General C. O. Squier AP-130 - History

General C. O. Squier AP-130 - History

General C. Squier AP-130

General C. Squier

George Owen Squier was born in Dryden, Mich., 21 March 1863 and graduated from the Military Academy in 1877. After first entering the Army as an artillery officer, Squier joined the Signal Corps, rising to Major by 1903. He commanded cable-ship Burnside during the laying of the Philippine cable from 1900 to 1902. He was appointed Chief Signal Officer of the Army 14 February 1917, and was promoted to Major General 6 October. He also served as Chief of the Army Air Service 1916 to 1918. General Squier was the author of numerous articles and papers on technical subjects, and is credited with several important inventions in the fields of radio and electronics. He took part in his later life in several international conferences on communications and attended the 1921 Washington Conference on Naval Limitations for the War Department. General Squier died 24 March l934.

(AP-130: dp. 17,260; 1. 522'10", b. 71'6", dr. 26'6";

x. 16.5 k; cpl. 356; trp. 3,823; a. 4 5"; cl. General C. Squier; T C4-.3 A1)

General C. Squier (AP-130) was launched 11 November 1942 under Maritime Commission contract by the kaiser Co., Richmond, Calif.; sponsored by Miss Mary Ann Somersvell; acquired 30 August 1943 and commissioned 2 October, Captain A. E. Uehlinger in Command.

General C. Squier made three round-trip, troop carrying voyages out of San Francisco from 29 October 1943 by 30 March 1944 to Noumea; Pearl Harbor, Guadalcanal, Wallis Island, Samoa, Noumea, and Honolulu respectively. Underway again from San Francisco 7 April she brought troops to Noumea and Milne Bay before heading for Norfolk, where she arrived 2 June. On l July the ship departed with 3,300 troops for Italy, and debarked them at Naples. Following a voyage thence to Oran and back, General C. Squier joined Task Force 87 off Naples 13 August in preparation for Operation "Dragoon," the amphibious invasion of Southern France.

Arriving off Cap Camarat 15 August, she debarked her troops into waiting LCI's which put them ashore to become another deadly prong thrust deeply into Hilter's "Heartland." The next day she headed for Oran to bring nearly 3,000 troops back to the Cap Camarat beachhead on the 30th. Squier returned to New York 26 September with casualties and prisoners of war embarked at Naples.

From 14 October 1944 to 14 September 1945, she made 10 transatlantic, troops carrying and rotation voyages: 7 from New York, 2 from Norfolk, and 1 from Boston, to ports in the United Kingdom ( Plymouth, Southampton, and Avon mouth) and France (Le Havre and Marseilles. Between 20 September 1945 and 18 June 1946, six other round-trip, "Magic-Carpet" voyages out of New York at war's end brought home veterans from the Far East (Karachi, Calcutta, and Colombo) and Europe (Le Havre, Leghorn, and Bremerhaven). Squier reached Norfolk 22 June and decommissioned 10 July 1946. Returned to WSA 1 8 July 1946, she entered the National Defense Reserve F`leet at James River, VA. She was sold to the Bethlehem Steel Corp. 7 April 1964, converted to a general cargo ship, and renamed Pennmar 27 May 1965.

General C. Squier was awarded one battle star for World War II service.


General G. O. Squier-class transport

The first ship was launched in November 1942, while the last was launched in April 1945. Over that period the United States produced 30 General G. O. Squier-class transports. All of the ships were initially designated with hull classification symbol "AP" and numbered from 130 through 159. All but the four ships of the class (130, 131, 132, and 136) were transferred to the U.S. Army Transportation Service in 1946 and served as United States Army Transports (USAT), several of them being refitted to a larger gross tonnage. The 24 (numbers 134, 135, 137–151, and 153–159) still in service in 1950 were transferred back to the Navy as part of the Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS). All but two were transferred on 1 March 1950, [3] and all were reinstated on the Naval Vessel Register as United States Naval Ships (USNS), and redesignated with hull classification symbol "T-AP". [4]

Most of the General G. O. Squier class were deactivated in 1958 for two reasons: the introduction of jet airliners, and a decision to use berthing space on U.S.-flagged passenger ships. [5] Two ships, however, General LeRoy Eltinge and General R. M. Blatchford, assisted in United Nations efforts in the Congo Republic in the early 1960s, and both were pressed into service transporting troops to Vietnam in the mid 1960s. [6]

