Inter-ethnic conflicts in Switzerland in the 16th century

Inter-ethnic conflicts in Switzerland in the 16th century



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

I have come across this description in Paddy Ashdown's (excellent) autobiography A Fortunate Life:

I have often been struck by the similarities between those countries whose fortune (or misfortune) it is to find themselves at the junction of the tectonic plates of race, culture and religion. Countries like Switzerland, Afghanistan and Bosnia are all of them mountainous regions, incredibly beautiful, the battlegrounds of conquerors and the cockpits in which, from time to time, terrible inter-ethnic conflicts break out (before the Treaty of Ticino in 1516 the famously peaceful Switzerland of today was the Bosnia of the middle ages when it came to internal war and ethnic conflict).

What were the main inter-ethnic (racial, cultural, religious) dimensions of the 16th-century and perhaps earlier conflict in Switzerland that the author is referring to here?


I think he's off base about Switzerland, unless he is mischaracterizing the nature of the Swiss confederacy. I'm also not sure what he means about ethnic strife. He's probably talking about the Duchy of Savoy and France directly to the south, and the passes from France into Northwest Italy. It's a strategic point in Western Europe by which France was trying to expand into Italy, at the expense of the Holy Roman Empire and the Italian states. It's importance also made it a point of contest by the local nobility of Savoy and Milan.

Ticino is a region in Switzerland that juts into Milan, and was annexed to it in 1516.


In this case, 'ethnic-conflict' is presumably referring to ethnicity in the same way as it is defined in the Wikipedia article:

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, society, culture or nation.

The group need not be based on race, culture, or religion.


The article on Swiss people states:

The traditional ethnic composition of the territories of modern Switzerland includes the following components:

  • The German-speaking Swiss (Deutschschweizer), i.e. Alemannic German, historically amalgamated from the Gallo-Roman population and the Alemanni and Burgundii, including subgroups such as the Walser. Closely related German-speaking peoples are the Alsatians, the Swabians and the Vorarlbergians.

  • The French-speaking Swiss (Romands), traditionally speaking Franco-Provençal dialects, today largely assimilated to the standard French language (Swiss French), amalgamated from the Gallo-Roman population and Burgundians (the historical Upper Burgundy). They are closely related to the French (especially those of Franche-Comté). They are occasionally referred to as Welsch in Swiss German.

  • The Italian-speaking Swiss (Svizzeri italiani), traditionally speakers of Lombard language (Ticinese variety) today partly assimilated to the standard Italian language, amalgamated from Raetians and Lombards. They are closely related to the Italians (especially Lombards and Piedmontese).

  • The Romansh, speakers of the Romansh language, settling in parts of the Grisons, historically of Raetic stock.


Now, Personally I don't know whether these groupings are generally agreed, or whether there is some dispute. That is not the point.

The point is that these groupings are accepted as ethnic groups by at least some people using that definition. Furthermore, by that definition conflict between these group is ethnic conflict, and Lord Ashdown's categorisation would seem reasonable.


At the beginning of the XVI th century the town of Geneva was an independent state. It was influenced by Luther’s ideas from 1525 onwards and William Farel’s sermons led to the setting up of the Commune, which was powerful in the town, establishing the Reform movement in 1536. The same year Jean Calvin, author of the already well-known Institution Chrétienne, was asked to come to Geneva to strengthen the Reform movement and to transform the town according to Scriptural principles. There were many factors which contributed to Geneva being called “protestant Rome” : the wave of incoming refugees from France, Italy, England or the Low Countries, the Academy, set up in 1559, which taught many foreign students, lastly, the activities of Théodore de Bèze, who worked with Calvin and later became his successor. The institutional model of the Genevan Church, with its ecclesiastical rule by a pastor, an elder and a deacon, became typical of all reformed churches.

During the same period, the Reform movement also became established in the largest Swiss cantons : Zurich, Bale and Berne (this included what is now the canton of Vaud with its capital Lausanne). In Zurich, Zwingli (1484-1531), who played an essential role in the Reform movement, developed a theological standpoint which differed from Lutheranism over the issue of the Last Supper in fact his theses were close to those of Calvin at a much later date in his doctrine of predestination.

On the whole, the Reform movement took hold in the towns, while the rural and mountain cantons remained catholic and, with the support of the pope and the emperor they formed a Christian union. The “first war of Kappel” (1529) ended in a compromise but Zwingli, ill pleased with the results, called for a second war this time, at the second battle of Kappel, the Zurich armies were badly defeated by the Catholics and Zwingli was killed (1531). The peace treaty which followed laid down the basis of religious division in Switzerland : on the one hand the four reformed cantons (Zurich, Berne, Bâle, Schaffhouse), on the other the seven catholic cantons (Uri, Schwyz, Unterwald, Lucerne, Zoug, Soleure and Fribourg). Glaris and Appenzell were of mixed religion. The catholic cantons, contrary to their protestant counterparts, were quite poor and with a relatively small population, but nonetheless they

had the majority of seats at the federal Diet and this catholic opposition would prevent the Confederation from expanding for a long time Geneva, an independent town, was only attached to it in 1815.

As for the Protestants, their religious structure differed from place to place : in Geneva, ecclesiastical rule was in the hands of the Consistory, in Zurich civil government had a certain amount of influence. Conflict came to an end with Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575), the “patriarch of reformed Protestantism”. The drawing-up of the New Helvitic Confession (Confession Hélvétique postérieure) (1566) was to be the definitive basis of Swiss Protestantism.


Hospitality of the cantons and the difficulties

The massive influx of refugees in the Vaud canton, required that the local authorities and the inhabitants participate in meeting the immediate needs of the displaced persons.

