attend school in neighboring villages or for athletic meets and class trips. Even circuses came by train. It was the way to travel.

The growth of the railroad network made life different and in many cases, better. Rural areas were connected to urban, section connected to section, creating a period of change not seen again until the coming of the interstate highway system. The impact of rail transportation was felt in marriage patterns, spread of disease, migration, influence in government, home heating, building techniques and employment. Even the concept of time changed with the adoption of “railroad time” to deal with the uncertainty of local clocks. In 1883, universal standard time became official.

T. D. Seymore Bassett describes the impact of the railroad in a 1981 article in Vermont History as: “the largest Vermont enterprise until well past 1900 reoriented everything it touched, and it touched everything.” He went on to write, that railroads “transformed the human outlook. Their dominance over society and politics as the century wore on became as complete in Vermont as over transportation.” The whistle and cannon shots that announced the coming of the railroad 160 years ago this month, echoed through the years with the changes wrought by the railroads of our area.

Concord and Montreal RR 4-4-0 - History

Comparing an earlier, 1878 system map, shown below, to the 1880-1882 map above, one notices several differences in New Hampshire. The earlier map does not show 1) The spur from Whitefield to the Waumbek House in Jefferson. The spur, which was chartered on July 11, 1878 by the Brown Lumbering Company, was "probably one of the first out-and-out lumbering railroads in the United States", and was leased by the BC&M in 1879. 2) The 10-mile spur from Bethlehem to the Profile House in Franconia Notch, which was completed on June 25, 1879. 3) Completion of the Portland and Ogdensburg Railroad Vermont Division from St. Johnsbury to Swanton, VT. 4) The Manchester to North Weare Railroad. This Railroad had been completed in 1851, but service was unreliable, as "serious washouts resulting from heavy freshets have at times delayed the traffic over the road. "

The earlier map boasts that "Palace Cars and first-class Coaches, equipped with Westinghouse Air Brakes and Miller Platform, are run on all trains. The Shortest and Most Direct route from Philadephia, New York, New London, Worcester, Providence, Pawtucket, Newport, Fall River, Bedford, Taunton, Boston, Lowell, Lawrence, Salem, etc., to the Lake and Mountain Region of New Hampshire. The only Route to which tourists can reach Lake Winnepesaukee, Plymouth, Littleton, Bethlehem, Twin Mountains, Fabyans, Summit Mt. Washington, Lancaster, Northumberland and the White and Franconia Mountains early same day without change of Cars.

An 1875 map, from "Keyes's Hand-Book of Northern and Western Pleasure Travel to the White and Franconia Mountains, St. Lawrence and Saguenay Rivers, The Northern Lakes, Montreal and Quebec, and the Great West".

Detail from the above map.

An 1845 map, showing the proposed route of the Concord, NH to Haverhill, NH line, was curiously orientated with North pointing to the right, rather than up. The original proposed route would have skirted Weirs Beach entirely! The planned route along the west shore of Paugus Bay would have headed inland at Pickerel Cove and not returned to the shore of Lake Winnipesaukee until reaching Meredith..

This pass would have let the holder ride for free on any of the BC&M's lines in 1883.

Archive Record

Brief statement of facts in the relation of the Proposed Railroad from Boston to Fitchburg, dated 1842. Report of a Committee of the Directors of the Fitchburg Railroad Company, dated September 20, 1842.

Annual reports of the Fitchburg Railroad from 1843 & 1844, 1849 to 1861,63,65,66 & 68 to1873. (29 Annual reports for the Fitchburg Railroad)

5th.dated Jan. 1873 & 33rd. Annual Report of the Boston & Albany Railroad Co., dated 1900. (2 annual reports)

Annual Reports for the Boston & Maine Railroad dated, December 31, 1921 to December 31, 1948. Also, enclosed in the section is Remarks of James H. Hustis, Pres. of the B&M at the Annual Meeting, Dated April 9, 1924 ( 30 Reports)

5th Annual Report of the Agricultural Branch R. R. Co. dated December 29, 1857. Also, a Notice to change to the Boston, Clinton & Fitchburg Railroad Co., dated May 30, 1867.

Argument of Charles F. Choate, Esq. in behalf of the Northmen (NH) Railroad against the consolidation of the Boston & Lowell & Fitchburg Railroads, dated Feb. 26, 1873.

18th Annual Report of the Board of Railroad Commissioners, dated Jan. 1887.

The Dead-Heads: Who Rides Free on the Railroads? by Charles W. Felt, Ayer, MA, 1874.

Blank receipt for money from the Fitchburg & Worcester Railroad Co. dated Leominster, Nov. 1, 1849. Blank Stock Cert. payable to Nathaniel Weed, dated Nov. 1, 1844. The certificate is blank.

Annual reports for the Fitchburg & Worcester Railroad. 5th. annual, 1852, 6th., 1853, 7th., 1854, 16th., 1863, 22nd., 1868. (6 reports)

Invitation to the Framingham & Lowell Railroad Company, Spike Driving & Opening, Tuesday, August 22, 1871

3rd. & 5th. Annual Report for the Monadism Railroad, 1871 & 1973.

Plan of a Survey in Clinton for the Nashua River Railroad, April 22, 1872.

