Hammurabi Timeline

Hammurabi Timeline


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  • 1795 BCE - 1750 BCE

    Reign of Hammurabi, king of Babylon.

  • c. 1792 BCE

    King Hammurabi builds walls of Babylon.

  • 1787 BCE

    Hammurabi of Babylon conquers Uruk and Isin.

  • c. 1772 BCE

    The Code of Hammurabi: One of the earliest codes of law in the world.

  • c. 1761 BCE

    Zimri-Lim, the last ruler of Mari dies for unknown reasons. His former ally, Hammurabi of Babylon, captures the city of Mari.

  • c. 1760 BCE - c. 1757 BCE

    Hammurabi of Babylon destroys the city of Mari. The people of Mari are spared according to Hammurabi.

  • 1755 BCE

    Hammurabi rules the whole of Mesopotamia from Babylon.

  • 1750 BCE

    Hammurabi dies of natural causes.

  • 1749 BCE

    Hammurabi's son, Samsu-Iluna, takes the throne. Empire begins to fall apart.


Hammurabi Timeline - History

Chronology of Management Thought (1800 - 2000)

Organization Theory or Strategic Management Human Relations or Behavioral Science Quantitative Methods or Engineering Economics or Philosophy

Management Thought Prior to 1800
Sumerians developed the Code of Ur-Nammu (

2100BCE-2050BCE). Earliest legal text that is still in existence.
Egyptians (

3000 BCE - 1500BCE). Egyptian papyri contain writings relevant to management.
Hammurabi developed the Code of Hammurabi (

1792 BCE - 1750 BCE). One of the first written codes of law. It is extensive and still in existence.
Sun Tsu wrote The Art of War (circa 476-221 BCE). His is very early work on strategy for military, government, and business.
Socrates (469 BCE - 399 BCE). Teacher and philosopher on morality, ethics, and government.
Aristotle (384 BCE - 322 BCE). Great teacher and philosopher. Developed formal inductive reasoning.
Marcus Aurelius wrote Meditations (121 CE - 180CE). Using Stoic Philosophy, these are his self-reflections designed to guide him.
Luca Pacioli wrote Summa de Arithmetica, Geometrica, Proportioni et Proportionalita (1494). Father of accounting. Codified double-entry bookkeeping, which had begun during the 1300's.
Niccolò Machiavelli wrote Principe (The Prince) (1513). The Prince is a practical guide to getting and keeping political power.
Cameralists (1500 - 1700). German and Austrian pseudo-economist advisers of monarchs.
Sir William Petty wrote Political Arithmetick (1690). Founder of Political Economy.
Adam Smith wrote The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). Father of Classical Economics

Created by David D. Van Fleet with Ella W. Van Fleet using a Timeline Widget and material from multiple sources but particularly Daniel A. Wren and Arthur G. Bedeian, The Evolution of Management Thought, Claude S. George, The History of Management Thought, and a paper by David, "Summarizing Management's Notable Individuals, Works, and Concepts in Chart Form."


Amraphael or Amraphel

Amraphael or Amraphel was a king of Sennaar or Shinar, situated at the southern part of the kingdom of Babylonia. Oftentimes, he is associated with the legendary King Hammurabi who reigned in ancient Babylon. He is located on the Amazing Bible Timeline with World History around 1954 B.C.

He was one of the four kings of the east who allied together to invade the five kingdoms in the west or the kingdoms of the Jordan plain during the time of Abram (Abraham). The three other kings were the head of alliance King Chedorlaomer of Elam, King Arioch of Pontus (Ellasar), and the king of the Nations (Goyim) King Tedal.

The war that happened at Valley of Siddim was called the Battle of Siddim. The battle was won by the four kings.

These Articles are Written by the Publishers of The Amazing Bible Timeline
Quickly See 6000 Years of Bible and World History Together

Unique Circular Format – see more in less space.
Learn facts that you can’t learn just from reading the bible
Attractive design ideal for your home, office, church …

King Hammurabi of Babylonia

King Hammurabi was the great ruler of Babylonia credited with the famous law code named Code of Laws. He was the sixth king of the first Babylonian dynasty. It is thought that he ruled for 55 years but the period of time he reigned as king is still debatable. But he supposedly reigned during the time the nations of Sumer and Akkad were ruled by the kingdom of Elam.

Hammurabi was credited with the Code of Laws which was thought to be the first and oldest code of law. It was found in the old capital city of Elam, Susa.

He was also credited for establishing the Babylonia as a united kingdom and built its capital city at Babylon.