Two other ships of the General G. O. Squier class, General Harry Taylor and General R. E. Callan were transferred to the U.S. Air Force as missile tracking ships as part of the Missile Test Project, and renamed USAFS General Hoyt S. Vandenberg and USAFS General H. H. Arnold, respectively. They were later transferred back to MSTS under their new names and redesignated with hull classification symbol “T-AGM”. [7]

The last General G. O. Squier-class ship afloat, the ex-General Hoyt S. Vandenberg, was sunk as an artificial reef off of the Florida Keys on 27 May 2009. [8] [9] [10]


George owen squier

My Father, Lt. Jean Hart Daly served aboard "The Squier” as the navigation/damage control officer. I recall my Father commenting that they would take U.S. troops over and bring back German prisoners of war. Dad said this trip was made several times a month.

General G. O. Squier (AP-130) was launched 11 November 1942 under Maritime Commission contract by the Kaiser Co., Richmond, Calif. sponsored by Miss Mary Ann Somervell acquired 30 August 1943 and commissioned 2 October, Captain A. E. Uehlinger in Command.

General G. O. Squier made three round-trip, troop-carrying voyages out of San Francisco from 29 October 1943 to 30 March 1944 to Noumea Pearl Harbor, Guadalcanal, Wallis Island, Samoa, Noumea, and Honolulu, respectively. Underway again from San Francisco 7 April she brought troops to Noumea and Milne Bay before heading for Norfolk, where she arrived 2 June. On 1 July the ship departed with 3,300 troops for Italy, and debarked them at Naples. Following a voyage thence to Oran and back, General G. O. Squier joined Task Force 87 off Naples 13 August in preparation for Operation Dragoon. Operation Dragoon was the codename for the Allied invasion of southern France, which took place on 15 August 1944, during World War II. The invasion was initiated via a parachute drop by the 1st Airborne Task Force, followed by an amphibious assault by elements of the U.S. Seventh Army, followed a day later by a force made up primarily of the French First Army. The landing caused the German Army Group G to abandon southern France and to retreat under constant Allied attacks to the Vosges Mountains. Despite being a large and complex military operation with a well-executed amphibious and airborne component, Operation Dragoon is not well known as it was overshadowed by the larger Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy (D-Day) which occurred over two months earlier.

Arriving off Cap Camarat 15 August, she debarked her troops into waiting LCI's which put them ashore to become another deadly prong thrust deeply into Kilter's "Heartland." Landing Craft Infantry (LCI) were several classes of seagoing amphibious assault ships of the Second World War used to land large numbers of infantry directly onto beaches. They were developed in response to a British request for a vessel capable of carrying and landing substantially more troops than their smaller Landing Craft Assault (LCA). The result was a small steel ship that could land 200 troops, traveling from rear bases on its own bottom at a speed of up to 15 knots. The next day, General G.O. Squier headed for Oran to bring nearly 3,000 troops back to the Cap Camarat beachhead on the 30th. General G. O. Squier returned to New York 26 September with casualties and prisoners of war embarked at Naples.

From 14 October 1944 to 14 September 1945, she made 10 transatlantic, troop-carrying and rotation voyages: 7 from New York, 2 from Norfolk, and 1 from Boston, to ports in the United Kingdom (Plymouth, Southampton, and Avonmouth) and France (Le Havre and Marseilles). Between 20 September 1945 and 18 June 1946, six other round-trip, "Magic Carpet" voyages out of New York at war's end brought home veterans from the Far East (Karachi, Calcutta, and Colombo) and Europe (Le Havre, Leghorn, and Bremerhaven). Operation Magic Carpet was the post-World War II operation by the War Shipping Administration to repatriate over eight million American military personnel from the European, Pacific, and Asian theaters. Hundreds of Liberty ships, Victory ships, and troop transports like The Squier began repatriating soldiers from Europe in June 1945. Beginning in October 1945, over 370 navy ships were used for repatriation duties in the Pacific. Warships, such as aircraft carriers, battleships, hospital ships, and large numbers of assault transports were used. The European phase of Operation Magic Carpet concluded in February 1946 while the Pacific phase continued until September 1946.

General G. O. Squier reached Norfolk 22 June and decommissioned 10 July 1946.

She was returned to the WSA on 18 July 1946 and entered the National Defense Reserve Fleet at James River in Virginia. She was sold to the Bethlehem Steel Corp. 7 April 1964, converted to a general cargo ship for Bethlehem's subsidiary Calmar Line, and renamed Pennmar, USCG ON 295108, IMO 6413730, on 27 May 1965. The ship was sold and renamed Penn in 1976, renamed Penny in 1978, and scrapped in 1984.

