Book of Exodus

Book of Exodus


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Introduction to the Book of Exodus

The word exodus means “exit” or “departure.” The book of Exodus provides an account of Israel’s departure from bondage in Egypt and their preparation to inherit the promised land as the Lord’s covenant people. Israel’s departure from bondage and journey through the wilderness can symbolize our journey through a fallen world and back to the presence of God (see Bible Dictionary, “Pauline Epistles,” “Analysis of Hebrews,” 6b). As students study this book they will learn about the Lord’s power to deliver them from sin. They will also learn that commandments, ordinances, and covenants can help them prepare to receive the blessings of eternal life.


Important characters in Exodus

Exodus has a tight cast of important characters to keep an eye on.

God (Yahweh)—the creator of heaven and earth and the divine being who chooses the nation of Israel to represent him on earth. God goes to war against the gods of Egypt, frees Israel from their tyranny, and then makes a pact with the new nation. While the rest of the nations serve lesser gods, Yahweh selects the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as the people group that will serve him and him alone.

Moses—the greatest of the Old Testament prophets who serves as a go-between for God and the other humans in the book of Exodus. Moses negotiates with Pharaoh for Israel’s freedom, passes God’s laws on to the people of Israel, and even pleads for mercy on Israel’s behalf when they anger God.

Aaron—Moses’ brother and right hand. Aaron assists Moses as a spokesperson, and eventually is made the high priest of the nation of Israel.

Pharaoh—the chief antagonist in the Exodus story. Pharaoh enslaves the nation of Israel, commits genocide, and is generally a huge jerk.Pharaoh is worshiped as part of the Egyptian pantheon: a lesser god laying an illegitimate claim to God’s people. God defeats Pharaoh and the gods of Egypt by sending a series of ten devastating plagues, and finally destroying Pharaoh’s army in the Red Sea.


Book of Exodus - History

The book of Exodus consists mainly of two genres, Narrative History and Laws. It was written by Moses about 1450-1410 B.C. The key personalities include Moses, Miriam, Pharaoh, Pharaoh&rsquos daughter, Aaron, and Joshua. It was written to record the events of Israel&rsquos deliverance from slavery in Egypt. It describes the events to the reader in chronological order and also lists the Laws that God has given to the Israelites, in order to guide them in their relationship with Him.

• Chapters 1-7 of Exodus, introduce Moses and the Israelites in bondage in Egypt. This setting is approximately 400 years after Joseph and his families were living in Goshen at the end of Genesis. God protects baby Moses and spares his life, as Moses is adopted by Pharaoh&rsquos daughter and is raised as an Egyptian. God calls Moses with a special revelation, through a burning bush to release His people from slavery in Egypt. Moses obeys and with his brother Aaron, confronts Pharaoh to let God&rsquos people go free, but Pharaoh ignores the warning.

• In Chapters 7-13, Moses through the power of God releases 10 plagues of different sorts on the land of Egypt which included, turning all the water to blood, plagues of insects, boils, and hail. Finally, the death of every first-born son, this included the death of Pharaoh&rsquos eldest who would someday inherit the kingdom of Egypt. However, the Israelites obeyed God and followed the ordinance of the Passover and God spared them.

• Chapters 14-18 describe the Exodus or &ldquoExit&rdquo from Egypt. Pharaoh can no longer endure the plagues that God poured on Egypt and himself and allows them to leave. Moses and the Israelites escape making it to the Red Sea. Shortly after, Pharaoh changes his mind and pursues them, but God destroys his army with the sea.

• Chapters 19-24, Moses presents all of the Laws to all the people at Mt. Sinai as God has commanded.

• From chapters 25-40, Moses gives the Israelites the tabernacle, priest and worship instructions.


Why the Book of Exodus Matters For Your Life

Exodus comes from a Greek word meaning &ldquoexit&rdquo or &ldquodeparture.&rdquo The Exodus happened around either 1240 or 1440 BC. Tradition holds that Moses wrote the book of Exodus. Though scholars speculate and debate, there is no good reason to deny that Moses wrote the book.

The book of Exodus records the history of Israel&rsquos enslavement to Pharaoh and their freedom through a deliverer that God raised up. This deliverer was named Moses, and Moses was given the task of leading his people out of Egypt to the promised land, the land of Canaan. This event was called the Exodus.