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Co. report to the Stockholder, August 16, 1923 and Nov. 20, 1923.

Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad, Proposed RR from Fitchburg to Brattleboro, June 7, 1894

Annual reports for the Vermont & Massachusetts RR., 1846,47,49,50 to 1856, 1858 to 1860, 1863, 65, 67, 68, 70, 72, 73. ( 23 reports)

Lease from the Vermont & Massachusetts to the Fitchburg Railroad Co., Jan. 1, 1874.

Closing Argument of Benj. F. Thomas for the Vermont & Massachusetts R. R. Friday, March 21, 1873.

Extracts from a Letter in regard to the Vermont & Massachusetts RR, Boston 1863.

Annual Report for the Fitchburg & Worcester RR, Jan. 1, 1851.

Annual Reports of the Worcester & Nashua RR, Jan., 1863 & Jan., 1873.

Closing Argument of Hon. E. R. Hoar, in favor of the Consolidation of the Boston & Lowell & Fitchburg Railroads, Thurs. March 20, 1873.

Boston & Maine Railroad, Fitchburg Division, Time-Table No. 18 and the rules & regulations for the guidance of employees, to take effect Monday, October 8, 1906.

Agreement for the consolidation of Fitchburg Railroad Co., Boston & Lowell RR, Connecticut River RR, The Concord & Montreal RR, Lowell & Andover RR, Manchester & Lawrence RR & the Kennebunk & Kennebunkport Railroad, with the Boson & Maine Railroad, November 25, 1918.

87h & 88th Annual Report December 31, 1919 & 1920.

Plan & Agreement Dated September 1, 1925 for the reorganization of the Boston & Maine RR.

B&M RR Plan of Exchange dated, Dec. 15, 1939.

Annual reports for the Boston, Clinton & Fitchburg Railroad Co., 1867, 68,70,72,73,74,75.

Agreement of Consolidation between the Boston, Clinton & Fitchburg Railroad Co., & the New Bedford RR Co., 1876.

Fitchburg Railroad Co. Report of Investigation, Jan. 29, 1856

Fitchburg Railroad Company Annual Reports dated 1875 to 1884, 1886 to 1902, 1904,1907,08,10,11,1916,& 1917.

Document of The Fitchburg Railroad and the Twenty Per Cent Contract regarding toll-gate system dated 1874.

Document to "Common Stockholders" of the Fitchburg Railroad that was printed in the Boston Post dated May 17, 1888.

Document regarding the completion of the Hoosier Junction Bridge, dated Wed., August 29, 19

Notices - Fitchburg Railroad Co. Dividend No. 99 2 per cent. dated Jan. 18, 1989 to please cash or deposit check as soon as convenient.

Letter to the Stockholders of the Fitchburg Railroad, dated Dec. 20, 1888 regarding the poor management under a Mr. Phillips.

Fitchburg R.R. receipt of payment dated August 16, 1859.

Fitchburg Railroad, Employees' Tine Punch Pass for A. F. Ross Issued July 1, 1900 & expires Sept. 30, 1900.

Fitchburg Railroad coat or pant button.

Document - Providence Railroad, Dec. 3, 1863 Received from Silas Pierce & Co., deliver to Wilfred Sanders.

Newsletter for Sterling Historical Society, April 1995 to Ruth Penka, Fitchburg Historical Society.

Fitchburg Railroad Through-Way Bill from Boston to Chester, May 10, 1890

Document - General Rules in working the Fitchburg Railroad, August 1, 1845.

Document - North Adams, June 20, 1885 to Fitchburg Railroad for Transporting from Boston. Expenses $1.65 Received payment for the company E. B. Blake.

Document - John Corbett vs, Fitchburg Railroad Company, Supreme Court of Massachusetts, Worcester Document 650 of 761, October 1872.

Fitchburg R.R. Co., receipt of payment, August 22, 1859.

Receipt of payment from Mr. G. W. Sanderson for shipment from Charleston to the Fitchburg Railroad Co., May 11, 1846.

Receipt of payment to Fitchburg R.R. for transporting from Fitchburg to Charleston.

Way Bill of Merchandise transported by Fitchburg Railroad Co., from Charleston to Troy March 11, 1848.

Two blank freight receipts received by the Fitchburg Railroad Co., Hoosac Tunnel Route, and one bland shipping order delivered to Fitchburg Railroad Co., Hosssac Tunnel Route.

Forty Years of Service - T. L. Sandersoc, the senior engineer on the Fitchburg Railroad completed 40 years of service on locomotives. He commenced work as a fireman on Sept. 1, 1844 when 20 years of age, and after two years' was promoted as engineer. He was fireman on the First Passenger Train that made a trip from Boston to Fitchburg on March 5, 1845.

Newspaper - A review by Mrs. Wallace - The Lost Generation, October 3, 1973.

Fitchburg R.R. Conductors for extra, Feb. 14, 1883.

Strains on The Bridges of the Fitchburg Railroad Co., at the Board of Railroad Commissions, June 30, 1891

Opening argument of John H. George, Esq., in behalf of the Petition of the Boston & Lowell Railroad, for leaving to consolidate and unite with the Fitchburg Railroad Company, Tues, Feb. 11, 1873.