Lodging was ensured by “public housing”, hostels (expenses paid for by the authorities( and hospitals, but also inhabitants who volunteered (refusals were rare) or were obliged to in case of massive influx. Transportation for the weakest ones was by boat or on wagons, and the transporters were generally paid. The extensive network of hospitals in the Vaud canton was opened to the refugees: lodging, food, health care, “passa ”, i.e. alms given by a pastor, enabling the recipient to “pass” further to the next locality where the refugee could ask for another passage. This effort can be explained by the wish to hasten the conveyance of refugees from one stop-over to the next, and thus shorten their stay in localities.

Reformed Switzerland consisted of a transit route from a few weeks to a few months, for most refugees who were either waiting for relatives or help, or information, who did not want to get too far away from France in case Protestantism was restored. The refugees were mobile, often changed houses, were often poor, and the authorities had trouble curbing the roaming tramps and beggars.

A minority only settled permanently, notably those who could set up an economic activity, especially a factory. The authorities then awarded them a special status as “resident” without political rights, but established some agreement with the city, and they were registered in a special book. Only those who declared in writing that they came for religious reasons were accepted. Very few acceded to bourgeoisie.


Reformation and the 17th century

The 16th century in Western Europe was dominated by the Reformation, a movement which divided western Christianity into two camps.

Although the riots and destruction were fought on a religious level, this reflected, above all, the desire for social change and the social tensions that existed primarily between town and country. The 17th century saw three further landmarks in the development of modern-day Switzerland. All came as a result of the 30 Years' War (1618-48). While large parts of Europe were involved in this war, the Confederation remained neutral. An important consequence of the Thirty Years' War was Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire, which was formally recognised by the Treaty of Westphalia.

Two Reformers: Zwingli and Calvin

The Reformation in Switzerland involved various centres and reformers. A major role was played by Ulrich Zwingli, who was active from 1523 in Zurich, and John Calvin, who from 1536 transformed Geneva into what was called the "Protestant Rome".

Learn more Common.Of Two Reformers: Zwingli and Calvin

Conflict and religious wars

As elsewhere in Europe, the Reformation plunged the Confederation into religious wars. These often also led to renewals within the Catholic Church and its territories.

Learn more Common.Of Conflict and religious wars

Political structure in the 17th century

In the 17th century, the Confederation consisted of various territories whose inhabitants enjoyed greatly varying amounts of freedom depending on where they lived.

Learn more Common.Of Political structure in the 17th century

Thirty Years’ War and independence

The Confederation stayed out of the war, with only the Associated Place of Graubünden being drawn into the hostilities. The Thirty Years’ War ended for the Confederation with its separation from the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.

Learn more Common.Of Thirty Years’ War and independence

Peasant revolts and religious peace

The conflicts between rulers and subjects in Lucerne, Bern, Solothurn and Basel culminated in 1653 in the Swiss Peasants’ War. The religiously motivated Villmergen Wars of 1656 and 1702 led to the loss of Catholic supremacy.

Learn more Common.Of Peasant revolts and religious peace


Switzerland

Switzerland was originally inhabited by a Celtic population, who were named Helvetians by the Romans. Between the 3rd and 5th centuries, the Alemannen tribes swept down from the north and conquered the northern and eastern part of Switzerland. The southwestern part of Switzerland was ruled by the Burgundians, who had settled in France. In the 6th century, theFranks took control of the part of Switzerland that was part of the duchy of Swabia. The smaller south-western portion of the country remained under Burgundian domination at this time. The Burgundian Swiss spoke French, a language division that remains today.

In 1033, the kingdom of Burgundy joined the Holy Roman Empire, and when it became a part of France in the 14th century, the Helvetian part of Switzerland remained Swiss. The House of Hapsburg, the rulers of Austria, had their original seat in Switzerland, which they gained control of in 1278. Their policies provoked a rebellion among the Ur-cantons, or ancient cantons, of Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwalden. although they were free subjects of the Empire, according to tradition, they made a famous oath in 1291, to protect their freedom, refusing to "salute the governor's hat on a pole."

The governor, a local authority chosen by the emperor, demanded that all citizens salute his hat as they passed by, in order to assure that the Swiss would respect the authority of their ruler. According to Swiss folklore, William Tell refused to salute the symbol of the governor's authority and was forced to split the apple that had been placed on his son's head by the cruel governor, by shooting at his own son with an arrow from his own crossbow. he split the apple without harming his son, then turned on the governor and killed him. William thus began the successful Swiss battle for independence.

In 1315, the takers of the oath, or the Eidgenossen, defeated the emperor's forces and they also defeated a superior Austrian force in 1386. The mountains of Switzerland and Swiss military efficiency proved to be a major obstacle to a conquering army. By 1499, a further dozen cantons had joined the Swiss Confederacy, and Switzerland's already independent status was officially recognized by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.

After the glorious period known as the Renaissance, the forces of religious conflict, political transformation, and modernization shook the German states. However, by the end of the 15th century, the Swiss Confederacy had been established even though Switzerland's independence from the Holy Roman Empire was not officially recognized until after the Thirty Years' War.

In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation shattered the unity that Western Christendom had experienced for over a thousand years. During the Reformation, Switzerland was not devastated by religious strife. On the contrary, it remained unified and strong. Cities such as Geneva, Lucerne, Zurich and Bern were centers of the Reformation. John Calvin achieved great prominence in Switzerland as a Protestant reformer and founded the branch of Protestantism that bears his name. This small country has remained united despite its four different languages: German, French, Raeto-Romanic, and Italian.

Switzerland is well known for its consistent political neutrality. With only seven percent its people involved in farming, Switzerland is a non-agricultural country whose main industries are tourism and banking. Swiss banks are world-famous for their discretion, hospitality, and efficiency. Other industries include chocolate and cheese manufacturing, as well as the traditional Swiss mastery of precision products, based on the watch-making tradition.