Exodus reveals the God who saves his people. From Exodus we come to understand that God is actively involved in history. He hears prayer. He answers. He saves, but God does things in his own way, in his own time, and for his own glory. Exodus teaches us what we should expect from God. Exodus gives us reason to trust God in difficult times. Exodus shows how God is at work to save the world from sin, death, and the devil.

The Story of Exodus

The story begins with Israel as an oppressed people in Egypt. Israel was a foreign people who came to Egypt during a great famine. The pharaoh welcomed them. Years went by. A new pharaoh ascended to the throne, and this pharaoh was unaware of the history of all Joseph did to help Egypt. The pharaoh grew worried by the size of Israel&rsquos population, so he decided to do two things. The first was to force the Israelites into slave labor. The second was to mandate the killing of all newborn male children. It was into this situation that Moses was born.

In an attempt to spare Moses, his mother placed him in a basket and sent him down the Nile River. Farther down the river, Pharaoh&rsquos daughter was bathing and accidentally discovered the baby Moses. She recognized the child as belonging to one of the Israelites, but she had compassion on the boy and adopted him.

After many years and a new pharaoh, God met Moses in a burning bush. There God called him to be his prophet and lead his people to the land of Canaan, but there was a problem. The new pharaoh still held God&rsquos people in slavery. When Moses approached Pharaoh about freeing the Israelites, Pharaoh refused to let them go. Thus, God intervened. He brought plague after plague upon the Egyptians until Pharaoh agreed to let the Israelites leave. It took twelve plagues for Pharaoh to admit defeat.

As Moses and the Israelites began to leave, Pharaoh, still unwilling to admit defeat, changed his mind. He and the Egyptian army pursued the Israelites up to the Red Sea. Moses and the people had come to what looked like a dead end, but God was with them. Through a great miracle, God spread the waters of the Red Sea so that Israel could walk across on dry land. When the Egyptians tried to walk across the parted sea, God released the waves, drowning the Egyptian army.

The Pattern of Salvation

After God saved his people from Egyptian bondage, he began to prepare the world for a salvation from greater slavery. Through the Mosaic Law and Israel&rsquos temple worship, God brought his people into a loving relationship to prepare them for the coming Messiah. The Messiah would come to save the world from sin, death, and the devil. This, Jesus did.

Exodus shapes both Jewish and Christian identity. Its themes are a major part of the Psalms and the Old Testament prophetical books. Many themes in Exodus are taken up in the New Testament and displayed in Jesus&rsquo life, death, and resurrection.

Slavery

Exodus is a book about salvation from slavery. It records the history of Israel&rsquos enslavement to Pharaoh and their freedom through a deliverer that God raised up. This deliverer was named Moses, and Moses was given the task of leading his people out of Egypt to the promised land, the land of Canaan. This event was called the Exodus.

In the United States, people tend to think of the African-American experience in regard to slavery, but let&rsquos think broader than that. Slavery exists in many forms. Some slavery is imposed from the outside other slavery is within our hearts. Exodus answers both. Exodus gives words of hope to people suffering from injustice and to those suffering from their own demons.

Addiction

One way to think about slavery existing on the inside&mdashwithin the heart&mdashis through the lens of addiction. I have seen drug addiction up close and personal. No one ever plans to become addicted. If anything, people begin with a desire to escape life. After a while, the addiction becomes a harsh master, and the one addicted becomes a slave. An addict may even begin to steal from friends and family to support the habit&mdashto obey the master. The very thing one uses to find salvation becomes the bondage from which they need saving.

Drug addiction is a clear picture of humanity&rsquos struggle. It shows how ugly life can be. All people desire happiness. The problem is that life is filled with misery. We are victims of our own warped desires, and we are victimizers of other human beings. We need an escape. We need salvation.

Like drug addiction, people don&rsquot break free from life&rsquos struggles alone. They need an intervention. They need someone to come from the outside and save them from the bondage and darkness. This is what God does. He enters into our lives and he saves us from ourselves and the oppression of sin, death, and the devil (Rom. 8:21 Acts 10:38 Eph. 4:27 6:11 1 Tim. 3:6).