King Amraphel associated with other names

King Amraphel of Shinar was usually connected to King Hammurabi of Babylonia. Babylonia was a divided kingdom. It was ruled by two kings. Aside from King Amraphel ruling Shinar, there was King Arioch heading Ellasar. The two leaders recognized the dominance of the King of Ela m .

It is presently acknowledged by the majority of the Biblical scholars and theologians that King Hammurabi and King Amraphel was one person. This assumption was first asserted by Schrader. Though the names of the two matched phonetically, this assumption is still subject for further clarifications.

There were also speculations that King Amraphel is Khammu-rabi who united the two kingdoms of Babylonia under his leadership after he won the battle against Arioch. He founded his capital at the city of Babylon.

Shinar and Babylonia

Shinar was also a nation associated with Babylonia. It is written a number of times in the Bible under the Old Testament. It was the spot where the shrine for a woman named Wickedness was constructed. The infamous Tower of Babel was also constructed from the bitumen gotten from the sea of Shinar. And after the Great Flood, it was where the survivor families of Shem, Ham, and Japheth went after they first settled in uplands of Armenia. Shinar was an area situated in Mesopotamia with no definite boundaries.

Babylonia was an old kingdom located at the central-southern of Mesopotamia where the modern day Iraq is presently found. Its capital city was Babylon founded by King Hammurabi after he defeated the Akkadian Empire. The oldest account relating to Babylon was written in a tablet during the time of the Akkadian Sargon. It is thought to be dated from the 13th century BC.

The official written language of the new empire was Semitic Akkadian while its religious written language was Sumerian.

It is situated in the middle of the two famous rivers, namely Euphrates and Tigris that’s why its land was largely made out of the alluvial deposits from these two rivers. A complex canal system of this ancient empire was a result of the combined effort of both man and nature. Its soil was rich enough to nurture agricultural products such as wheat, barley, sesame, dates, corns, palm tree, among other fruits and cereals.

King Amraphel in the Bible

Genesis 10:9-10. Nimrod, the mighty hunter started his kingdom in Shinar which included the lands of Babylon, Uruk, Akkad, and Kalneh.

Genesis 11:1-3. Shinar is Babylonia a kingdom situated at the plain in the east.

Genesis 14:1. Amraphel as the king of Shinar.

Genesis 14:8-10. King Amraphel as one of the four kings allied together to fight against the five kingdoms of the plain at the Valley of Siddim.


Insanity Defense Overview

The insanity defense was first observed in recorded history in the times of Hammurabi’s Code, which had exemptions for the insane. As time progressed, advancements were made, particularly in England, where the views of the insanity defense changed over time, and led up to the McNaughton Rules. These became the most popular form of the insanity defense, until new standards such as the Irresistible Impulse, the Durham Rule, and the ALI Model Penal code began to emerge in the 20th century. Some other advancements were made after that include the Guilty but Mentally Ill (GBMI) and the Federal Insanity Defense Act of 1984. Pleas for insanity are very rare. Only approximately one percent of defendants plead the insanity defense and only about one fourth of those actually are acquitted by the insanity defense (Knowles, 2000).

The Insanity Defense Timeline

1772 BC Hammurabi’s Code

27 BC–476 AD usage of the insanity defense in the Roman Empire


Hammurabi Timeline - History

Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye)

Member since - January, 2021

Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

*HUGE FIND: This video Dan Scavino tweeted on 11/13/20 predicted EXACTLY the position Donald Trump is in right now and also foreshadowed the election “loss” (and what will come after), it is the full “Game Theory”.

I didn’t initially understand when Dan Scavino tweeted this homage to President Donald Trump and the poem “If” by Rudyard Kipling that it was ALSO paying respect to the infamous Q movie White Squall which quotes it as well.

(Q-proof and transcription of poem in the comments).

Warning: Watching this WILL make you cry ⤵️

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

WE HAD SO MUCH MORE THAN WE KNEW!

Q told us to read Alice in Wonderland to know what’s going on with his posts and how they relate to events in the world around us.

I paraphrased the whole story with comments critiquing how it mirrors the epic journey we’re all on.

Pay special attention to the 6th & last pic because it describes the Wonderland trial of the TRUMP PLAYING CARD and details the whole Q movement perfectly.

This will be game changing if you haven’t studied the connections between the story, the drops and DT’s Plan to Save the World ⤵️.