General G. O. Squier was awarded one battle star for World War II service.


Life and military career

George Squier wrote and edited many books and articles on the subject of radio and electricity. An inventor, he and Dartmouth professor Albert Cushing Crehore developed a magneto-optical streak camera "The Polarizing Photo-chronograph" in 1896 to measure the speed of projectiles both inside a cannon and directly after they left the cannon barrel. This was one of the earliest photonic programs. They also worked to develop synchronous AC telegraphic systems. His biggest contribution was that of telephone carrier multiplexing in 1910 for which he was elected to the National Academy of Science in 1919.

As executive officer to the Chief Signal Officer, U.S. Signal Corps in 1907, Squier was instrumental in the establishment of the Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps, the first organizational ancestor of the US Air Force. He also was the first military passenger in an airplane on September 12, 1908 and, working with the Wright Brothers, was responsible for the purchase of the first airplanes by the US Army in 1909.

From May 1916 to February 1917 he was Chief of the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps, the first successor of the Aeronautical Division, before being promoted to major general and appointed Chief Signal Officer during World War I.

In 1922 he created Wired Radio, a service which piped music to businesses and subscribers over wires. Liking how 'Kodak' was a made up name, in 1934, he decided later to change the service's name to 'Muzak'.

Asked how to say his name, he told The Literary Digest it was pronounced like the word square. [2]


D-Day Story: James Hollis Dearden

My name is James Hollis Bearden. I am an American citizen. I was born October 3, 1922 in Shelbyville, Tennessee. I moved to Cairo, Georgia in 1938 and lived with an uncle, so I could play football for Cairo High School. I was drafted in May 1943. I decided to join the Navy. I had my boot camp training at Bainbridge Naval Station in Bainbridge, Maryland. After a short leave, I went back to Bainbridge and attended Boatswain School. I received further training in New Orleans, Louisiana. From New Orleans, I boarded the ship General G.O. Squier. We docked in the English Channel.

Here we picked up Landing Craft Tank ships. We trained for amphibious landings. On June 1, 1944, our LCT was loaded with 180 tons of ammunition. Then on June 4, 300 combat soldiers entered our LCT. The soldiers were given invasion money. One asked me, "What kind of money is this?" I told them they'd find out the next morning.

On June 5, we started across the Channel for the Normandy invasion. Because of the weather, we were turned back. On June 6, we started again. There were thousands of ships and airplanes. About 3:00 A.M. the planes flew over. First they dropped bombs and next came the paratroopers. About two or three miles out from the beach, destroyers and cruisers sprayed the beachheads with gunfire. We were in the first wave to hit Normandy.

We hit the beaches at high tide. This was at 5:30 A.M. on June 6, 1944. After dropping the anchors we set down the ramp to let the soldiers off. We couldn't leave until high tide so we dug fox holes, removed the wounded, and waited for the trucks to unload our ship.

The crew aboard the LCT was the captain, Lieutenant John D. Allen from Youngstown, Ohio, boatswain (myself), two electricians, two machinist mates, three or four gunners mates, one signal man, and the cooks. One name I remember was Thaddeus Kadinsky from Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Three boys had the last name of Green and were from Texas.

After the tide came back in, we pulled our ship off the beach and went back to the Merchant Marine ship to reload. Some of the landing crafts would hit sandbars. Thinking they were on the beach, they hurriedly jumped out. Many sailors were drowned. On the third wave, we carried in a ship that General George S. Patton was on.

The enemy had pillboxes up in the cliff. They were loaded with guns, supplies, and ammunition. There were tunnels running to the pillboxes. The only way our soldiers could get to the problem was to send up two tanks at one time. The first tank would be hit, but the next one would get up there and shoot the enemy before they could reload.

After the beachhead was secured, we went through these tunnels. One soldier had his left arm shot off above the elbow. Still, he helped us load the wounded. We carried the wounded out to the hospital ship. A bulldozer came and dug trenches and buried the dead.

A few months later, a few of us sailors decided we wanted to go see Paris. We stole a jeep off the ship. It was in a box and we had to assemble it. Since Navy personnel was not allowed in Paris, we borrowed some of the soldier's uniforms, dressed in them, and took off for Paris. We were on the outskirts of Paris when we were stopped and asked for our identification.