Liberation

When Jesus began his ministry, he described his mission as proclaiming liberty to the captives:

The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord&rsquos favor. (Luke 4:18&ndash19)

This salvation comes to its summation in the resurrection from the dead. All who put their faith in Jesus Christ for salvation will rise to glory with Jesus and enjoy eternal life with God (John 3:16&ndash19 Rom. 8:18&ndash25 1 John 1&ndash4).

Exodus shows us the God who is concerned to save his people. It shows us that our God is working, often in the background and beyond our knowing, to save us in ways we could never imagine. As you read Exodus, pay attention to how God saves his people each step along the way. Let this illumine your understanding of how God works in your life. See God enter into a world of death to bring his people into a new life. Use this book to reflect upon how God has raised you from death to life, through the blood of Jesus Christ.


Is there any evidence of the exodus?

Critics of the Bible have suggested there is no evidence of a mass Hebrew exodus from Egypt. The typical claim is that Egyptian records mention neither this event nor large slave populations, and there is a lack of bones or graves in the wilderness. Such criticisms are factually incorrect: there is archaeological evidence that corresponds to the Bible’s description of the exodus.

A Daunting Task

It’s important to realize that “proof” of ancient events is extraordinarily rare. Mountains of obvious evidence don’t typically survive three thousand years, even when the event itself is significant. It’s only reasonable to look for remnants, circumstantial evidence, collaborating artifacts, and perhaps some random documents. Of course, insisting that evidence must be found outside the Bible is, itself, an unfair bias. Scripture is part of ancient written records, whether skeptics appreciate it or not. For those not committed to rejecting such things out of hand, archaeological evidence favors a real, historical exodus of Israel from Egypt.

Examining evidence fairly means avoiding myths and poor assumptions. Pop culture is not historical evidence. For example, movies such as The Prince of Egypt and The Ten Commandments use the name Rameses for the Pharaoh of the exodus. However, Scripture never identifies Pharaoh using that name. Looking for explicit evidence of the exodus in connection with the reign of Rameses II is an attempt to verify a movie, not the Bible. Skeptics who assume the Bible speaks of Rameses are not only looking at the wrong sources but very possibly the wrong time period.

Cultures use different dating systems, not all of which are consistent. Even when there is ample evidence of an occurrence, it can be difficult for historians to know exactly what dates were involved. This is particularly true of Egyptian history, the record of which is erratic. Egyptians sometimes recorded rulers who reigned simultaneously as if they were consecutive, for example. Even experts in Egyptian archaeology would admit that dating anything using ancient Egyptian records requires an inflated level of tolerance.

Support from Archaeology

Attempting to narrowly date ancient events is difficult. However, biblical scholars typically place the exodus from Egypt somewhere between 1446 and 1225 BC. Within that period, there is ample archaeological evidence to reinforce the account of Scripture. For example:

&bull Pyramids built of mud-and-straw bricks (Exodus 5:7&ndash8) and both written and physical evidence that Asiatic people were enslaved in Egypt (Exodus 1:13&ndash14).

&bull Skeletons of infants of three months old and younger, usually several in one box, buried under homes in a slave town called Kahun (Exodus 1:16), corresponding to Pharaoh’s slaughter of Hebrew infants.

&bull Masses of houses and shops in Kahun, abandoned so quickly that tools, household implements, and other possessions were left behind. The findings suggest the abandonment was total, hasty, and done on short notice (Exodus 12:30&ndash34, 39), consistent with the Israelites’ sudden exit from Egypt in the wake of Passover.

&bull Court advisors used rods that look like snakes (Exodus 7:10&ndash12). This partly corroborates the magical opposition against Moses performed by Pharaoh’s advisors.

&bull The Ipuwer Papyrus, a work of poetry stating, in part, “Plague stalks through the land and blood is everywhere. . . . Nay, but the river is blood . . . gates, columns and walls are consumed with fire . . . the son of the high-born man is no longer to be recognized. . . . The stranger people from outside are come into Egypt. . . . Nay, but corn has perished everywhere.”

&bull The Amarna letters, ancient correspondence between Egyptian and Middle Eastern rulers, blame significant unrest on a people group labeled as Habiru or ‘Apiru (Exodus 9:1).