Fitchburg Railroad Co., complete list to Stockholder in the Capital Stock, May 1, 1863.

Comparison of the Fitchburg Railroad with other Railroads, 1863.

To F. J. Barrett, chairman of the committee of the town of Ashburnham, to procure a survey of the Ashburnham Branch Railroad, Jan. 24, 1848.

Fitchburg Railroad employees only time table and hand signals, June 30, 1884.

Newspaper articles, Vermont & Mass. inventions 1885.

Fitchburg Railroad New Stock, May 1, 1849 from Misses Maria &Fannie Terney, May 31, 1923

Sentinel article June 10, 1893 regarding Vestibuled Cars.

Misc. newspaper articles pasted to a sheet of paper regarding the railroads.

Newspaper article. America Serenaders Jenny Lind - Gift of Peter j . Crocker, Falmouth, MA.

Fitchburg Railroad - Sentinel souvenir edition, June 18, 1892

Fitchburg Railroad Co., Passengers and Baggage Rules & Regulations, May 25, 1849.

Fitchburg R.R. Hoosac Tunnel Route-Supplement #3-Freight tariff #71, from Boston & Boston Points to New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, & stations on the Michigan Central & Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad. Effective July 6, 1896

Supplements number 4, effective January 10, 1898. Changing rate basis to Lestershire, NY.

Supplement number 5, effective December 24, 1898. Advance in rates to stations on the Buffalo, Attica & Arcade R.R.

Supplement number 6, effective Jan. 1, 1900. Withdrawal of rates from stations on the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Eastern District.

Supplement number 7, effective Jan. 1, 1900. Withdrawal of rates to stations on the New York, Ontario & Western RR.

Supplement number 8. Withdrawal of rates on the Allegheny Valley Railroad via Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Railway.

Supplement number 9, effective June 15, 1901. Withdrawal of rates from stations on the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Eastern District.

Supplement number 10, effective June 1, 1901. Covering additional stations on the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Railway Company.

Fitchburg Railroad, Employees Handbook, June 11, 1885.

Fitchburg R.R. received from Silas Peirce & Co. in good order a lit of goods, to be delivered at the Depot of the Fitchburg Railroad, dated Jan. 12, 1849

Received from Silas Peirce & Co. goods to be delivered at the Depot of the Fitchburg Railroad & forwarded to Lyman Nicholas, dated June 9, 1864.

Newspaper article of the First Railroad 100 years ago, March 2, 1945.

Fitchburg Railroad, Boston Depot. Picture of Jenny Lind, and the "Jenny Lind" trivet..

Map of the Fitchburg Railroad Hoosac Tunnel & its connection. Not dated.

Copy of Draft. The Early Days of Railroads in Fitchburg, by Henry A. Willis, dated 1892.

Copy of "First Train Reached Fitchburg 100 Years Ago Next Monday Growth, Prosperity Resulted"

Montachusett Review article date Jany 4, 1967. Departed Depot. Picture of tearing down the depot.

Fitchburg R. R. trough way-bill from Boston to Chester dated Jan. 27, 1883.

Fitchburg R. R. 1000 ticket No. 24, 2487. This ticket entitles the bearer to travel as many miles on the Fitchburg R. R. or the Bennington & Rutland R.R.. dated April 14, 1900.

Fitchburg R.R. Dividend N0. 87, 2 per cent, dated January 15, 1892. Daniel A. Gleason, Treasurer.

Fitchburg R.R. annual meeting of the Stockholders, dated Aug. 25, 1914.

Fitchburg Sentinel article dated, Thursday, Dec. 24, 1874. The meeting at the Westminster town hall, Wednesday afternoon, called by the citizens of Westminster to awake an interest in their effort to secure the straightening of the railroad track between Wachusett station and Gardner.

Old Railroad ticket, from Sister Cecile Forest, D.H. S. , Amherst College, Woodstock, Connecticut. Fitchburg Railroad ticket #5552, from Cambridge to Boston, dated Sept. 30, 1898.

Proposed lease of the Fitchburg Railroad Company by the Boston & Maine Railroad, dated July 1, 1900 for 99 years.

Notice - with a vote by the directors to hold a special meeting of the Stockholders to accept whether the proposition of the Boston & Maine Railroad to take a lease of the Fitchburg Railroad.

By-Laws of the Fitchburg Railroad, dated 1888.

Newspaper - Gleason's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion, with a picture of the Sons of New Hampshire Festival at Fitchburg Hall, Boston. Someone noted at bottom ($1.25) Rare 1853.

Receipt from Silas Peirce & Company, dated Dec. 12, 1851 to be delivered to Pond & Edwards at the Fitchburg Depot.

Fitchburg , change of location of railroad, Nathaniel Wood, Atty.

Subject, Train #41 to General Superintendent's Office. Complaint regarding waiting 25 minutes at Fitchburg for train.

Commonwealth of Mass. Board of Railroad Commissioners. Specifications No. 1, Salaries, March 1885. Contract of August 14, 1880 and Ending Sept. 30, 1884.

Fitchburg Railroad, Middlesex County Cattle Show at Concord, MA
Tuesday & Wednesday, Sept. 29 & Sept. 30, 1874.