Needless to say, we never saw Paris. When the MP's saw our Navy ID's, we were placed in confinement until our ship's captain could be notified. We were there for five days before returning to the ship. I stayed in the Navy til the war was over. The only time I came home during these three years was after I finished boot camp.


Silk Road Economic Belt

Even though the name “Silk Road” derives from the popularity of Chinese silk among tradesmen in the Roman Empire and elsewhere in Europe, the material was not the only important export from the East to the West.

Trade along the so-called Silk Road economic belt included fruits and vegetables, livestock, grain, leather and hides, tools, religious objects, artwork, precious stones and metals and—perhaps more importantly—language, culture, religious beliefs, philosophy and science.

Commodities such as paper and gunpowder, both invented by the Chinese during the Han Dynasty, had obvious and lasting impacts on culture and history in the West. They were also among the most-traded items between the East and West.

Paper was invented in China during the 3rd century B.C., and its use spread via the Silk Road, arriving first in Samarkand in around 700 A.D., before moving to Europe through the then-Islamic ports of Sicily and Spain.

Of course, paper’s arrival in Europe fostered significant industrial change, with the written word becoming a key form of mass communication for the first time. The eventual development of Gutenberg’s printing press allowed for the mass production of books and, later, newspaper, which enabled a wider exchange of news and information.


Muzak History: The Background Story on Background Music

When you hear the name Muzak, you probably think of the type of easy listening music one often encounters in elevators or while on hold at a call center. Where does the term Muzak come from, and where does the actual music originate? And why don’t we hear elevator music as much as we used to? Let’s take a look at a brief history of the smooth programming.

For a company whose name is synonymous with wimpy music, Muzak had a surprisingly tough founder: an Army general. Major General George O. Squier served as the Army’s Chief Signal Officer during World War I, and in the early 1920s he perfected a method for transmitting music across electrical wires. At the time, radio was still finding its footing, so the notion of sending businesses and residences music via wires was appealing. In 1934 Squier formally founded a company to develop his invention. Since he liked the sound of the name “Kodak” he borrowed from it to name his own company Muzak.

Unfortunately for Muzak, by the time Squier’s technology was ready for a full-scale implementation, radio had become firmly entrenched. Undeterred, Muzak went after a different market—the one for background music for stores, restaurants, and office buildings.

In those early days, Muzak didn’t have access to the huge libraries of licensed music that radio stations can pick from today, so the company brought in top bands and orchestras to record original selections and standards that could be piped into businesses. Thanks to this strategy, the company ended up with some pretty amazing archives. According to Muzak, the company owns some of the few surviving original recordings of jazz legend Casper Reardon, better known as “the World’s Hottest Harpist.”

Muzak to their ears

This early background music did fairly well for Muzak, but the company really started taking off in the 1940s. As World War II required more and more industrial production, company researchers made a surprising discovery: Muzak could apparently make workers happier and more productive. Muzak patented a system called Stimulus Progression that offered 15-minute blocks of instrumental background music that provided listeners with a subconscious sense of forward movement. When workers listened to these blocks, they got more work done.

In retrospect, the science behind these Stimulus Progression studies may have been a bit dubious, but it really helped Muzak franchise and sell subscriptions to businesses. Not even the White House was immune to the allure of Muzak’s agreeable tunes the presidential residence was wired for Muzak in 1953 during Dwight Eisenhower's administration. (He wasn’t the biggest presidential fan, though Lyndon Johnson actually owned Muzak’s Austin franchise during the 1950s.) Soon Muzak’s tunes were hitting tens of millions of ears each day.

Muzak Trivia

Muzak is still around today, but as elevator music’s popularity has waned, the company has shifted its focus. Although it still offers the “classic” elevator music to the few customers who want it, most of Muzak’s programming now comes from its library of millions of commercially recorded songs. Muzak’s “audio architects” design special programs of tunes to fit specific clients’ needs, whether it’s helping workers be more productive or inducing shoppers to splurge on that new pair of pants.

In addition to Muzak’s ability to tailor programs to a business’ specific needs, it also deals with the thorny issue of paying licensing fees on the songs a business plays. If a shop or restaurant just plugged in an iPod and let the tunes fly, it would need to pay licensing fees to the copyright holders for each song it played. While some businesses do just that, Muzak’s current services include all of the necessary performance royalties, a perk that the company uses as a selling point.

Related Question: Why is it called “elevator music” in the first place?