&bull Discoveries also include evidence of cities such as Jericho being conquered during that timeframe.

Possible Pharaohs

Several scenarios in the annals of Egyptian rulers dovetail with the biblical book of Exodus. The “early” 1446 BC date of the exodus would align the slaughter of infants (Exodus 1:16&ndash21) with either Thutmose I or Amenhotep I, whose reputations would support such an act. It would place the life of Moses in the same general era as Hatshepsut, a woman who co-ruled Egypt (Exodus 2:5&ndash6) and was at odds with her stepson Thutmose III. He would have had good reason to evict her adopted son, given the chance (Exodus 2:14&ndash15). This would align the liberation of Israel with the rule of Amenhotep II. His army notably stopped military campaigns in 1446 BC (Exodus 14:28), and his eventual successor, Thutmose IV, was scoffed at for being less-than-legitimate (Exodus 11:4&ndash5 12:29).

That is not the only possible match. A minority of Egyptologists advocate for a significant revision of the historical timeline, shifting the “actual date” of some Egyptian dynasties by centuries. One such theory would align the book of Exodus with Amenemhat III, who had no surviving sons and a childless daughter, Sobekneferu (Exodus 2:5&ndash10). Her death ended that Dynasty. Soon after came Neferhotep I, who left behind no mummy (Exodus 14:28), and, although he had a son (Exodus 11:4&ndash5 12:29), he was instead succeeded by his brother.

There Is Evidence of the Exodus

In summary, non-biblical archaeological evidence shows that the main details of the book of Exodus are not merely plausible, but they are present in archaeology. That era of Egypt’s history includes elements corresponding to a sizable Hebrew workforce in Egypt, which rapidly evacuated in connection with a time of chaos, under Pharaohs whose histories fit with the details of Exodus, and preceding conquest in the land of Canaan.

One Last Bone to Pick

This same approach to history applies to the supposed lack of Hebrew remains in the desert between Egypt and Israel. First and foremost, this complaint ignores traditional burial practices of Israel. This included disinterring bodies after a year, in order to rebury the bones in a common family location. Patriarchs such as Jacob and Joseph famously had their bones relocated after death (Exodus 13:19 Joshua 24:32). This practice was the origin of the phrase gathered to his fathers or to sleep with one’s fathers, in parallel to its implications for the afterlife.

Nature isn’t prone to preserving remains for long, either, let alone for three thousand years. Worse, one of the consequences for disobedience, about which God warned Israel, was improper burial (Deuteronomy 28:26 cf. 1 Corinthians 10:5). Hasty or slipshod burial would allow scavengers and the elements to eradicate a body relatively quickly. This means there is no “lack” of Hebrew graves or bones in the wilderness&mdashthere’s no rational reason to expect such remains to be abundant.


Exodus

The Biblical book of Exodus describes the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, so it's no surprise that the word has come to refer more generally to any mass departure. The word itself was adopted into English (via Latin) from Greek Exodos, which literally means "the road out." The Greek word was formed by combining the prefix ex- and hodos, meaning "road" or "way." Other descendants of the prolific hodos in English include episode, method, odometer, and period. There are also several scientific words that can be traced back to hodos. Anode and cathode can refer, respectively, to the positive and negative electrodes of a diode, and hodoscope refers to an instrument for tracing the paths of ionizing particles.


Who Were the People Enslaved in Egypt?

They were Hebrews, possibly those who had come to Egypt from Canaan when the Hyksos ruled and were enslaved when the latter fell from power in the 16th century B.C.E. The Hebrews were apparently an aggregate of tribal and/or social groupings who traced their origins to a common ancestor, a legendary, &ldquoeponymous&rdquo father figure Jacob. Certain scholars believe that only a few tribes (those identified with Joseph and Benjamin, the &ldquoRachel&rdquo tribes) were lodged in Egypt, while other Hebrew groupings (the &ldquoLeah&rdquo tribes) never left Canaan, and that all these tribes joined hands during the invasion.