Fitchburg Railroad time table May 26, 1877 & Aug. 19, 1875.

Office of the Fitchburg & Worcester Railroad Company. Assessment of two dollars on each share of capital stock, dated July 3, 1847.
(From the estate of Ezra Peaman, Sterling.

Letter dated, Boston, July, 1881 from S. W. Cummingings, regarding his appreciation of kind support before closing my connection with the Fitchburg Railroad, Hoosac Tunnel Route.. From Mrs. Florence Daniels.

Railroad pass from Mrs. G. P. Holton1913. Railroad pass dated July 11, 1883 to George Holton from Fitchburg to Rutland.

Note: Pass from Elliot G. Wellington, not in envelope.

Newspaper article Along the Fitchburg Railroad, Saratoga Special, dated August 26, 1893.

Article regarding a review of a junior novel "Hideout" written by T. Morris Longstreth - Macmillan, c1947. Written on poor stock and has deteriorated to the extent to keep it is not practical. See: Sentinel, Dec. 27, 1947. Alvah Crocker is mentioned as well as the excitement of the railroad coming.

Article regarding Training School on Wheels, July 14, 1893

Article- Car lights by electricity. March 26, 1898.

Newspaper article " Fitchburg Railroad" June, 1882

8 old steam engine pictures. one picture dated 1972, one 1883,one 1886, one 1918. The others have no dates.

Photo of Fitchburg Depot 1897 & photo of North Station, Boston

The Saco-Lowell Machine Shops. Built one locomotive for the Fitchburg Railroad 1845-50

Newspaper articles - The Changing Boston. Razing the Fitchburg Depot in Boston. Stones from the tower to be use as a sea wall.

Photo of 211th Coast Artillery, AA that drilled at the old Fitchburg Railroad Station. June 5, 1917, disbanded Dec. 6, 1920.

Notice to the Directors of the Fitchburg R.R. Jan. 31, 1844

Boston & Maine bridge and tunnel permit #2204- 1917. Blank pass #U6497, not good after Jan. 7, 1899.

Booklet of Rules & Regulations to the Employees of the Fitchburg Railroad, May, 1888.

Fitchburg Railroad Through Way Bill. Oct. 2, 1885

Envelope of A. S. Cheever, Chief Engineer, Fitchburg Railroad, Boston, MA

Hamilton Carhartt, Manufacture, Detroit, Michigan - Railroad Time Book 1918 ten cents.

Fitchburg Railroad Co. Transportation Office. Blank piece of stationary , 187_

Pass - Boston, Clinton, Fitchburg & New Bedford R.R. April 18, 1878 to Mr. Lyon

Photo of Fitchburg Railroad Depot. Building 70X70 feet . No date.

Envelope of reports of trains arriving & leavings Fitchburg on June 24, 1882.

Boston & Maine Newsletters January 1995- August 1996

1994 B&M merchandise catalog

Boston & Maine newsletter March/April 1993

New Roundhouse article. March 9, 1906

Boston & Maine Newsletter Nov/Dec. 1989

Boston & Maine Railroad - Official list of Officers, Agents and Station s, July 1, 1923

Transportation Rates. Operations of the Boston & Maine Monopoly.

Newspaper article- Rail service complaints dissolve at B7N hearing, Jan. 23, 1972

Boston & Maine - Resort and Tours, 1902.

Plans & Agreement, dated Sept. 1, 1925 for the Reorganizations of the Boston & Maine Railroad

Annual report of the Boston & Maine Railroad, Dec. 31, 1921.

Remarks of James H. Hustis, President-Boston & Maine Railroad, April 9, 1924

Ticket - Boston & Maine R.R. Cambridge to Harvard via Ayer Mass.

Thank You card to Eleanora West from Grades 4 & 5 Crocker School for lectures making Fitchburg come alive

B & M newsletter Jan/Feb. 1989

Articles - Numbers and locations of Milk Cars. Gulford rejects offer to sell 2 lines 1989.

Letter for Alder H. Dreyer looking for information regarding the tower he worked off & on between 1964 until it closed in 1979

B&M Noludar March/April 1989

Sentinel & Enterprise article Sat. July 24, 1982 on Mr. & Mrs. William Kelishek of Lunenburg with a picture of them standing by a pre-1941 B&M commuter care the purchased for $3,000.

B&M newsletter Nov./Dec 1991

B&M summer excurations 1901

B&M newsletter July/August 1993

B&M modelers notes July 1993

B&M notice to All Fitchburg Route Commuters - Track improvement program to begin Thursday, July 15, 1982

B&M newsletter Sept?Oct 1991

Booklet - Boston & Maine Railroad, the Monadnock Region

Fitchburg/Gardner Commuter Rail service Effective April 8, 1991

Fitchburg/Gardner Commuter Rail effective April 5, 1987 through October 25, 1987 & rail service effective May 22, 1989 through September 17, 1989

B&M Fitchburg Division Local Time Table, June 22, 1914

B&M railroad time tables 1923

Boston & Maine Motor Coach Service timetable, March 5, 1923

Copy outawe The Minute Man connection with the New York Central Lines Boston & Chicago

Boston's Commuter Rail (The First 150 Years)

MBTA Fitchburg Line May 3, 1993, 1982, 1981, 1991.

