Lucius Scribonius Libo, fl.56-34 BC

Lucius Scribonius Libo, fl.56-34 BC

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Lucius Scribonius Libo, fl.56-34 BC

Lucius Scribonius Libo (fr.56-34 BC) was a supporter of Pompey the Great in the civil war between Caesar and the Senate, commanding part of Pompey's fleet in the first year of the war. Libo was tied to Pompey and the Senatorial side in the Great Roman Civil War by marriage - he was the father in law of Sextus Pompey, son of Pompey the Great. He is first mentioned in 56 BC when he supported Pompey's proposed settlement of Egypt.

At the start of the Civil War in 49 BC Libo was given command of the Senate's forces in Etruria, but Caesar's rapid advance forced him to abandon this position and join the Consuls in Campania, before moving south to join Pompey at Brundisium.

Libo followed Pompey when he moved to Greece, and was given join command of the Luburnian and Achaean fleets, alongside M. Octavius. These two fleets represented one part of Pompey's powerful naval forces, which were under the overall command of Bibulus. The first year of the Civil War saw Caesar victorious wherever he appeared in person, while his subordinates suffered a series of defeats. Libo and Octavius were responsible for one of those defeats, capturing C. Antonius after the siege of Curicta and defeated Dolabella's fleet.

These successes were all undone early in 48 BC when Caesar managed to slip past Bibulus's fleet and establish himself in Greece. Soon afterwards Bibulus died, and Libo took command of the combined fleets, although he wasn't officially given the post.

Bibulus had attempted to block Caesar's fleets from reaching the eastern side of the Adriatic, but Libo decided to try and blockade them in Brundisium. He captured an island opposite the harbour, destroyed some of Caesar's transports, and looked to be in a very strong position. He was outwitted by Mark Antony, who set an ambush, filling sixty long-boats with his solders and then sending two three-banked galleys out of the harbour to act as bait. Libo fell for the trap, sending five galleys to capture the bait. Antony's galleys turned back, Libo's chased them into the harbour and were then attacked by the long boats. One of the four-banked galleys was captured and the rest forced to flee. After this setback Libo abandoned the island and the blockade. Antony was able to join Caesar, and Pompey was defeated.

Libo disappears for the rest of the Great Roman Civil War, eventually reappearing in Spain in 44 BC, where he had joined Pompey's younger son Sextus. He supported the young Pompey in the wars of the second triumvirate (the civil war between Antony and Octavian). In 40 BC Libo was one of a party of high ranking Romans who was sent to escort Antony's mother Julia from Spain to the East. Octavian saw this as a serious threat, and began to negotiate a peace treaty with Sextus Pompey. This was agreed at Misenum in 39 BC. Octavian married Libo's sister Scribonia, and Libo was promised the post of Consul, alongside Mark Antony, for 34 BC.

The peace agreed at Misenum didn't last long. The war between Pompey and the Triumvirs resumed in 36 BC. Pompey was defeated at Naulochus or Mylae in the same year, but managed to escape to continue the war in the East. Libo stayed with him until the following year, when along with most of Pompey's senior supporters he made his peace with Antony. Libo served as Consul for 34 BC, alongside Antony, and then disappears from the historical record.

Lucius Scribonius Libo III Luciuss

  • Julia Caesaris Augustusdr † Married toMarcus Claudius Marcellus Gaiuss †
    Julia Caesaris Augustusdr †Married toMarcus Vipsanius Agrippa Luciuss † with :
  • Gaius Marcus Agrippa Caesar Marcuss †4
  • Vipsania Julia Agrippina Marcusdr †29
  • Lucius Marcus Agrippa Caesar Marcuss †2
  • Vipsania Agrippina Marcusdr †33
  • Julia Agrippa Marcusdr
  • Vespaciano Agrippa Marcuss
  • Agrippa Postumus Luciuss †14
  • Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus Marcuss †14

L. Scribonius Libo (praetor 204 BC)

Lucius Scribonius Libo was a tribune of the plebs in 216 BC, during the Second Punic War . A question arose pertaining to the ransoming of Roman captives he referred the matter to the senate . [ 1 ] He was one of the three men appointed triumviri mensarii , a commission created by a Lex Minucia, possibly to deal with a shortage of silver [ 2 ] the full range of their financial activities is unclear. [ 3 ] He was praetor peregrinus in 204 and sent to Cisalpine Gaul . [ 4 ]