This highly speculative theory has not been taken into account in the preparation of this commentary. Rather, we have proceeded from the text as it now stands, and in this way&ndashafter its final redaction&ndashit has been accepted by Israel and has exerted an enormous influence. Whether or not the events happened exactly as described is in the final instance less important than the way in which they were experienced and comprehended. Whether or not God &ldquoobjectively&rdquo rescued Israel from Egypt is a question to which no historian can provide an answer. But Exodus, the repository of Israel&rsquos experience, says that He did, and on this basis history and faith together have shaped the minds and hearts of Israel&hellip


Establishing a definitive date for the Exodus is a difficult challenge given the fact that several thousand years have passed since the events. However, the Scriptures and extra-Biblical resources offer some guidance on when it may have taken place, so we will use this information to guide our estimate.

There are a number of proposed dates for the Exodus, ranging from before 2000 B.C., to the more commonly accepted date of around 1290-1250 B.C. Many Biblical scholars place the Exodus in the 13th-century B.C.

One of the arguments in favor of a 13th-century date is the claim that the Hebrews built the city of Raamses. As Exodus 1:11 recounts,

So they appointed taskmasters over them to afflict them with hard labor. And they built for Pharaoh storage cities, Pithom and Raamses.

The conclusion frequently reached is that since this city of Raamses was built at Pharaoh's orders, it was a city named in honor of the current Pharaoh one may then reasonably believe that the Pharaoh was Ramesses II.

However, a site named Rameses existed centuries before Ramesses II became Pharaoh. When Joseph was still living, his family settled in Egypt during the great famine. When his father Jacob and his brothers came to Egypt, Genesis 47:11 recounts that they settled in the land of Rameses.

So Joseph settled his father and his brothers and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had ordered.

This land already had the name Rameses well before Ramesses II or his grandfather Ramesses I. What may have happened is that this part of Egypt was settled for some time, but Pharaoh Ramesses II built it up even more during his reign into a highly important center of power.

However, a storage city does not necessarily fit with the descriptions of the city that Ramesses II built. It is possible that he may have built upon an existing city, which may have been the store-city of Raamses.

Another potential issue for the later Exodus date is that it sets up a conflict with the timeline for the Era of the Judges. This era encompassed 15 judges over the course of about 350 years. If the Exodus took place in the 13th-century, this places the beginning of King Saul's reign the 11th-century B.C.

However, Saul and David's reigns amounted to 80 combined years, which would put King Solomon's reign into the 9th century B.C., decades after he died. The fairly certain start date for his reign is in the 10th-century, around 970 B.C., and his reign lasted 40 years.

A second popular date for the Exodus is 1446 B.C. It is our contention that this is the correct date. The 13th-century date isn't necessarily impossible, but with current knowledge of ancient Israelite history, we believe that the 1446 date better fits the criteria.

The Biblical Timeline

The Scripture offers a few guideposts for dating the Exodus. One of the clearest is in 1 Kings 6:1.

Now it came about in the four hundred and eightieth year after the sons of Israel came out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month of Ziv which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord.

King Solomon's reign is thought by most scholars to have begun in the year 970 B.C. The fourth year of his reign would be 966 B.C. From 966 B.C., 480 years prior would be 1446 B.C.

Dr. Glen Fritz, author of The Lost Sea of the Exodus, also believes that the Exodus took place approximately in the year 1446 B.C. He also cites 1 Kings 6 as an important piece of evidence but emphasizes some key points about this particular passage.

Biblical scholar Umberto Cassuto found that the author recorded the time which had past in ascending order, rather than descending. Measurements made in this manner were designed to be highly precise, not estimated or figurative (Fritz, 18).

The author(s) of the Books of the Kings were not merely scribes, but were prophets, individuals who were held to the highest standards of truth. Falsity was an offense punishable by death, according to Deuteronomy 18:20. The fact that such precise measurements were used indicates to us that this was no lackadaisical record.

In the book of Acts, the Apostle Paul recounted the sequence of events from the Hebrew entrance into Egypt, all the way to the birth of Jesus in his attempt to prove Jesus' status as the Messiah.

Paul, who was a Pharisee and very knowledgeable in Jewish history, stated that from Jacob's move to Egypt to the time of the prophet Samuel, the total time elapsed was about 450 years. Acts 13:17-20 says:

The God of the people of Israel chose our ancestors he made the people prosper during their stay in Egypt with mighty power he led them out of that country for about forty years he endured their conduct in the wilderness and he overthrew seven nations in Canaan, giving their land to his people as their inheritance. All this took about 450 years. After this, God gave them judges until the time of Samuel the prophet.