Photocopy of Trains of Northern New England, Pictures of trains in Fitchburg.

B&M newsletter Sept/Oct 1992

Commuter Rail Schedule May 2, 1994

B&M Fitchburg Division Time Table

AD - Fitchburg Railroad Excursion the Deerfield Valley & the Hoosac Tunnel, Oct. 12, 1895

15 Pictures of Driveling Valley, The Hoosac Tunnel

Hoosac Tunnel Route, Fitchburg Railroad Special Notice, March 13, 1889

MAP -Fitchburg Railroad Hoosac Tunnel Route & its connection.

Hoosac Tunnel & Troy & Greenfield Railroads - Bill for Union Consolidation & Establishment, March 3, 1885

Report of the Hon. Alvah Crocker, of work upon the Troy & Greenfield Railroad & Hoosac Tunnel, 1868

Facts & Figures concerning the Hoosac Tunnel 1866

Article - The Tunnel Railroad 1875

Newspaper article -Trainmen trip - Tenth annual concert and ball of the Hoosac Tunnel Lodge, Jan 1, 1895

Newspaper article - Coal through Hoosier Mountain - Lackawanna Coal via Hoosier Tunnel Route direct from mines

Contract- The Manager of the Troy and Greenfield Railroad and the Fitchburg Railroad Company - April 24, 1880

House No. 143 - Comm. of Mass - To the Speaker of the House of Representatives regarding certain railroad crossings in the City of Boston, March 7, 1855

Objections to the passage of a bill that authorizes the Massachusetts Central Railroad to make repeated crossings of the tracks of the Fitchburg Railroad.

Senate No. 179 Comm. of Mass. In Senate April 25, 1855 - Joint Special Committee, directing them to consider the expediency of obviating the crossing of the Boston and Lowell Railroad the Fitchburg Railroad, the Boston & Maine Railroad, and the Eastern Railroad Company.

Remonstrance of the Fitchburg Railroad Company in behalf of their stockholders, remonstrate against the passage of a bill, entitled"An Act to incorporate the Boston and North Western Railroad Company, and to provide for the operation and management of the Hoosac Tunnel, and for other purposes".

Location of the Fitchburg Railroad, Feb. 27, 1843.

On the petition of the Fitchburg Railroad Company for the Discontinuance of a piece of highway in Concord, Sept. 28, 1843.

Addition letter regarding petitions. Sept/. , 1843.

Petition of the Fitchburg Railroad for an alteration in the location of their railroad, Sept., 1843.

Additional petition, Sept., 1843.

The Fitchburg Railroad Company hereby make and file with your honor the location of the extension of their railroad into the City of Boston so far as the same as within the Count of Middlesex Filed with the County Commissioners of the County of Middlesex. April 18, 1845.

Sept. 1, 1850 - The Fitchburg Railroad regarding the straightening of their road in the town of Sommerville.

Final location of the Fitchburg Railroad, filed March 1, 1845.

Proposed lease of the Fitchburg Railroad by the Boston and Maine Railroad, 1900.

Hearing in Opposition to the Lease of the Fitchburg Railroad to the Boston and Maine Railroad, 1900.

Argument of George A. Torrey, Counsel of the Fitchburg Railroad , before the Railroad Committee of the Massachusetts Legislature, in favor of an Act to authorize a lease of the Fitchburg Railroad to the Boston and Maine Railroad, April 30, and May 18, 1900.

Letter to stockholders of the Fitchburg Railroad Company, Sept. 1, 1891.

The Lease of the Fitchburg, The Boston and Maine and its Acquition, July, 1900.

Fitchburg Railroad Lease - Request for Protest Against it to the Massachusetts Legislature, April 6, 1900.

Fitchburg Railroad Lease to the Preferred Stockholders, 1900.

Newspaper article - Lease of Fitchburg Road.

Fitchburg Railroad Lease to the Preferred Stockholders 1900?

Fitchburg Railroad Lease to the Preferred Stockholders with a list of the stockholders that it is in the best interest that the proposed lease to the Boston and Maine Railroad be accepted.

Lease - Fitchburg Railroad to the Boston and Maine Railroad, June 30, 1900.

Bland copy of Stockholders' Protective Proxy.

Boston and Maine Railroad Newsletters, July/Aug & Sept/Oct. 1989.

Agreement for the Consolidation of the 3Fitchburg Railroad Co., Boston & Lowell Railroad Corp., Connecticut River Railroad Co., The Concord & Montreal Railroad, Lowell & Andover Railroad Co., Manchester & Lawrence Railroad, and Kennebunk & Kennebunkport Railroad with the Boston & Maine Railroad, Nov. 25, 1918.

Boston and Maine Newsletters, Nov/Dec 1990, July/Aug 1992, May/June 1993.

Along the Line - Stock Talk, Dec., 1992

B&M Bulletin, Vol. XVIII, #1 Portsmouth to North Berwick in 1952.

B&M Bulletin Vol. XX, #2 B&M Beach Series Sleepers.

B&M Bulletin Vol.. XVII, #3 Boston & Maine's P-4 Class Locomotives & PA'S & Domes of the B&M.