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

D-DAY 77 (G=7th letter of alphabet = G-7)
D-Day = Special Operation LAUNCH
G-7 Summit 2021 = Water Theme
+ BlackHat CENTRAL

G7-7G (mirror) G-7 = 77 = GG
UK = U21 K11 21+11= 32 = 322
= Skull Bones 322 BlackHat CENTRAL

June 11-13 = G-7 (mirror 322)
All operators in same central local

Watch the Water = W32 T20 W23 = WTW 322/223 Reads same frontward & backward (mirror)

Watch the Water = REFLECTION = Think MIRROR

build back better/blood brain barrier
= bbb = 666 (Scull & Bones 322)
G-7 = Cornwall UK - Is the corn (on the COB CLNTN/OBMA/BDN) RIPE for harvesting?

Watch the G-7 Summit + + + so many 7’s
SKY/SUBMERGED - RED/YELLOW/GREEN

May 5 = 5/5 = 5:5 = Eyes ON = Clock Activated
3:09 = Q309 = Justice (JUSTICE!)

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

XVIII Airborne = Hang in there. We’re almost there. Long weekend coming up. = 10:00 AM

Q1000 = Epstein/PHONES/‘H’ (H=Hang)

CIA secretly own world’s top encryption supplier

= encryption for electronic devices = PHONES

‘H’ = Hang = Phones = ET phone home (DS com)

Multiple meanings exist = long weekend = G7 (WATER theme - Watch the WATER)

We are at the beginning of the end - Seals are being broken 1 by 1 - Truths are being exposed - Dark to Light - Morning sun brings HEAT - TGA

Q-TEAM has eyes on everyone (EVERYONE) including ALL 3 letter acronym agencies.

Wizard’s & Warlocks have access to ALL intel, baited black-hats into thinking they were safe by letting them commit crimes and evade justice for years so they’d expose themselves from A to Z. Now we have them ALL. No one gets a free pass.

HANG IN THERE - WE’RE ALMOST THERE. TGA!

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

WATCH THE WATER - ALL HANDS ON DECK

G7 2021 = Water Theme = Build Back Better

A1 B2 C3 D4 E5 F6 G7 - G7 - 77 - think MIRROR
- Watch the WATER - SKY event

build back better = blood brain barrier = bbb = 666

Watch The Water = W23+T20+W23 = 66

Future proves past.
You have so much more than you know.
Biggest intel drop in our known history.

Symbolism will be their downfall.

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

Dan Scavino tweets montage of DJT
with SuperMan theme song soundtrack.

Super Man = SM = S19 M13
= 1+9=10 1+3=4 = 10/4
= Message Received / Understood

Q’s 2nd to last post = DURHAM

Jon Durham = JD = J10 D4 = 10/4
= Message Received / Understood

DJT = 4.10.20 = DJ 4/10 (mirror) JD 10/4 = 10/4
= Message Received / Understood

Q 104 / 1004 / 10/4 = Activate/Operational
Donald Trump = SUPER-POTUS
Nemesis = Lex Luthor = LL

Elon Musk tweets “mirror” meme at 1:04 = 104
= 10/4 CONFRM = Message Received / Understood

"Faster than a speeding bullet! More powerful than a locomotive! Able to leap tall buildings at a single bound!" “Look! Up in the sky!" "It's a bird!"
"It's a plane!" "It's SUPER-POTUS!"

"Yes, it's SUPER-POTUS: defender of law and order, champion of equal rights, valiant, courageous fighter against the forces of hate and prejudice who fights a never-ending battle for truth, justice & the American way."

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

Hammurabi posts Water Mirror Sky & 23|32

Dan Scavino posts pic of Water Mirroring Sky
at 23:32 MT 2 days later

Q 2332 = Think DECLAS + D5 = D4/5 = 45 = DJT
Hammurabi post 1:44 = 1+44=45 = DJT

Do you believe in coincidences?
The TRUTH will be TOLD.

10 ➝ 9 ➝ 8 ➝ 7 ➝ 6 ➝ 5 ➝ 4 ➝ 3 ➝ 2 ➝

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

Hammurabi posts Water Mirror Sky & 23|32

Dan Scavino posts pic of Water Mirroring Sky
at 23:32 MT 2 days later

Q 2332 = Think DECLAS + D5 = D4/5 = 45 = DJT
Hammurabi post 1:44 = 1+44=45 = DJT

Do you believe in coincidences?
The TRUTH will be TOLD.