Economy

Switzerland has a highly developed market-oriented economy based on manufacturing and services such as international trade, shipping, banking, insurance, and tourism. The country has kept unemployment low and has achieved one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.

Despite Switzerland’s limited supply of raw materials, its economy has prospered. This prosperity can be attributed to abundant hydroelectric power, a central position on international trade routes, and a skilled labor force.

Agriculture

Switzerland’s rugged terrain limits the land available for growing crops. Agriculture accounts for only a very small portion of the country’s income and jobs. The leading agricultural activity is cattle raising. Switzerland exports milk and other dairy products throughout Europe. There is considerable regional diversity in crops, ranging from the irrigated horticulture of the southwest to the modified Mediterranean crops of the south. The leading crops include sugar beets, wheat, potatoes, and hardy fruits. The production of wine is basically for domestic consumption. Food industries, based on the country’s milk production, focus on cheese (Emmentaler and Gruyère) and chocolate products.

Manufacturing

Manufacturing is an important part of Switzerland’s economy. The country’s transformation into an industrial state began during the late 19th century. Its major exports now include machinery, watches, pharmaceutical products, chemicals, and textiles. Many industries must import raw and semifinished materials by costly overland routes. Only the notable quality of its manufactured goods permits Switzerland to remain competitive. Leading manufacturing sectors include the production of turbines, generators, watches, precision instruments, textiles, chemicals, and foodstuffs. Zürich and Basel are the chief manufacturing centers, but industrial plants are scattered throughout the Mittelland—even within the rural countryside.

Mining and Energy

Switzerland’s mineral resources are limited. There are small iron and manganese deposits in the Jura but no known deposits of coal. A variety of materials is worthy of commercial exploitation. Among them are lime, salt, sand, gravel, clay, and marble.

Switzerland’s lack of mineral resources is largely counterbalanced by its greatest asset—waterpower—which is harnessed by huge dams that produce hydroelectricity for industry. Hydroelectric power supplies about a sixth of the country’s energy needs. Nuclear power plants provide about a quarter of Switzerland’s energy.. For much of its energy, however, Switzerland relies on thermal power plants that use imported fuels.

Services

Switzerland has a large and highly developed service sector, which provides most of the country’s income and jobs. High-tech and communications industries are at the forefront of Swiss economic development. Retail trade and business-related services are also important parts of the service sector. Switzerland’s noted banking system and its reputation for financial secrecy have made it a key center of international finance. Foreign investors are drawn to Swiss banks by the country’s economic stability, the solid Swiss franc, and the long experience of Swiss bankers. Many domestic and foreign fortunes are invested in Swiss banks.

Switzerland is one of the world’s leading tourist centers. Its visitors bring in huge revenues to the economy. Tourism is a year-round industry, with a seasonal shift in activities from winter to summer. Winter sports include skiing, sledding, tobogganing, and ice skating. The leading winter resorts are St-Moritz, Gstaad, and Interlaken. All three are world renowned. Summers bring golf, boating, swimming, hiking, and climbing. Many people in Switzerland are employed in hotels, inns, spas, and restaurants. The Swiss are world famous for their hospitality and the quality of their cuisine.

Transportation

For centuries land transportation routes have traversed Switzerland because it is an international crossroads. Because of the rugged terrain, hundreds of bridges and tunnels have had to be built, particularly through the Alps. Some of the tunnels are among the longest in Europe. The Gotthard Base Tunnel, which runs more than 35 miles (57 kilometers) under St. Gotthard Pass in the Swiss Alps, was the world’s longest rail tunnel when it opened in 2016. Several international railways pass through Switzerland. All of the key rail lines are double-tracked, and since the 1960s the entire system has been electrified. Highways and highway tunnels are among the best in the world, connecting all key urban centers and roads that lead to Switzerland’s neighbors. Basel, the country’s chief port on the Rhine, handles millions of tons of goods, which are typically bulk imports that feed Swiss industries. The main international airports are in Geneva and Zürich.