Annual Report of the Directors of the Cheshire Railroad Co., to the Corporation, May 15, 1948.

Boston & Maine Time Table # 6, Oct. 8, 1900 & #30, Sept. 30, 1912.

Fitchburg Railroad Local Time Table, July 17, 1892.

Boston & Maine Railroad, interlocking at Union Station, Boston. General Order #3, Special Rules. July 17, 1894.

Boston & Maine Railroad Resorts & Tours, 1903.

Boston & Maine Local Time-Table Oct.,10, 1904.

Boston & Maine Rail & Bus, May 21, 1944.

Invitation to Complimentary Banquet tenered to Frederick W. Brazier, by the employees and Citizens of Fitchburg at City Hall, March 10, 1893, from Mrs. Bigelow Crocker, 1968.

B&M Timetable #13, June 5, 1966.

American Railway Guide, Oct. 1853.

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Local Time Table, effective March 18, 1914.

Worcester, Nashua, & Rochester Railroad Timetable #22 effective Dec. 13, 1885

Montachusett Review, Dec. 13, 1967. (The first train pulled into Fitchburg on March 5, 1845.

Fall arrangement of trains, Boston, Clinton, Fitchburg & New Bedford Railroad, Commencing Sept. 3, 1877.

Blank indenture between the Boston, Clinton, Fitchburg & New Bedford Railroad & the New England Trust Company.

Mortgage to the New England Trust Co. to secure $35,000 Bonds, guarenteed by Boston, Clinton, Fitchburg & New Bedford Railroad, Jan. 1, 1880.

Bye Laws of the New Bedford Railroad, 17 articles all hand written.
Incorporated 1838, Re-incorporated 1873.

Tourists' Guide to Princeton & Mt. Wachusett - Boston, Clinton & Fitchburg Railroad, summer arrangement, 1869.

Some type of lease - First page missing, and in poor condition.

Map of Fitchburg R. R/ Hoosac Tunnel Dated. 1888.

Sentinel Souvenir Edition, June 18, 1892. The construction of the Boston, Clinton & Fitchburg railroad & its connections.

Newspaper article - Boston, Clinton & Fitchburg Railroad annual meeting.

Dedication- Trial Trip of the new Steamer City of Fitchburg, which will take place in the Harbor of New Bedford, June 12, 1874.

Announcement - Mr. E. F. Wetherell, appointed passenger and Ticket Agent for the Boston, Clinton, Fitchburg & New Bedford Railroad Co.

Treasurer's Address: Boston & Lowell R.R. Office, Boston, July 1, 1876.

Memorandum of an agreement, June, 1875.

Boston, Clinton & Fitchburg Railroad, Treasurer's Office, June, 26, 1867.

Letter request from Mrs. Oliver P. Ramsey, requesting information about the old railroad which ran between Fitchburg and Sterling Junction. The R.R. ran the 14 miles to Sterling Junction and connected with Worcester, and opened in 1848. It had three cars, Washaum, Rollstone and Uncle Tom.

Freight Receipt received by the Fitchburg Railroad, Nov. 12, 1892.

Fitchburg Railroad Corp. Boston Depot, June 15, 1948, received from Silas Peirece & Co in good order to be shipped to the Groton Depot.

Agricultural Branch Railroad Stockholders Notice, May 30, 1867.

Guide to persons visiting Boston 1846.

Farm Service Division of Fitchburg, MA operates company's only railroad system. Mileage 2,260 feet built by Joe Cushing, and named the Joe Cushing Railraod Company. Sept. 9, 1871. Reader's Digest article on the Joe Cushing Railroad - February 1950.

Picture of the Joe Cushing Office Group

Numerous newpaper articles on the Joe Cushing Railroad.

Picture of Dana Goodwin, member of the Fitchburg Historical Society is shown with the bell the topped the last switching locomotive on the Old Cushing Railroad. The bell was purchased by the Fitchburg Historical Society.

Old Colony Railroad - Report of the Massachuseetts Board of Railroad Commissioners in relartion to the Accident of the Old Colony Railroad new the Quincy Station, Tuesday, Aug. 19, 1890.

Eight blank Old Colony RR recieved from for good to be delivered.

Votes authhorizing consolidation with Old Colony Railroad to become one corporation with the Boston, Clinton, Fitchburg and New Bedford Railroad Company - March 16, 1882.

Old Colony Railroad - Summer Schedule, June 23, 1884.

Book of the Troy & Greenfield Railroad - Alvah Crocker - Some hand written notes along with newpaper articles. Feb. 14, 1866.

Vermont & Mass R.R. Monthly Ticket Report, Fitchburg Station, February, 1874.

Newpaper article - Old "Beehive" Engine house of Vermond & Mass. Railroad, near present location of corner of Water & Laurel Streets. Much of part of Fitchburg days gone by was the train depot. Located near what is now the Water Street Bridge, the original station was bullt in 1845. Later torn down, it was replaced with a new structure in 1877. This station has since been torn down.

Lease of the Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad Company, to the Fitchburg Railroad Company for 99 years, from Jan. 1, 1874.

Vt. & MA balance sheet as of December 31, 1969 & Dec. 31, 1970.