The prophet Samuel lived in the 11th-century B.C. 450 years in time places the Exodus in the 15th-century B.C. Since Paul's timeframe is an estimate, there is some give and take, but a date of 1446 is within the range he gave.

Another guidepost is offered by Paul in the book of Galatians. There, he recounted the number of years from when God made his promise to Abraham to the giving of the Law at Mount Sinai. Galatians 3:16-17 says,

The promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. Scripture does not say “and to seeds,” meaning many people, but “and to your seed,” meaning one person, who is Christ. What I mean is this: The law, introduced 430 years later, does not set aside the covenant previously established by God and thus do away with the promise.

Paul's timeframe marks two distinct points in Jewish history: Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac, and the giving of the law at Mount Sinai after the Exodus.

Many Bible translations of Exodus 12:40-41state that the Hebrews were slaves in Egypt for 430 years. However, the authors of the Septuagint translation in 250 B.C. stated that they lived in Egypt and Canaan during this time, not just Egypt alone.

The New American Standard Bible translates Exodus 12:40-41 as:

Now the time that the sons of Israel lived in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years. And at the end of four hundred and thirty years, to the very day, all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt.

The Septuagint, directly translated, reads:

And the sojourning of the children of Israel, while they sojourned in the land of Egypt and the land of Chanaan, four hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass after the four hundred and thirty years, all the forces of the Lord came forth out of the land of Egypt by night.

430 years from the Exodus (assuming the 1446 B.C. date) would place the sacrifice of Isaac in about 1876 B.C. Since Abraham was one hundred years old at the time Isaac was born, he would likely have been born in the late 20th century B.C.

We believe that the Septuagint scholars at Alexandria understood the time period mentioned to Abraham encompassed the era of the Patriarchs in Canaan, and the time of bondage in Egypt after the death of Joseph. This chronology places the Exodus approximately in the middle of the 15th century B.C., and linking this with the precise account of 1 Kings 6, specifically to 1446 B.C.

This date is not dogma for us, however, and when new information is presented to us regarding the date of this event, we will re-examine our position as we pursue the truth wherever it leads.


Book of Exodus - History

The second book of the Pentateuch is called Exodus, from the Greek word for “departure,” because its central event was understood by the Septuagint’s translators to be the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. Its Hebrew title, Shemoth (“Names”), is from the book’s opening phrase, “These are the names….” Continuing the history of Israel from the point where the Book of Genesis leaves off, Exodus recounts the Egyptian oppression of Jacob’s ever-increasing descendants and their miraculous deliverance by God through Moses, who led them across the Red Sea to Mount Sinai where they entered into a covenant with the Lord. Covenantal laws and detailed prescriptions for the tabernacle (a portable sanctuary foreshadowing the Jerusalem Temple) and its service are followed by a dramatic episode of rebellion, repentance, and divine mercy. After the broken covenant is renewed, the tabernacle is constructed, and the cloud signifying God’s glorious presence descends to cover it.

These events made Israel a nation and confirmed their unique relationship with God. The “law” (Hebrew torah) given by God through Moses to the Israelites at Mount Sinai constitutes the moral, civil, and ritual legislation by which they were to become a holy people. Many elements of it were fundamental to the teaching of Jesus (Mt 5:21–30 15:4) as well as to New Testament and Christian moral teaching (Rom 13:8–10 1 Cor 10:1–5 1 Pt 2:9).

The principal divisions of Exodus are:

I. Introduction: The Oppression of the Israelites in Egypt (1:1–2:22)

II. The Call and Commission of Moses (2:23–7:7)

III. The Contest with Pharaoh (7:8–13:16)

IV. The Deliverance of the Israelites from Pharaoh and Victory at the Sea (13:17–15:21)

V. The Journey in the Wilderness to Sinai (15:22–18:27)

VI. Covenant and Legislation at Mount Sinai (19:1–31:18)

VII. Israel’s Apostasy and God’s Renewal of the Covenant (32:1–34:35)

VIII. The Building of the Tabernacle and the Descent of God’s Glory upon It (35:1–40:38)


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