Inter-ethnic conflicts in Switzerland in the 16th century - History

Go to Benin, Kingdom of in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Realism in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Machu Picchu, Peru in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Augsburg in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Nanak (1469–1539) in The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to clocks and watches in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to majolica in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Inca in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cabral, Pedro Álvares (1467–1520) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Inca in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mozambique in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Aboriginals and European diseases in The Oxford Companion to Canadian History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Salic law in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Inca in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to istoriato in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ismail I, Shah of Iran (1487–1524) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Michelangelo (1475–1564) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Vespucci, Amerigo (1454–1512) in The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to da Gama, Vasco (c. 1469–1524) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to James IV (b. 17 Mar. 1473) in The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Bosch, Hieronymus (c.1450) in The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (4 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Zanzibar in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mughal Empire in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Sri Lanka in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mona Lisa [Art] in The Oxford Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Julius II (1443–1513) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Julius II (1443–1513) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Vespucci, Amerigo (1454–1512) in The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to sinister in The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Raphael (1483–1520) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Raphael (1483–1520) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Henry VIII (1491–1547) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to humanism in The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to High Renaissance in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Goa (India) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mannerism in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Giorgione (c.1477) in The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (4 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to curling in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Malacca in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Moluccas in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to James IV (b. 17 Mar. 1473) in The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Balboa, Vasco Núñez de (1475–1519) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to James V (b. 10 Apr. 1512) in The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to midwife in A Dictionary of Public Health (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Hampton Court palace in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Hormuz in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Francis I (1494–1547) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Francis I (1494–1547) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Havana (Cuba, USA) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Habsburg in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Catherine of Aragon (1485–1536) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ghetto in A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Orlando Furioso in The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Erasmus (d. c.300) in The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (5 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Selim I (c. 1470–1520) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Caliph/Caliphate in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ottoman empire in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Tetzel, Johann (c.1464–1519) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Luther, Martin (1483–1546) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Melanchthon, Philipp (1497–1560) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cortés, Hernando (1485–1547) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Magellan, Ferdinand (c. 1480–1521) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Charles V (1500–58) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Tenochtitlán, Mexico in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cortés, Hernán (1485–1547) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Holbein, Hans (1497–1543) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Reformation in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Luther, Martin (1483–1546) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cortés, Hernán (1485–1547) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Field of Cloth of Gold (1520) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Stockholm Bloodbath in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mannerism in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Luther, Martin (1483–1546) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Magellan, Ferdinand (c. 1480–1521) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Luther, Martin (1483–1546) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Magellan, Ferdinand (c. 1480–1521) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Luther, Martin (1483–1546) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Suleiman I (1494–1566) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cortés, Hernán (1485–1547) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Loyola, Ignatius, St (1491–1556) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Zwingli, Ulrich (1484–1531) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to d'Abbadie, Antoine (1810–1897) in The Oxford Companion to World Exploration (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Luther, Martin (1483–1546) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Gustavus I (Vasa) (1496–1560) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Tyndale, William (c.1494–1536) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Francis I (1494–1547) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Luther, Martin (1483–1546) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to smallpox in Concise Medical Dictionary (8 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Atahualpa (1533) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Grebel, Conrad (c.1498–1526) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Peasants' War (1524–26) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Islam in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to conquistadores in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cranach, Lucas the Elder (1472) in The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (4 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Babur (1483–1530) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Protestant in The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Holbein, Hans (1497–1543) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Clement VII (1478–1534) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Fontainebleau School in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Babur (1483–1530) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Gustavus I (1496–1560) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Henry VIII (1491–1547) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Wolsey, Thomas (c. 1474–1530) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to More, Sir Thomas (1478–1535) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Protestant in The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Eucharist in The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ethiopia in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Pizarro, Francisco (c. 1478–1541) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Hospitallers in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Augsburg, Confession of (1530) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Atahualpa (1533) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Brunfels, Otto (c.1489–1534) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Babur (1483–1530) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Virgin of Guadalupe in The Oxford Companion to World Mythology (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Schmalkaldic League in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Zwingli, Ulrich (1484–1531) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Pizarro, Francisco (1471–1541) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Rabelais, François in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Pizarro, Francisco (1471–1541) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Atahualpa (1533) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Henry VIII (1491–1547) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Atahualpa (1533) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cuzco in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cranmer, Thomas (1489–1556) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Elizabeth I (1533–1603) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Titian (1487) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cartier, Jacques (1491–1557) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Church of England in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Bombay in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Protestantism in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Montreal (Canada, France, USA) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to More, Thomas (1477) in The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Henry VIII (1491–1547) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Wales, principality of in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Tyndale, William (c.1494–1536) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Christian III (1503–59) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cuzco in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Christian III (1503–59) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Anne Boleyn (b. c.1501) in The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Jane Seymour (b. c.1509) in The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Peru (and USA) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Edward VI (b. 12 Oct. 1537) in The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Jane Seymour (b. c.1509) in The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Great Bible noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Loyola, Ignatius, St (1491–1556) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Coronado, Francisco Vásquez de in New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Calvin, John (1509–64) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Suleiman I (c. 1494–1566) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Francis Xavier, St (1506–52) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to encomiendas in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Francis Xavier, St (1506–52) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Inquisition, Roman in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Howard, Catherine (c. 1521–42) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–87) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Deep Space 1 in A Dictionary of Astronomy (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Japan in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Humayun (1508–56) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Potosí in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Waldenses noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Paré, Ambroise (c.1510–90) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

See this event in other timelines:

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Beaton, David (c.1494–1546) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Suleiman I (c. 1494–1566) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Edward VI (b. 12 Oct. 1537) in The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ivan IV (1530–84) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to draughts noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Knox, John (1514–72) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Brazil (and USA) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Bahia (Brazil) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Book of Common Prayer noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Pléiade, Ia in The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to slave trade, African in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to vassal noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to flint noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Portobelo (Panama) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ronsard, Pierre de (1524–85) in The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mary I (1516–58) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Philip II (1527–98) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Wyatt, Sir Thomas (c. 1521–54) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Wyatt's Rebellion (February 1554) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Russia Company in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Augsburg, Peace of (1555) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Humayun (1508–56) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mary I (1516–58) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Charles V (1500–58) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Akbar (b. 1542) in A Dictionary of Hinduism (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cranmer, Thomas (1489–1556) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Charles V (1500–58) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Sinan Abdul Menan (1588) in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Macao in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Elizabeth I (1533–1603) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cecil, William (1520–98) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–87) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Stuart in A Dictionary of First Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Knox, John (1514–72) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Huguenots in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

See this event in other timelines:

Go to physic garden noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–87) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–87) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Escorial in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Seven Years War of the North (1563–70) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Unitarianism in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Marlowe, Christopher in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to condom noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Bruegel, Pieter (c.1525–69) [Art] in The Oxford Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Darnley, Henry Stuart (1545–67) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Rizzio, David (c. 1533–66) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Darnley, Henry Stuart (1545–67) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Book of Common Prayer noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Bothwell, James Hepburn in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Council of Blood (1567–8) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–87) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–87) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to James I (1566–1625) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Terra Australis Incognita in The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–87) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–87) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mercator projection in The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to privateers in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ashanti in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Palladio, Andrea in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Elizabeth I (1533–1603) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Philippines in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Fatehpur Sīkri (Uttar Pradesh/India) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Philippines in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ridolfi Plot (1571) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to galley in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Lepanto, Battle of in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to St Bartholomew's Day Massacre (23–24 August 1572) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Camões, Luis de (1524–80) in The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to William I (the Silent) (1533–84) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Humayun (1508–56) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to William I (the Silent) (1533–84) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Oda Nobunaga (1534–82) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Lepanto, Battle of in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Alkmaar (Suriname, The Netherlands) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ottoman Empire in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Stefan Bátory (1533–86) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to phalanx in The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Hawkins, Sir John (1532–95) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to porcelain in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ghent, Pacification of in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Burbage, James (1530–97) in The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Brahe, Tycho (1546–1601) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Drake, Sir Francis in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Establishment in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Drake, Sir Francis in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Arras, Union of in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Iroquois Confederacy in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Philip II (1527–98) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Campion, Edmund, St (1540–81) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Drake, Sir Francis in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Montaigne, Michel de in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to forceps n. in A Dictionary of Nursing (5 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Philip II (1527–98) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to ballet de cour in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Tasso, Torquato (1544–95) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to grand duchy noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Gregorian calendar in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Shakespeare, William (1564–1616) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ricci, Matteo (1552–1610) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Gilbert, Sir Humphrey (c. 1539–83) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Raleigh, Sir Walter (c. 1552–1618) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Roanoke Island in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Elizabeth I (1533–1603) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to martyr in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Roanoke Island in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to White, John (1585–93) in The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Babington Plot (1586) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Babington Plot (1586) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Marlowe, Christopher in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Venice in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Roanoke Island in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Dare, Virginia in New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Drake, Sir Francis in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Hilliard, Nicholas (1547–1619) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Abbas I (1571–1629) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Orange, House of in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to raku in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to United Provinces of the Netherlands in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Spanish Armada in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Spanish Armada in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to framework knitting in The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to real tennis noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to serfdom in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Roanoke Island in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to gurdwara noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Spenser, Edmund in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Lippershey, Hans (c.1570–1619) in A Dictionary of Scientists (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to St Peter's, Rome in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Shakespeare, William (1564–1616) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Henry IV in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Barents, Willem (c. 1550–97) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Confucius in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mercator, Gerardus (1512–94) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Java in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Brahe, Tycho (1546–1601) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Bauhin, Gaspard (1550–1624) in A Dictionary of Plant Sciences (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Harington, Sir John (1561–1612) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Daphne in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to cricket in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Shah Abbas I (1587–1629) in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to James VI (1566–1625) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Nantes, Edict of (1598) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Globe Theatre in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Yoruba in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to magnetic pole in A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to oratorio noun in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to East Flanders in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Gilbert, William (1540–1613) in A Dictionary of Earth Sciences (3 ed.)


Why Mostly Women Were Executed

Although men were also accused of witchcraft, about 75% to 80% of those executed during the witch hunts were women. Women were subject to cultural prejudices that framed them as inherently weaker than men and, thus, more susceptible to superstition and evil. In Europe, the idea of women's weakness was tied to Eve's temptation by the Devil in the Bible, but that story itself cannot be blamed for the proportion of women accused. Even in other cultures, witchcraft accusations have been more likely to be directed at women.

Some writers have also argued, with significant evidence, that many of those accused were single women or widows whose very existence delayed the full inheritance of property by male heirs. Dower rights, intended to protect widows, gave women in such circumstances power over property that they usually could not exercise. Witchcraft accusations were easy ways to remove the obstacle.

It was also true that most of those accused and executed were among the poorest, most marginal in society. Women's marginality compared to men added to their susceptibility to accusations.


33 Famous Swiss Castles to Visit

1. Aarburg Castle

Aarburg Castle is a medieval construction, first mentioned in a chronicle from the 13th-century. Although the story of the castle’s origins is unknown, the place certainly had an important strategic value.

After a siege in 1415, the castle was finally renovated in the 16th-century, with new elements added throughout the years.

Located on an elevated rock above the Aare River, Aarburg Castle is a beautiful sight. Today the castle serves as a juvenile rehabilitation centre.

Where: Aarburg, Canton of Aarburg
When: 12th-century
Open for visit: Yes.

2. Bottmingen Castle

Dating back to the 13th-century, Bottmingen Castle is one of the most romantic castles in Switzerland and one of the few landmarks of its type left intact.

This moated castle was owned by the Kammerer family for three centuries, before being passed to Johaness Deucher in 1720. The new owner transformed the medieval structure into a Baroque country house based on the popular French style.

Both the original medieval structure and the later additions are visible today.

Where: Bottmingen, Canton of Basel-Land
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: Yes. Check here for more information.

3. Castelgrande (Castles of Bellinzona)

Castelgrande is the oldest and most impressive castle of the trio known as the Castles of Bellinzona. A fortification existed in the same place as early as the 4th-century, but the current construction dates back to medieval times.

Built on a hill near the city centre, the castle stands apart with its imposing towers. A recent restoration brought it to an excellent condition, and visitors can use an elevator to access the grounds of the castle.

Where: Bellinzona, Canton of Ticino
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: Yes,

4. Sasso Corbaro Castle (Castles of Bellinzona)

Located at the foothills of the Alps, the city of Bellinzona is famous for being the home of three stunning castles.

While Castelgrande is the oldest and the one that attracts the most attention, Castello Montebello and Castello Sasso Corbaro are also beautiful medieval structures of great historical and cultural value.

Built to protect the Ticino Valley and Bellinzona, the castles are now part of UNESCO World Heritage. All three castles are incredibly well-preserved. From the castles’ grounds, visitors can enjoy stunning views of the city.

Where: Bellinzona, Canton of Ticino
When: 13th- to 15th-century
Open for visit: Yes.

5. Chillon Castle

One of the best castles in Switzerland, Chillon Castle is the quintessential castle located in a dreamlike location.