10 ➝ 9 ➝ 8 ➝ 7 ➝ 6 ➝ 5 ➝ 4 ➝ 3 ➝ 2 ➝

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

10 ➝ 9 ➝ 8 ➝ 7 ➝ 6 ➝ 5 ➝ 4 ➝ 3 ➝ 2 ➝

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

Almost everything we’ve been taught about world history is a lie perpetrated by a secret cabal of ancient sun worshipers who since the dawn of mankind have been monopolizing this world’s resources and human labor in a concerted effort to govern the whole planet by any brutal and deceptive contrivance deemed necessary in order to unequivocally straddle the entire globe under one very small confederacy of unimaginably influential and undisclosed Secret High Society (inbred) initiates working in tandem toward the single common goal of instituting and commanding the coup de grâce of one world governance commonly known as the NWO (a thousand points of light - everything is connected).

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

Dan Scavino tweets montage of DJT
with SuperMan theme song soundtrack.

Super Man = SM = S19 M13
= 1+9=10 1+3=4 = 10/4
= Message Received / Understood

Q’s 2nd to last post = DURHAM

Jon Durham = JD = J10 D4 = 10/4
= Message Received / Understood

DJT = 4.10.20 = DJ 4/10 (mirror) JD 10/4 = 10/4
= Message Received / Understood

Q 104 / 1004 / 10/4 = Activate/Operational
Donald Trump = SUPER-POTUS
Nemesis = Lex Luthor = LL

Elon Musk tweets “mirror” meme at 1:04 = 104
= 10/4 CONFRM = Message Received / Understood

"Faster than a speeding bullet! More powerful than a locomotive! Able to leap tall buildings at a single bound!" “Look! Up in the sky!" "It's a bird!"
"It's a plane!" "It's SUPER-POTUS!"

"Yes, it's SUPER-POTUS: defender of law and order, champion of equal rights, valiant, courageous fighter against the forces of hate and prejudice who fights a never-ending battle for truth, justice & the American way."

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

"The path of the righteou[s] man is beset on all sides by [t]he inequities [o]f the selfish and the ty[r]anny of evil [m]en.

Blessed is he who in the name of [c]harity and go[o]d will, shepherds the weak through the valley of darkness, for he is truly his brother's keeper and the finder of lost children.

And I will strike down upon thee with great vengeance and furious anger those who attempt to poison and destroy my brothers.

And you will know my na[m]e [i]s the Lord whe[n] I lay my ven[g]eance upon thee."

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

The BIG LIE is 10,000 years in the making.
It doesn’t get exposed overnight. A few years
in the unmasking isn’t too out of line when
dealing with an evil cabal with literal millenniums
of organization to decimate.

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

WATCH THE WATER - ALL HANDS ON DECK

G7 2021 = Water Theme = Build Back Better

A1 B2 C3 D4 E5 F6 G7 - G7 - 77 - think MIRROR
- Watch the WATER - SKY event

build back better = blood brain barrier = bbb = 666

Watch The Water = W23+T20+W23 = 66

Future proves past.
You have so much more than you know.
Biggest intel drop in our known history.

Symbolism will be their downfall.

105
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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

Today would have been Prince Phillip’s
(Royal Regent) 100th birthday.

Check out Q drop 100. Definitely an
important post to read and absorb thoroughly.

The European Royal Houses are nearing their END.

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

COVID-19 vs. ALL other Vaccines since 1990.

5,030 in 2021 (C-19-V) compared to a 2nd all time high of 581 in 1990 (average being in the 200’s).

That’s a 2,400% increase. When you take into account the international marketing PUSH for worldwide C-19 vaccination it begins to reveal itself as mass murder on an unprecedented global scale.

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

XVIII Airborne’s getting pretty “poetic” lately.

AirBorne Corps = ABC = A1B2C3 1+2=3 = +++

"The American Paratrooper will go to his own sun, dance through a ring of fire, become the sky itself when called to do so."
— Drew Fields

Hammurabi posts POE
and THE NEXT DAY
XVIII Airborne posts POE.

Pretty POETIC indeed. BOOM (8:38)!

POE (mirror) 309 = Q309 = JUSTICE!

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

XVIII Airborne = Hang in there. We’re almost there. Long weekend coming up. = 10:00 AM

Q1000 = Epstein/PHONES/‘H’ (H=Hang)

CIA secretly own world’s top encryption supplier

= encryption for electronic devices = PHONES

‘H’ = Hang = Phones = ET phone home (DS com)

Multiple meanings exist = long weekend = G7 (WATER theme - Watch the WATER)

We are at the beginning of the end - Seals are being broken 1 by 1 - Truths are being exposed - Dark to Light - Morning sun brings HEAT - TGA

Q-TEAM has eyes on everyone (EVERYONE) including ALL 3 letter acronym agencies.