(p.219) Appendix 1 A Prosopography of M. Scribonius Drusus Libo

What follows is an attempt to capture the essence of what Drusus Libo had in mind as he considered his place in Roman society:

Firmius Catus senator, ex intima Libonis amicitia, iuvenem inprovidum et facilem inanibus ad Chaldaeorum promissa, magorum sacra, somniorum etiam interpretes impulit, dum proavum Pompeium, amitam Scriboniam, quae quondam Augusti coniunx fuerat, consobrinos Caesares, plenam imaginibus domum ostentat, hortaturque ad luxum et aes alienum, socius libidinum et necessitatum, quo pluribus indiciis inligaret.

Firmius Catus, a senator and close friend of Libo’s, urged the short-sighted young man, given to empty things, to resort to the promises of astrologers, the rites of magicians, and also dream interpreters, reminding him of his great-grandfather Pompeius, his paternal aunt Scribonia, former wife of Augustus, his imperial cousins, his house crowded with ancestral images, and urging him to extravagance and debt: Firmius associated himself in these debaucheries and embarrassments, in order to entangle Libo in more evidence. 1

Marcus Scribonius Libo Drusus would seem an appropriate name for a young man who was born (M.?) Livius Drusus and was later adopted by a Scribonius. He was, in fact, a Scribonius adopted by a Livius. The Fasti Amiternini records his name as ‘M.Libo’, Velleius Paterculus has ‘Drusus Libo’, Seneca ‘Drusus Libo’, and Tacitus uses the phrase e familia Scriboniorum Libo Drusus. 2 Dio and Suetonius mistake Drusus Libo for his brother, Lucius Scribonius Libo, consul ordinarius in AD 16. 3 Hitherto the standard preference is to apply the Tacitean formula, thus Syme, Shotter, and Weinrib. 4 Sumner shows that the preference is wrong. 5 Tacitus alone uses (p.220) ‘Libo Drusus’, and as Tacitus himself tells us, one of the posthumous penalties was to deprive Scribonian descendants from ever adopting Drusus as a cognomen: ne quis Scribonius cognomentum Drusi adsumeret. 6 The preferred formula was M. Scribonius Drusus Libo. This slight emendation makes it somewhat easier to envisage an adoption. That he was born a Scribonius is certain. Seneca and Tacitus mention amita Scribonia, ‘Scribonia, an aunt on the father’s side’, and Tacitus also mentions proavus Pompeius, ‘Pompey, a great-grandfather’. Scribonia can thus be found on his father’s side, and Pompeius was the grandfather of his mother, Pompeia Magna. Drusus Libo was, therefore, a Scribonius adopted by a Livius, but in a manner that allowed for unconventional nomenclature, i.e. he should have been M. Livius Drusus Libo Scribonianus, but was able instead to use M. Scribonius Drusus Libo. Weinrib has argued that Drusus Libo annexed the cognomen Drusus after the death of M.Livius Drusus Libo (cos. 15). 7 His hypothesis has not been challenged.

Drusus Libo’s brother was L. Scribonius L.f. Libo (cos. AD 16), and hence their father was a L. Scribonius Libo. The father’s brother was M. Livius L.f. Drusus Libo (cos. 15). 8 Lucii filius signifies that their (i.e. the consul of 15 BC and his brother) father was thus also a L. Scribonius L.f. Libo. He is the consul for 34 BC. 9 There are two points to consider. An eldest son was provided with the praenomen Lucius, and that one generation before our man, the second son of a Scribonius Libo had joined the ranks of the Livii Drusi. Weinrib’s study of M. Livius L.f. Drusus Libo shows that he was not adopted through either of the formal modes known to us- adrogatio or datio in adoptionem- for we would not expect L.f., when his praenomen is clearly Marcus. 10 Instead, M. Livius Drusus Libo joined the Livii Drusi through the process of testamentary ‘adoption’. 11 His testator was M. Livius Drusus (p.221) Claudianus, a Claudius Pulcher who was adopted by the tribune of 91 BC, M. Livius Drusus. Although M. Livius Drusus Libo did not come under the patria potestas of his new father, he did have claims to his titles and estates, which he shared with his new sister, Livia Drusilla. Weinrib goes on to suggest that this eminent position was not underestimated by his young nephew M. Scribonius Drusus Libo, who was so impressed by his uncle’s fame that he chose to take on his praenomen and cognomen out of pure regard. 12 As evidence for this practice, Weinrib cites the example of L.Seius Strabo, who gave his son the cognomen Tubero in honour of a family friend. 13 Yet he goes on to acknowledge that: ‘this idea is now out of favour’. 14 Other examples cited do not exclude the possibility that a will had been drawn up, and in the case of M. Aurelius Cotta Maximus Messalinus, the evidence actually implies a testament was being followed:

Qui vir animo etiam quam gente nobilior dignissimusque, qui et patrem Corvinum habuisset et cognomen suum Cottae fratri relinqueret…

This man [M. Valerius Messala Messalinus], was more noble in spirit even than in family, who was very worthy to have had Corvinus as a father, and who left behind his own cognomen to his brother Cotta. 15

Weinrib has ignored the active verb relinquo: the brother left behind his cognomen. The cognomen was not annexed. This is much like his reading of Tacitus’ passage concerning the posthumous penalty suggested by Cn. Lentulus: ne quis Scribonius cognomentum Drusi adsumeret. 16 Weinrib takes adsumere to mean ‘to take’, and insists that the verb signifies a one-sided transaction: Cn. Lentulus suggests that no Scribonius shall ‘take’ the cognomen Drusus. 17 But adsumere is here used in the widest possible sense, in which ‘to take’ can mean taking for oneself or to take when offered by another. Weinrib is closest to the mark when he writes in a footnote ‘Mommsen’s instinctive suggestion of a testamentary adoption by Drusus Libo may be correct (Eph. Ep. I (1872) 146). In this case the nomenclature would be exactly parallel to that of Brutus Albinus.’ 18 Annexation of nomenclature did, of course, occur. The lex Cornelia de falsis, or an amendment, dealt with the issue in relation to forming wills, as is evidenced by Dig. (p.222) 48.10.13: Falsi nominis vel cognominis adseveratio poena falsi coercetur, ‘To lay claim to a false nomen or cognomen is punished by the penalty for fraud.’ But the evidence suggests the perpetrators were usually freedmen or foreigners passing themselves off as citizens. 19 Moreover, it appears that M. Scribonius Drusus Libo was never prosecuted for such a breach, which is perhaps evidence that no breach was ever made. This supports the view that he was adopted in the will of his uncle M. Livius Drusus Libo, on the condition that he take his name.

Evidently, Drusus Libo chose to drop the gentilicium Livius, preferring instead Scribonius. Shackleton-Bailey cites the case of T. Pomponius Atticus, who was heir to the estate of his uncle, Q. Caecilius, by testamentary adoption. Perhaps soon after Atticus had come into his new power as heres, Cicero headed a letter with Q.Caecilio Q.f. Pomponiano Attico. 20 The letter shows that a heres could revert to his natal nomenclature despite the condicio nominis ferendi, since he continued to be called T. Pomponius Atticus. 21 Thus, M. Scribonius Drusus Libo publicized a cognomen rich in social and political capital, but, for reasons that are not clear, dropped the equally impressive ‘Livius’. Cicero’s anecdote, moreover, draws our attention to another reason for viewing Drusus Libo as an adopted son rather than a starry-eyed nephew. No doubt the congratulations given by Cicero referred to the fortune that Atticus had acquired, important when considering the role of testamentary adoptions. Once an heir had performed the appropriate rites before a praetor, he would be able to take on the estate of the deceased, his name, the masks of his ancestors, and his sacra familiaria. 22 As a general rule, this whole process favoured heirless nobles who wished for the continuation of the family name without legal fuss. The reason had sufficed for M. Livius Drusus, and, in turn, his adopted son, M. Livius Drusus Claudianus. He had only one daughter, Livia Drusilla, and so adopted (p.223) M. Livius Drusus Libo. Now, as far as we know, M. Livius Drusus Libo also had one daughter, Livia Scriboniana and, more importantly, no sons.