Built on a small rocky stretch of land on the shore of Lake Geneva, the castle is a spectacular sight that leaves visitors breathless. In fact, Chillon Castle is the most visited historic building in the entire country.

The castle has immense historical importance and is first mentioned in writing as early as 1150, although it was built much earlier. In the 13th-century, the original fortification underwent extensive renovations and became a residence for the Counts of Savoy.

It later served as a fortress and prison under the Bernese rule. In the 19th-century, intense renovation brought the courtyards, halls, and interiors to their original glory.

Where: Veytaux, Canton of Vaud
When: 10th-century
Open for visit: Yes. Check here for more information.

6. Lenzburg Castle

One of the oldest castles in Switzerland, Lenzburg Castle is an important part of the country’s historic heritage. A legend says that the castle was built by two knights, Guntram and Wolfram.

Its position atop a hill suggests that the castle had strategic value for the Counts of Lenzburg. Over the centuries, the castle served as a royal residence, being passed among different ruling families. Today it belongs to the City of Lenzburg.

Where: Lenzburg
Open for visit: Yes. Check here for more information.

7. Marschlins Castle

Located in the village of Igis, in the Canton of Graubunden, Marschlins Castle was built in the 13th-century, although earlier structures existed on the site for at least two centuries.

The goal of the castle was to serve as a principal residence for the Bishop of Chur. Today the castle is a heritage site of great value and a popular sight.

Where: Igis, Graubunden
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: Yes

8. Oberhofen Castle

Nothing holds more charm than a castle on the water. The combination of old architecture and breathtaking scenery is what attracts people to Switzerland, and Oberhofen Castle does not disappoint.

Located on the shore of Lake Thun, the castle is considered a national treasure. The construction began as early as 13th-century, but numerous additions were made over the centuries, which led to a mix of architectural elements.

The present appearance dates back to the 19th-century when the castle was acquired by the Pourtàles family, who restored it. Today Oberhofen Castle is a museum.

Where: Oberhofen am Thunersee, Canton of Bern
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: Yes. Museum: check here for more information.

9. Tarasp Castle

Tarasp Castle is an impressive medieval castle built in an alpine area in eastern Switzerland, on a hilltop with sweeping views of the landscape.

Important parts of the structure, such as a ring wall and chapel, were built in the 11th-century, but the largest part of the castle was built in the 13th-century.

The castle served an important role in the protection of the area, but was also repeatedly attacked, especially in the 16th- and 17th- century. Tarasp Castle belonged to Austria until 1803.

Today it is private property, but the chapel and several restored rooms are open for visits.

Where: Tarasp, Canton of Graubünden
When: 11th- to 13th-century
Open for visit: Yes. Only scheduled tours. Check here for more information.

10. Valere Basilica

Although not technically a castle, the Valere Basilica is an immense medieval structure and a heritage site of great significance for the Swiss.

This fortified church was built in the 13th-century in the town of Sion and has been active ever since as a church under the administration of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sion.

Over the centuries, the construction was gradually expanded and in the 15th-century, an outstanding cathedral organ was brought in. The same organ can be heard today in the church.

Where: Sion, Canton of Valais
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: Yes. Check here for more information.

11. Vufflens Castle

Vufflens Castle took the place of an earlier medieval castle built at the beginning of the 15th-century by the Lords of Vufflens. After a hundred years of existence, this earlier castle was burned down by a Bernese army.

However, several features of the original structure, including towers, walls, and outbuildings, remained intact and the castle was rebuilt. Today it is regarded as an exquisite example of the late Middle Ages Vaud fortresses.

Located a short distance away from Lake Geneva and surrounded by vineyards, the castle is worth a visit just for its gorgeous architecture and charming location, even though the main structure is privately owned and not open to the public.

Where: Vufflens-le-Château, Canton of Vaud
When: 15th-century
Open for visit: No.

12. Aarwangen Castle

Aarwangen Castle was built in the 13th-century as a residence for the governors of Kyburg. Due to its location, the castle provided protection against enemies who used the nearby river to cross into the region.

For over six centuries, Aarwangen Castle maintained a significant political power as the seat of the Bernese authorities.

Architecturally, the castle combines the Gothic elements of its main tower with the Baroque features of its halls and interiors.

Where: Aarwangen, Canton of Bern
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: No.

13. Aigle Castle

Aigle Castle is a beautiful castle built at the end of the 12th-century to serve as a residence for the Knights of Aigle.

In the following centuries, the castle underwent extensive construction work to include a massive circular wall and other important elements. At the end of the 18th-century, it was acquired by the local municipality.

Surrounded by endless rows of vineyards, Aigle Castle has been transformed into the Vine and Wine Museum in the 1970s.

Where: Aigle, Canton of Vaud
When: 12th-century
Open to visit: Yes. Check here for more information.

14. Aile Castle

Aile Castle can be found in the municipality of Vevey, Canton of Vaud. The construction of this gorgeous Neo-Gothic structure began in 1840 and ended four years later.

The new castle covered the site of an earlier 17th-century castle. For several decades, Aile Castle served as the private residence of Paul Morand, famous literary figure and traveller.

Although still privately owned, the castle is perfectly preserved and is considered part of Switzerland’s historic heritage.

Where: Vevey, Canton of Vaud
When: 19th-century
Open for visit: No.

15. Angenstein Castle

Located in the municipality of Duggingen, Angenstein Castle is a medieval castle perched on a rocky hill. Regarded as an important outpost of Basel, the castle ensured the control of the Jura region due to its strategic position.

Since the region was prone to conflicts, the castle suffered consistent damage over the centuries.

Additional fires and change of ownership led to severe neglect. After a tumultuous history, the castle was acquired by the city of Basel and went through extensive renovation work.