VT & MA - Notice of annual meeting, April 14, 1971.Rates for Transporation of Merchandise over the Vermont, Massachusetts and Fitchburg Railroad, March 1, 1849 - From Theresa Garfield, 1942.

VT & MA Time Table starting June 26,1849 from Theresa Garfield, 1942.

VT & MA Time Table starting July 23, 1849 from Theresa Garfield 1942.

VT & MA Time Table starting Aug. 7, 1850 from Theresa Garfield 1942.

VT & M Railroad, stations and rates of Fare & Distance, July 1, 1850 from Theresa Garfield.

Ticket #8276 Old Colony Railraod, from Fitcburg to South Fitchburg, March 31, 1885.

Ticket #2059 Fitchburg Railroad from Boson to Charlestown

Ticket #16014 Green Mountain Railroad

Ticket #4907 Fitchburg Railroad from Fitchburg to Gardner, May 30, 1899.

Ticket #522 Fitchburg Railroad from Waltham to Boston, Sept. 15, ? (could be 1899.

Ticket #9644 Fitchburg Railroad from Boston to Waltham.

Four Western Union Telegraph Co. will transmit on its lines on account of the Frank messages sighed by J. H. Daniels, Station Agent, Fitchburg Railroad, between Boston and Burlington, VT, Dec 31, 1876. From Mrs. Florence R. D. Daniels.

Annual pass to Mr. J H. Daniels & Wife, Acting Agent of the Fitchburg Railroad. Good until Dec., 31, 1875. From Mrs. Florence R. D. Daniels.

Boston, Clinton & Fitchburg R.R. pass to Mr. Garfield from Fitchburg to Providence . From Mrs. T. N. Garfield, 1940.

Boston, Clinton & Fitchburg R.R. from Fitchburg to Oak Bluff, Sept. 16, 1871. From Mrs. Florence R. D. Daniels

Connecticut River Railroad pass to J. H. Daniels, Fitchburg Agent until Dec. 31, 1875. From Florence R. D. Daniels.

The Boston & Maine Railroad Company estend the courtesy of free travel until Dec. 31, 1875 to J. H. Daniels, Esq. Station Agent, Fitchburg Railroad.

Annual pass Fitchburg Railroad to J. H. Daniels & Wife, acting station agent, Fitchburg R. R. until Dec. 31, 1876. From Mrs. Florence R. D. Daniels.

annual pass Worcester & Nashua R.R. to J. H. Daniels, ticket agent for Fitchburg R.R. until Dec. 31,1875. From Mrs. Florence R. D. Daniels.

Boston, Clinton & Fitchburg R. R. pass to Mr. Garfield, Fitchburg to Worcester & return. Sept. 1870. From Mrs. T. N. Garfield, 1940

Old Colony Rairoad pass for J. H. Daniels, Fitchburg agent until Dec. 31, 1875. From Mrs. Florence R. D. Daniels

Fitchburg R. R. pass to Mr. Garfield from Boston to Fitchburg and return. Feb. 9, 1872. From Mrs. T. n Garfield, 1940.

Vermont & Massachusetts and Troy and Greenfield Railroads pass to bearer from Troy, NY to Fitchburg and return. From Mrs. Florence R. D. Daniels.

Providence & Worcester R. R. pass to Mr. Garfield from Worcester to Providence and return, June 28, 1869. From Mrs. T. N. Garfield, 1940.

Fitchburg Railroad, January, 1873 for Mr. J. H. Daniels between Fitchburg and Boston until Dec. 31, 1873

Joe Cushing R. R. pass to John H. Daniels until Dec. 31, 1873. From Robert S. Parker, 1928.

Two blank Joe Cushing Railroad passes, good until Dec. 31, 1873. From Ernest W. Gilson, 1945.

Pass Boston, Clinton, Fitchburg, Mansfield & Framingham, Framingham & Lowell Railroad and branches good until Dec. 31, 1873 for J. H. D. Garfield, from Mrs. T. N. Garfield, 1940.

Boston, Clinton & Fitchburg, New Bedford, Framingham & Lowell R.R. pass to J. H. Daniels, good until Dec. 31, 1875. From Mrs. Florence R. D. Daniels.

Central Vermont Railroad including lease lines, pass to J. H. Daniels, Agent Fitchburg Railroad, until Dec. 31, 1875. From Mrs. Florence R. D. Daniels.

Chesire & Ashritelot Railroad, pass to J. H. Daniels, acting statiion agent Fitchburg Railroad, during the current year, 1875. From Mrs. Florence R. D. Daniels.

Boston & Albany R.R. Dec. 2, 1967. Good ony for the Train & Day received. Western R.R. Opened to Springfield, Sept. 27, 1839.

Four tickets for the Fitchburg & Leominster Street Railway Company. Each ticket good for one fare not exceeding five cents.

Concord and Montreal RR 4-4-0 - History

Annual (also called complimentary) railroad passes are tangible pieces of history that many railroadiana collectors love. These are popular because they are easy to date (the year is printed on them). Passes are small and easy to ship and display. Furthermore, there are virtually no fakes out there to drive down prices. Some railroad passes were issued for obscure lines that might not otherwise have any outstanding memorabilia exist from them. It is easy to understand why antique railroad passes are popular, but how do you know how much they are worth?