Low fertility within the aristocracy concerned the Augustan government a social phenomenon that had plagued Rome for decades: ‘A well-known feature of the social history of Rome is the infertility of the governing class, its failure to rear enough children to maintain its numbers’, as Crook put it. 23 Condicio nominis ferendi is an artificial reaction to this state of affairs. 24 The object of this device was to ensure a testator’s name was carried on after death, and a growing tide of opinion suggests that condicio nominis ferendi and testamentary adoption were one and the same. 25 It is here that Weinrib’s thesis requires correction. Though he, in fact, advocates this position for M. Livius Drusus Libo, he seems to have downplayed its significance in the case of M. Scribonius Drusus Libo a brief Livian prosopography reveals why such a process was necessary. The consul of 112 BC was M. Livius Drusus. He had three children: Livia, M. Livius Drusus ( 91), and Mam. Aemilius Lepidus Livianus (cos. 77). 26 Livia married both Q. Servilius Caepio (pr. 91), and M. Porcius Cato, neither marriage produced children with the (p.224) cognomen Drusus. 27 M. Livius Drusus ( 91) had no children, while Mam. Aemilius Lepidus Livianus, who was clearly adopted by an Aemilius Lepidus, did not take the cognomen Drusus with him. 28 It was thus left to the tribune of 91 to adopt, and he chose a Claudius Pulcher, who became M. Livius Drusus Claudianus. M. Livius Drusus Claudianus had one daughter, who took both gentilicium and cognomen, but it was not guaranteed that her future children would bear either. This was the situation when M. Livius Drusus Claudianus instituted a Scribonius Libo as heres, who became M. Livius Drusus Libo (cos. 15). Thus, immediately after 42 BC Livia and her new stepbrother were the only bearers of this very distinguished cognomen. 29

About this time Livia married Tiberius Claudius Nero (pr. 42) they soon had two children: the future princeps, Tiberius Claudius Nero and Decimus Claudius Nero (the elder Drusus). 30 Though the name ‘Drusus’ was not given to either child, some time during his youth Decimus became Nero Claudius Drusus the plight of ‘Drusus’ was temporarily reprieved. 31 Nero Claudius Drusus had three children: Germanicus, the future princeps Claudius, and Livia Julia. Germanicus was born Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, whilst Claudius was Tiberius Claudius Drusus. 32 In 13 BC Tiberius named his only son Drusus, perhaps fulfilling a mother’s request. Tiberius Claudius Drusus’ birth in 10 BC therefore brought the number of bearers up to six. But fortuna is fickle. While Claudius was still a baby his father, Nero Claudius Drusus, died. It was probably about this time that another Scribonius Libo joined the ranks, though at which point he secured the bequest is beyond us. Either way, having surveyed the recent history of the Livii Drusi, it is not hard to understand why a device like ‘testamentary’ adoption appealed, especially because ‘it merely signifies the instalment of an heir under condition that he take the testator’s name’. 33 Since an heir received the deceased’s estates, his name, the masks of his ancestors, and his sacra familiaria, it is not hard to understand why the situation benefited the Scribonii as well. Thus M. Livius Drusus Claudianus adopted M. Livius (p.225) Drusus Libo, who, in turn, adopted M. Scribonius Drusus Libo, the form of both having been defined through condicio nominis ferendi. M. Scribonius Drusus Libo had inherited the masks of not only his natal ancestors but also of the ancestors of the Livii Drusi. 34 With the Scribonii and Pompeii already on display, his collection was certainly impressive, both socially and politically: Weinrib’s hypothesis does not produce this image.

Having thus established a place for M. Scribonius Drusus Libo, we should now consider his connections. The nomenclature of M. Scribonius Drusus Libo indicates a desire to display his connection both to the Livii Drusi and the Scribonii Libones. As the adopted son of M. Livius Drusus Claudianus, M. Livius Drusus Libo was a brother of sorts to Livia Drusilla and an uncle to Tiberius Claudius Nero, the future princeps. M. Scribonius Drusus Libo could, therefore, claim to be a cousin to the emperor. Indeed, though the passage drips with irony, Tacitus states that Libo frequently dined with Tiberius, and Suetonius cites instances where the two spent time together, even walking arm-in-arm. 35 Both episodes are used to imply Tiberius’ fear, but they also indicate that intimate connections were not unusual. No less impressive were Drusus Libo’s Scribonian ties. His grandfather was L. Scribonius Libo (cos. 34), a man found in some of the most significant acts of late Republican history. 36