Where: Duggingen, Canton of Basel-Land
When: mid-13th-century
Open for visit: Yes

16. Bipp Castle

Bipp Castle is first mentioned in a document from 1268, which suggests that the castle dates back earlier than the 13th-century. According to historians, the castle changed ownership frequently, although it is unsure how many times it was sold or captured.

Many noble families resided in the Bipp Castle over the centuries. At the end of the 18th-century, the castle had been so neglected that it was no longer habitable. The ruins were bought by a family from Basel who built a private residence on the site.

Where: Oberbipp, Canton of Bern
When: 12th- or 13th- century

17. Birseck Castle

Located in Arlesheim, Birseck Castle was built around the 1240s, and it is one of the four castles on a slope above the River Birs. Although an important landmark, the castle was neglected for centuries.

In 1785, it was completely dilapidated, and in the 19th-century the ruins were integrated into a landscape garden. The circular tower, along with a small chapel and the courtyard were restored. Today Birseck Castle is a popular attraction.

Where: Alersheim, Canton of Basel
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: Yes, check here for more information.

18. Castle of Montebello

Montebello Castle is one of the three beautiful fortresses that once protected the city of Bellinzona. Built in the 14th-century, the castle suffered numerous attacks over the centuries and was brought to its original state at the beginning of the 20th-century.

Today, the castle is home to the Civic Museum, housing important archaeological exhibitions. Perched atop a hill, the castle also offers great panoramic views of the city and the surrounding landscape, including Lake Maggiore.

Where: Bellinzona, Canton of Ticino
When: 13th- to 14th- centuries
Open for visit: Yes. Check here for more information.

19. Colombier Castle

Originally a fortified tower built in the 11th-century, Colombier Castle was further expanded in the 13th-century. Additions were also made in the following centuries.

The present appearance has remained intact since the 16th-century. This beautiful castle served as a military hospital in 1806 and was later used as barracks and arsenal by the militia. Today Colombier Castle is an infantry training centre.

Where: Colombier, Canton of Neuchâtel
When: 11th- to 16th- centuries
Open for visit: Yes.

20. Grandson Castle

The second-largest castle in the country, Grandson Castle is an impressive medieval structure that overlooks Lake Neuchâtel. The origins of the castle are the 11th-century fortress, but construction work continued over the next three centuries.

Otto I of Grandson requested the expansion of the castle as an attempt to enforce his political authority. This transformed the Grandson Castle is an important political hotspot. In the 15th-century, the castle was involved in the Battle of Grandson and several other wars.

Where: Grandson, Canton of Vaud
When: 11th- to 14th century
Open for visit: Yes, check here for more information.

21. Gruyeres Castle

One of the most popular castles to visit in Switzerland, Gruyeres Castle was built at the end of the 13th-century by the Counts of Gruyeres. In 1544, a bankruptcy forced the Gruyeres family to sell the castle to two other noble families.

In 1938, the castle entered the possession of the Canton of Fribourg. Today it is considered the most important historic building in the region and houses a museum. Although not as imposing as other medieval fortifications, the castle has charming architecture, including towers, courtyards, and beautiful gardens.

Where: Fribourg
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: Yes. check here for more information.

22. Hallwyl Castle

A simple, but captivating place, Hallwyl Castle was built in the 13th-century as a residence for the Lords of Hallwyl. The castle is located on an island on the River Aabach, north of Lake Hallwil.

Although neglected for centuries, the castle was finally renovated in the 19th-century according to the original architecture. Today the castle is part of the historic heritage of the Canton of Aargau.

Where: Seengen, Canton of Aargau
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: Yes, check here for more information.

23. Hunegg Castle

Hunegg Castle is an important historical landmark built as a private residence for the family of the Prussian Baron Albert Otto von Parpart. The construction began in 1861 and took only two years.

The gorgeous construction was built in the Renaissance style prevalent at the time. After the death of the Baron in 1869, the castle changed owners several times. Due to its importance as a site of historic interest, the castle houses today the Renaissance Revival and Art Nouveau Museum.

Where: Hilterfingen, Canton of Bern
When: 19th-century
Open for visit: Yes. Check here for more information.

24. Meggenhorn Castle

Located on a hilly peninsula south of Lucerne, Meggenhorn Castle was built in 1868/1870 following a design inspired by the Chambord Castle in France.

Overlooking the lake and vineyards, the castle is a grandiose construction whose goal was to serve as a personal residence for wealthy industrialist Edouard Hofer-Grosjean.

After two other different owners, the castle was acquired by the municipality in 1974. The grounds are open to the public ever since.

Where: Lucerne, Canton of Bern
When: 19th-century
Open for visit: Yes. Check here for more information.

25. Mesocco Castle

Mesocco Castle is located in southern Mesolcina Valley, in the Italian-speaking region of Switzerland.

Built in the 13th-century, it had a central role in the region in the following two centuries, serving as the seat of the noble family von Sax. In the 15th-century, it was acquired by the Mesocco family.

The castle is still one of the most impressive fortifications in the country and it was never conquered, but fell into ruin for many centuries. Parts of the castle were excavated and restored in the 20th-century.

Where: Mesocco, Canton of Graubunden
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: Yes

26. Morges Castle

Morges Castle is a medieval fortress from the 13th-century, built by Louis de Savoy, the first ruler of Vaud. The castle has maintained its original medieval appearance over the years, with its impressive round towers intact.

It is one of the most gorgeous sights on Lake Geneva, and it is the home of four fascinating history museums on tin figures, military, police, and artillery.

Where: Morges, Canton of Vaud
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: Yes.

27. Munot Fortress

Located in northern Switzerland, in the city of Schaffhausen, Munot is a circular medieval fortress dating back to the 16th-century. Rising above the city, the castle offers beautiful views of the Old Town and the Rhine River.