To answer that question, we need to go back to the early 20th century. As skyscrapers began popping up in urban areas around the world, the necessity of elevators shot up. As the story goes, early skyscraper denizens weren’t totally sold on this idea of getting into a tiny box and being pulled up a very tall shaft. To help calm riders’ nerves about getting into elevators, building owners would pipe in soothingly bland music, and soon “elevator music” became shorthand for any boring, non-threatening instrumental music.


General C. O. Squier AP-130 - History

Credit: USC awards 4 semester units of elective credit for all AP examinations with a score of 4 or 5. Exams must be taken before matriculation at any two-year or four-year college. In addition to elective credit, select AP examinations with a score of 4 or 5 will satisfy a General Education requirement, foreign language requirement, or may be used on a case-by-case basis to waive select prerequisites and/or degree requirements. Please see below for more information.

Restrictions:

  1. No credit is given for projected scores, partial scores or subscores, such as Calculus AB Subscore, Music: Aural Subscore, or Music: Nonaural Subscore.
  2. 4 semester units will be granted for a score of 4 or 5 on the AP Capstone Seminar exam, but no credit is given for the AP Capstone Research exam.
  3. AP scores do not earn USC course equivalence.
  4. Students may not receive credit for both an AP exam (or IB or other international exam) and a college course taken before high school graduation covering the same subject matter, nor for an AP and IB exam covering the same subject matter.
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*** Beginning Fall 2015, USC introduced a new set of General Education Program Requirements, or "NEW GE". These requirements apply to students who started college as first-time Freshmen in Fall 2015 or later, or who will be first-time Freshmen this year. These students should review the information below for the NEW GE Program requirements.

Students who started at any college or university before Fall 2015 will follow the GE Program in effect prior to Fall 2015, or “PRIOR GE”. These students should review the information below for the PRIOR GE Program requirements.

If you have questions about which GE Program requirements you’ll be following, please ask your Admission Counselor.

Chemistry
Physics 1
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Calculus AB
Calculus BC
Macroeconomics
Microeconomics
Statistics

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European History
US History
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GE Category I: Western Cultures and Traditions

Art History
European History

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Biology
Chemistry
Physics 1
Physics 2
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AP Exam Prerequisite that can be waived After prerequisite is waived.
Biology Either BISC 120 or BISC 220 see undergrad advisor in Biological Sciences.
Interested in Medical School? See the important note below!
. see undergrad advisor in Biological Sciences.
Chemistry CHEM 105aL
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. take CHEM 105bL.
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*NOT the AB subscore*
MATH 118 or 125
. take MATH 126, MATH 127, MATH 208, MATH 218, or certain upper-division business courses.
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If your score is 5, MATH 118, or 125 and MATH 126
. take higher-level calculus or business courses.
Psychology PSYC 100 . take certain upper-division PSYC courses see advisor.

An Important Note to Students Interested in Medical School

Even though exam scores may place students into a higher level biology or chemistry course, many medical schools do not accept exam credit in lieu of college-level course credit to fulfill admissions requirements. Students interested in medical school should consider carefully whether it is in their best interest to enroll in foundational science courses notwithstanding AP credit in these areas. If you are a potential pre-med, please discuss this issue with an advisor in the Pre-Health Professions Program.

Reporting AP scores: Students must have their scores sent directly to USC from the College Board, not from their high school or in any other format. Contact the College Board for ordering instructions: 1-888-CALL-4AP. If spring official scores have been sent in June but do not appear on the student's TCR by August, send an email to [email protected]

Advanced Placement FAQ

How can I have my AP test scores sent to USC?
Please contact College Board at (888) CALL-4-AP or go to www.collegeboard.com and have your scores sent to the University of Southern California (USC’s College Board code is: 4852). To avoid possible delays, please be sure that College Board includes your Social Security Number when sending your scores.

I am taking/I took AP exams this Spring. Do I need to send my scores from past years now, or can I wait until my current scores are sent in July?
It depends.

You will receive your credit evaluation faster if you have your old scores sent to USC as soon as possible. However, College Board charges a fee for ordering old score reports.

College Board sends your scores from up to four years ago with your recent exam results for free (assuming you included USC on the list of institutions to receive your recent scores). If you don’t mind waiting until July, you can save some money.

Please review the information at the College Board’s AP website. If you used different formats for your name, or did not include a social security number when registering for an exam, your score reports may need to be synchronized. Contact College Board at 1-888-225-5427 to have them locate and match your records.