Wizard’s & Warlocks have access to ALL intel, baited black-hats into thinking they were safe by letting them commit crimes and evade justice for years so they’d expose themselves from A to Z. Now we have them ALL. No one gets a free pass.

HANG IN THERE - WE’RE ALMOST THERE. TGA!

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

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Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) @i4ni2th4a2th

The Plan’s tactical ANON-ARMY military-civilian-alliance failsafe is ingenious. As more people wake up to the truth and heed the call (which is occurring more broadly than ever before) the larger Q-TEAM’s sphere of influence inherently becomes. As more ANONS are exposed to the Great Awakening and begin their journey of self awareness the more they influence those around them to do the same automatically activating exponentially reoccurring forward action safety systems that prevent non momentum, Plan-idleness & operational complacency. A self perpetuating reflex-activated regenerating autopilot contingency that activates new networks organically as it multiplies participants & bolsters its own initiative. The Great Awakening couldn’t prevent itself even if it wanted to at this point. NCSWIC literally means Nothing Can Stop What Is Coming.

Mission 2: Support role of other digital soldiers [one falls another [x?] stands (rises)].


Impact of the Black Codes

The restrictive nature of the codes and widespread Black resistance to their enforcement enraged many in the North, who argued that the codes violated the fundamental principles of free labor ideology.

After passing the Civil Rights Act (over Johnson’s veto), Republicans in Congress effectively took control of Reconstruction. The Reconstruction Act of 1867 required southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment—which granted 𠇎qual protection” of the Constitution to former enslaved people𠅊nd enact universal male suffrage before they could rejoin the Union.

The 15th Amendment, adopted in 1870, guaranteed that a citizen’s right to vote would not be denied “on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” During this period of Radical Reconstruction (1867-1877), Black men won election to southern state governments and even to the U.S. Congress.

As indicated by the passage of the black codes, however, white southerners showed a steadfast commitment to ensuring their supremacy and the survival of plantation agriculture in the postwar years. Support for Reconstruction policies waned after the early 1870s, undermined by the violence of white supremacist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan.

By 1877, when the last federal soldiers left the South and Reconstruction drew to a close, Black people had seen little improvement in their economic and social status, and the vigorous efforts of white supremacist forces throughout the region had undone the political gains they had made. Discrimination would continue in America with the rise of Jim Crow laws, but would inspire the Civil Rights Movement to come.


ProReproductiveRights and/or Malthusian Basis

These events reflect either support for abortion and or support for population control based on Malthus population theories. As the two are historical bedfellows, they have been lumped together.

Ebers Medical Papyrus

Ebers Medical Papyrus includes herbal contraceptive, suppositories, and the “first recorded evidence” of induced abortion.

Aristotle advocates abortion for population control

Aristotle advocates inducing abortion “before sense and life have begun in the embryo” if conception occurs in excess of the limit (of population)

Persian Physician advocates abortion for young girls

Abu al-Hasan al-Tabib, a Persian physician, advocated abortion for pregnancies of girls under 15 because of the uterus size and risk to girl’s health.

Folk and Women Led Medicine account for most US healthcare

U.S medical world looks very different from Europe. Many health practitioners practice “physik”, folk medicine, and some communities’ medical practice are women led

Russia First Country to legalize abortion on demand.

Russia first country to allow abortion on demand.

Germany, Mexico, Iceland, Sweden legalize abortion

Germany, Mexico, Iceland, and Sweden are next countries in line after Russia to legalize abortion- but do not provide abortion on demand. Some legalize in cases of rape and incest, others cite grave danger to the mother as legal reasons.

ALA abortion law draft

The American Law Institute (ALI) drafts a model state abortion law to make legal abortions accessible

Colorado legalizes some abortions- 14 states follow

Colorado legalized some abortions, with 14 states following- all with strict conditions.

Canadian Criminal Law Amendment Act

Canada passed the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1968-69, which began to allow abortion for selective reasons

India passes Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971

The Indian Parliament under the Prime Ministership of Indira Gandhi, passes Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971 (MTP Act 1971). India becomes one of the earliest nations to pass this Act. The Act gains importance, considering India had traditionally been a very conservative country in these matters. Most notably no similar Act in several US states exists around the same time.