Just like any other collectible, old railroad passes are valued based purely on supply and demand. Some passes are relatively plentiful but still sell for a few hundred dollars. Other passes are rare and obscure, but no one really follows them, so they only bring $20 to $30. Let’s talk about the factors that make one pass more valuable than another.

Location, Railroad, Time Period

These are the three major elements that drive the value of an old railroad pass. There is a certain nostalgia associated with railroads that ran in the Old West. If the railroad has a history that ties into a specific historic event then that also might boost the value of as pass from the same time period. Geography is also important. Passes from Colorado railroads have a very strong following. We are also seeing passes from Florida and Texas sell well right now. One railroad might have 200 people actively collecting it, while another railroad might only have 3 collectors chasing its memorabilia. Obviously the more people you can get interested in a pass, the more money it will sell for. You definitely need to pay attention to the issue year. The golden era of passes is considered 1860 to 1900. Very few passes dated after 1920 will have the chance to be worth more than a couple dollars each.

Colors and Vignettes

This kind of ties into the time period aspect of valuing passes. Some antique railroad passes are simply small works of art and a testament to the printing standards that existed in the 19th century. Fonts, colors, and vignettes can often make a pass that would be worth $20 into a pass worth $100. The pass we are showing has virtually no color, but the train scene is well above average. It was not unusual for railroads to incorporate symbolic imagery into their passes. For example, some railroads in SC used palmetto trees and some railroads in Texas used the lone star symbol. Little stuff like that can make a pass more appealing to a wider range of collectors. Railroads usually mixed up the colors of their passes between years so it was easy to tell at a glance if the complimentary pass was still valid or expired. It is not unusual to see lots or purples, yellows, blues, reds, and oranges in addition to your traditional beige and brown colors.

Pass Material

Well over 99% of annual passes are paper printed on a thick cardboard stock. However, some rare railroad passes were made of silver and even gold. As you can imagine, if someone gave you a slab of silver or gold you probably weren’t going to throw it away. So these aren’t necessarily hard to find, but they are expensive. Some passes were more like medals that could be worn around the neck. There is a subset of collectors who focus on non-paper annual passes.

Famous Users

The idea behind a complimentary pass was that the person who it was issued to could ride that railroad line for free for the entire year. These were typically issued to railroad employees and their family members. However, just like celebrities get special treatment today, back in the 1800s it was not unusual for figureheads outside of the company to get their own special pass. We are showing a Pullman pass that was issued to president Chester Arthur while he was in office. Something like that is going to have a more universal appeal. Just remember that the signature is not actually that of the famous person. It is signed by the person who issued the pass.

Wildcard Factors

From our experience there are certain “unwritten” rules that can help add a little extra value to antique railroad passes. As collectors, we like to see text that is handwritten instead of typed in. Typed text is pretty much the standard starting in 1900. Fancy cursive handwriting just adds a certain old and antique feel that is really lost when they moved to typed passes. Don’t totally discount the serial number. There is certainly a premium if you find a railroad pass that is the number one pass for that year and line.

Looking To Sell Or Need An Appraisal?

We think our guide is one of the best on the internet, but there is still no substitute for working directly with an expert. We buy and sell hundreds of passes on an annual basis. Please contact us if you are looking for an offer on your single pass or entire collection. You will find our pricing aggressive and our dealings very honest. We look forward to hearing from you.

Why did people come here?

In the summer months of the years following the Civil War, when the nation’s economy was changing from agricultural to industrial, life in the city was not pleasant. Dirt, noise, and disease were facts of life. The upper-upper class decided to take action by moving to some place nearby where the air was certifiably cleaner according to the U.S. Hay Fever Association, and the hotels could accommodate Master, Madame, and mistress, butlers, valets, ladies-in-waiting, drivers, and the kids. They came around late May and left before Labor Day for the most part. The same pattern was seen in the Adirondacks, the Catskills, the Poconos, and southern Maine. The railroads were quite happy to accommodate this trade, taking advantage of the fact that national highways did not yet exist, and air travel was just a curiosity. Stations like this one featured separate waiting rooms and lavatories for men and women/children.

Concord and Montreal RR 4-4-0 - History


An economic engine that opened up opportunity to many communities in New Hampshire.

Railroad Stations

Unique architecture made some stations gems, but they were all important landmarks in their communities.

Street Railways

Getting us to work and taking us to play, street railways defined our early cities and provided local escapes.


Find out what was in your hometown, from the steel connecting cities to the locations of rural depots.

About Nashua City Station

Nashua City Station is a public display of pieces from the private collection of Matthew Cosgro.

Nashua City Station Railroad History captures and shares the early lifeblood of our communities - the railroads that criss-crossed New Hampshire. Explore old rail lines and trolley routes, see trains as they are today, and bike down the historic pathways of the mighty iron horse. There's a lot to our railroading past. Watch your step and enjoy your visit. Don't worry, it'll be a while 'till the next train leaves.

Nashua City Station Railroad History
© 2021 Matthew D. Cosgro

Watch the video: Source Analysis OPCVL Method IB History Resource