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I took an AP exam before my senior year, but did not send the score to USC. Will the College Board automatically send that score to USC with my AP exam results from this year?
You will receive your credit evaluation faster if you have your old scores sent to USC as soon as possible. However, College Board charges a fee for ordering old score reports.

College Board sends all your old scores with your recent exam results for free (assuming you included USC on the list of institutions to receive your recent scores). So if you don’t mind waiting until July, you can save some money.

Please review the information at the College Board’s AP website. If you used different formats for your name, or did not include a social security number when registering for an exam, your score reports may need to be synchronized. Contact College Board at 1-888-225-5427 to have them locate and match your records.

I didn’t put my Social Security Number on some of my exams. Is this a problem?
If you did not include a social security number when registering for an exam, your score reports may need to be synchronized. Contact College Board at 1-888-225-5427 to have them locate and match your records.

I used a different appearance of my name (e.g., middle name or middle initial) on a previous exam. Is this a problem?
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Should I pay extra for a “Rush Score Report”?
It is not recommended. Scores are transmitted electronically to USC on a regular basis. The speed of the regular level of service is satisfactory for almost every request.

Can I turn in paper copies of my AP scores if I haven’t opened the envelope mailed to me by College Board?
Unfortunately, no. Only official score reports transmitted directly to USC from the College Board can be evaluated.


Sand Creek massacre

On November 29, 1864, peaceful band of Southern Cheyenne and Arapahoe Native Americans are massacred by Colonel John Chivington’s Colorado volunteers at Sand Creek, Colorado.

The causes of the Sand Creek massacre were rooted in the long conflict for control of the Great Plains of eastern Colorado. The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 guaranteed ownership of the area north of the Arkansas River to the Nebraska border to the Cheyenne and Arapahoe. However, by the end of the decade, waves of Euro-American miners flooded across the region in search of gold in Colorado’s Rocky Mountains, placing extreme pressure on the resources of the arid plains.By 1861, tensions between new settlers and Native Americans were rising. 

On February 8 of that year, a Cheyenne delegation, headed by Chief Black Kettle, along with some Arapahoe leaders, accepted a new settlement with the Federal government. The Native Americans ceded most of their land but secured a 600-square mile reservation and annuity payments. The delegation reasoned that continued hostilities would jeopardize their bargaining power. In the decentralized political world of the tribes, Black Kettle and his fellow delegates represented only part of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe tribes. Many did not accept this new agreement, called the Treaty of Fort Wise.

The new reservation and Federal payments proved unable to sustain the tribes. During the Civil War, tensions again rose and sporadic violence broke out between Anglos and Native Americans. In June 1864, John Evans, governor of the territory of Colorado, attempted to isolate recalcitrant Native Americans by inviting 𠇏riendly Indians” to camp near military forts and receive provisions and protection. He also called for volunteers to fill the military void left when most of the regular army troops in Colorado were sent to other areas during the Civil War. 

In August 1864, Evans met with Black Kettle and several other chiefs to forge a new peace, and all parties left satisfied. Black Kettle moved his band to Fort Lyon, Colorado, where the commanding officer encouraged him to hunt near Sand Creek. In what can only be considered an act of treachery, Chivington moved his troops to the plains, and on November 29, they attacked the unsuspecting Native Americans, scattering men, women, and children and hunting them down. The casualties reflect the one-sided nature of the fight. Nine of Chivington’s men were killed 148 of Black Kettle’s followers were slaughtered, more than half of them women and children. The Colorado volunteers returned and killed the wounded, mutilated the bodies, and set fire to the village.

The atrocities committed by the soldiers were initially praised, but then condemned as the circumstances of the massacre emerged. Chivington resigned from the military and aborted his budding political career. Black Kettle survived and continued his peace efforts. In 1865, his followers accepted a new reservation in Indian Territory.


Kansas City FAQs

Why did the area of 18th and Vine become famous?

Located just east of downtown, this historic area includes a number of city blocks surrounding the intersection of 18th and Vine Streets. African-American Kansas Citians began settling in this area in the late 1800s, and by the 1920s the 18th and Vine District was a thriving commercial, residential, and entertainment center. From shopping for clothes and food to visiting a doctor or lawyer, it has been said that one could find anything and everything near 18th and Vine.

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Watch the video: he tried to mess with a guard of the tomb of the unknown soldier. BIG MISTAKE