A brief history of medical malpractice

The history of medical malpractice and its relation to the law is a lengthy one, spanning back thousands of years. Doctors and medicine have been mentioned in some of the earliest written law codes known to historians, and have continued to be on the law books since then, especially in the 19th and 20th Centuries. The team at Weiss & Paarz created a scrolling timeline of some of the key events to provide an interesting way to get an overview of the topic’s history.

Hammurabi’s Code is one of the oldest lengthy writings known in the world. The Babylonian code dates back to 1794 BC and consists of 282 laws. One of the sections mentions repercussions for medical mistakes, saying the doctor should be punished if there is harm done to the patient. This idea of ‘do no harm’ was best embodied by the Hippocratic Oath. Hippocrates, who lived in ancient Greece, is considered by many to be the father of Western medicine. This oath has had many versions over time, but doctors still use it today.

In 1794, the United States saw its first medical malpractice case. The plaintiff claimed a doctor promised to do an operation skillfully, but instead did the opposite. The plaintiff’s wife died as a result of the operation. He won the case. In the 19th Century , the United States saw a large increase in medical malpractice cases. Many of the cases involved fractures and dislocations. In 1847, the American Medical Association was founded. They went on to set uniform standards for medical education and training, as well as the world’s first national code for ethical medical practice. Currently, they are the largest organization of physicians and medical students in the United States.

During the 20th Century, the United States saw numerous reforms passed after a number of large and high profile settlements. In the 1970s, courts began publishing standards of medical malpractice awards for the first time. This caused an incredible fast growth of money being awarded. States soon passed reform laws to cap amounts of certain kinds of damages. A decade later, a dramatic malpractice case would spark more reforms. In 1984, 18-year-old Libby Zion was admitted to a New York hospital and treated by two residents. She became more and more sick as the night went on and eventually died from her condition. Her father, a prominent writer, sued claiming the residents were overworked and negligent. He won, and the case spurred the passing of laws in New York that would lay the groundwork for national reforms.

Today, that legislation has helped increase safety for both patients and doctors. However, some doctors still make mistakes. On average, only 6% of doctors are responsible for about 60% of all malpractice payments. Surgery errors are one of the leading causes. According to researchers at Johns Hopkins , medical errors are the 3rd leading cause of death in the United States.


What Happened First: The Relative History Timeline Quiz

This is a call to all of the history buffs out there. It's time to get out your textbooks and see if you can pass this relative history timeline quiz. But first, you'll want to make sure you're well prepared because this quiz covers a range of historical topics. You will have to dig deep to recall when some of the world's most important historical events took place. Do you think you can handle the challenge? Here's your chance to find out!

History is a treat if you are willing to take the time to learn what it has to say. After all, history teaches us lessons about our failures and our successes both as individuals and as a collective. It shows us how we have changed and adapted over the centuries as we learned how to better structure ourselves and the world around us. Most importantly, history serves as a guide, or a warning depending on how you look at it, for what might come next. As the old saying goes: history repeats itself.

If you are a history fan, you'll want to take this quiz. It will give you a chance to reflect on some of the most important events that occurred over the course of the world's history. If you're up for the challenge, get started and put your history knowledge on display!


Hammurabi Timeline - History

  • 3500 - The Sumer civilization establishes city-states in southern Mesopotamia.
  • 3300 - Writing is invented by the Sumerians.




Statue of Saddam Torn Down

Brief Overview of the History of Iraq

The land of Iraq is often called the "Cradle of Civilization" because the oldest civilization in the world, the Sumerians, was formed here. The Sumerians invented writing and started the first recorded history. For over 3000 years the Sumerian civilization flourished in the Tigris-Euphrates river valley.

The next great civilization to emerge in the land was the Babylonian Empire in the 1800s BC. The Babylonians would rise to great power in the region until they were defeated and absorbed into the Persian Empire led by Cyrus the Great in the 6th Century BC. Over the next several hundreds of years the land would be conquered by various empires including Greece (Alexander the Great), the Parthians, the Romans, and the Persians again. In the 7th Century the Islamic Empire took control and would rule until the 1500s when the Ottoman Empire came into power.

When World War I ended, the British took over for the Ottoman Empire. Iraq became an independent country in 1932 ruled by a constitutional monarchy. In 1958 the country was declared a republic, but it was really ruled by a series of dictators. The last dictator was Saddam Hussein.

In 1990 Iraq invaded the country of Kuwait. This started the First Gulf War where US-led forces expelled Iraq and forced Iraq to come under UN restrictions regarding weapons and armaments. In 2003, when Iraq refused to comply to earlier agreements, the United States invaded Iraq in what is called the Second Gulf War and removed Saddam Hussein from power.