This panoramic location was an important strategic advantage over the centuries and helped ensure the protection of the city. Guards would notice from within the fortress any dangers that would threaten the city, not just foreign enemies but also fires.

Munot Castle is still intact and has suffered little modifications during its long history.

Where: Schaffhausen, Canton of Schaffhausen
When: 16th-century
Open for visit: Yes. Check here for more information.

28. Spiez Castle

Built-in 933 by the King of Burgundy, Spiez Castle is definitely one of the oldest castles on this list. In fact, at that time, a large part of the area was under Italian rule.

Over the centuries, Spiez Castle was expanded and many new elements were added gradually. As a consequence, the castle features different architectural styles.

The courtrooms are an exquisite example of the Renaissance style while the southern part has been redecorated with Baroque elements. Throughout its long history, the castle was owned by many royal and noble families.

In recent times, the castle was acquired by a foundation which opened the gardens to the public.

Where: Spiez, Canton of Bern
When: 10th-century
Open for visit: Yes. Check here for more information.

29. Rapperswil Castle

Rapperswil Castle is located on the shores of beautiful Lake Zurich, in the old town of Rapperswil. Built in the 13th-century on a rocky hilltop, the castle was meant to provide a vantage point for the control of passing ships.

For many centuries, the castle was in dire conditions due to neglect. In 1870, Polish Count Wladyslaw Broel-Plater purchased the property and restored the medieval look of the castle. After the renovation, it was opened to the public as the Polish National Museum.

Where: Rapperswil
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: No restrictions for the castle grounds. Inner castle: check here for more information.

30. Tourbillon Castle

Now in ruins, Tourbillon Castle has had a long and tumultuous history, starting from its construction in the 13th-century. It was built by the Bishop of Sion, Boniface de Challant, to serve as his residence and it ended up as a principal residence for many bishops from the Diocese of Sion.

Due to its political importance, the castle underwent many attacks and sieges. A large part was destroyed in 1417. Although it was immediately renovated, in 1788 a fire that affected the city of Sion completely destroyed the castle.

Only a chapel survived. Reconstruction work ensued in the second half of the 20th-century. The castle is located atop a hill on the opposite side from the Valere Basilica in the city of Sion.

Where: Sion, Canton of Valais
When: 13th-century
Open for visit: Yes

31. Thun Castle

One of the most famous castles in Switzerland, Thun Castle has an imposing architecture, which combined with the beautiful scenery around it, makes it seem taken straight out of a storybook.

Offering gorgeous views of the city of Thun, Lake Thun and the surrounding mountains, the castle is considered a top tourist attraction.

Built-in the 12th-century, the castle was owned by various noble families who added a personal touch to the design, making various improvements. Today visitors can explore the donjon and the corner towers.

Where: Thun, Canton of Bern
When: 12th-century
Open for visit: Yes. Check here for more information.

32. Stockalper Palace

Stockalper Palace was built in the 17th-century by a wealthy Swiss politician and businessman named Kaspar Stockalper.

Due to its original design, the castle is regarded as one of the most unique buildings in the country. The imposing towers are the first element that stands out, but the entire complex is interesting to explore.

Where: Brig-Gils
When: 17th-century
Open for visit: Yes, check here for more information.

33. Blonay Castle

Blonay Castle is a medieval construction in southwestern Switzerland. Built-in the 12th-century as a private residence for the Blonay family, the castle is still owned by the same family and has been in their ownership for all its history except a brief period in the 18th-century.

Throughout the centuries, the original construction suffered numerous changes. Only two of the four original towers can be seen today.

Where: Blonay, Canton of Vaud
When: 12th-century
Open for visit: Yes.

Although Switzerland is not as famous as France or Germany when it comes to castles, Swiss castles have a particular charm of their own.

Usually set in scenic locations with views over the Alps or crystal-clear lakes, they can immediately draw you into a world of beauty, history, and charm.


Aarau

Aarau, the capital of the Canton of Aargau in the Swiss Mittelland, is located on the River Aare to which the town and canton owe their name. The charming old town boasts the most beautiful eaves, the so-called «Dachhimmel», in Switzerland.

Aarau is located by the southern foot of the Jura foothills in the centre of the big city triangle of Zurich, Basel and Lucerne. The central location was recognised early on which is why Aarau for a brief few months in 1798 was Switzerland's first capital and home to Switzerland's first Houses of Parliament.

The many painted eaves, the so-called "Dachhimmel" which predominantly date from the 16th century when the town underwent considerable extension, are a special feature of the old town of Aarau. It's for this reason that Aarau is regarded as the town of beautiful gables.

And Aarau continues to display an appreciation of art: the Aargau Art Museum featuring an extension designed by the famous architects Herzog & de Meuron offers architecture and art exhibitions setting high standards. The «Naturama», Aargau nature museum, is not your run-of-the-mill museum: animals, plants, exciting video films highlight the interaction and areas of conflict between nature and man in Aargau.

The Roggenhausen Wildlife Park has wild animals in their natural habitat as well as a Nature Trail. Cycling and walking trails alongside the River Aare and the Jura slopes provide the perfect opportunity for some pleasant physical exercise. But to see the people of Aargau really enjoying themselves you need to come to one of the local and historic traditional events, such as the «Maienzug» in July, the «Bachfischet» or «Rüeblimärt».

The Canton of Aargau boasts a great many castles, including some of Switzerland's most impressive such as the Lenzburg, the Hallwyl Water Castle and the Habsburg Castle - main residence of the famous dynasty from the the 10th century onwards. And Brugg, Baden and Zurich are a very short journey away. The Vindonissa Museum offers an opportunity to discover traces of the Romans and Windish is home to the biggest and best-preserved amphitheatre in Switzerland. And there are also a lot of historic towns, such as Bremgarten, Zofingen and others, to visit in the Canton of Aargau.