(p.226) In 56 BC L. Scribonius Libo appears as a lobbyist for Cn. Pompeius to be given the commission for reinstating Ptolemy VII as king of Egypt. 37 Libo’s abilities were endorsed when Pompeius chose Libo’s daughter for his son, Sextus Pompeius. 38 Though he again goes missing, the threat of war suited Libo’s abilities, and in February of 49 he and L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus (cos. 49) organized troops in Capua. By March Libo had met with Pompeius’ senior advisers in Brundisium and, apart from strategy and policy, it seems evident Libo was involved in bribing soldiers. 39 Early in 49, before fighting broke out, Caesar tells us that he sent C. Caninius Rebilus to Libo for the purposes of organizing an interview between himself and Pompey. 40 He adds that Caninius was Libo’s familiaris and necessarius (a very close relationship of some kind). As with many others, Libo obviously had close friends on the other side. The anecdote also signals Libo’s high standing, and Caesar adds to the impression when he states elsewhere: quibuscum communicare de maximis rebus Pompeius consueverat, ‘one with whom Pompey was accustomed to consult about the most important matters’. 41 Defeat in the civil war, and the death of Pompey, did not end the career of Libo. By 46 Libo had befriended Cicero and at some stage during this period had his second son adopted by M. Livius Drusus Claudianus. But these were additional amici. 42 His rock remained the Pompeii, in the shape of his son-in-law, Sextus Pompeius.

(p.227) In July of 45 Libo was Sextus’ voice at a meeting with Cicero and Brutus. 43 In December of 44 Libo attended a secret meeting at Cicero’s house as Sextus’ representative. 44 Along with the other attendees, Libo advised Brutus ‘not to wait to be authorized by the senate in preserving the safety of the Roman people.’ 45 Though Libo was involved with the planning of hostilities that followed the death of Caesar, during the ensuing struggle his diplomacy was again required. At sometime in 40 Libo was part of an embassy to bring M. Antonius over to the side of Sextus. 46 Accompanying Libo on the journey was a C. Sentius Saturninus (cos. 19), who we know was related to Libo. 47 Octavian’s response was to offer an alliance with Libo himself by marrying Libo’s sister Scribonia, an important event in the history of the family. 48 The treaty of Misenum, though in hindsight a failure, was at the time an attempt at real and long-lasting peace. 49 Libo did well. His sister was married to Octavian, his granddaughter was betrothed to Marcellus - Octavian’s nephew and the stepson of Antony - and it was agreed that he would be consul ordinarius in 34. 50 Welch argues that Octavian was attempting to destabilize the opposition by co-opting Sextus’ most able adviser. 51 But Sextus cannot have felt betrayed, since it was his daughter—and Libo’s granddaughter—who was betrothed to Marcellus. 52 Libo was instead mediating the truce (p.228) between Octavian and the Pompeii. The marriage between Octavian and Scribonia lasted long enough to produce a child. Late in 39, as the treaty was falling apart, Octavian sent notice of divorce and married Livia. This may have caused problems.

There is no information on Libo between 38 and 35. 53 He was probably with Sextus in Sicily. 54 Sextus died in 35, but Libo was still able to hold the consulship as planned. If Scribonia’s divorce had soured Libo’s relationship with Octavian, then the fact that Libo held the consulship, even after the death of Sextus, might mark an attempt by Octavian to mend broken fences and a decision by Libo to accept a renewed offer of friendship. Evidently Octavian needed Libo—Libo, on the other hand, had gone to Antony before he went finally to Octavian! Despite his new alliance with Octavian, Libo’s connection with the Pompeii remained unaffected. His eldest son married Pompeia Magna, daughter of Pompeia and L. Cinna (pr. 44). 55 These are the parents of our M. Scribonius Drusus Libo. 56 The importance of this marriage should not be underestimated when considering the role of Drusus Libo in history. It was his mother’s ancestry that Drusus Libo is thought to have advertised, and it provided him with a possible slogan for an adventure into politics. On the other hand, the mere fact that the Scribonian House chose to solidify further its connections to the Pompeii is significant in itself. Libo had formed important ties with prominent aristocratic families that his grandson would be induced to remember by the treacherous Catus 45 years later.

Nevertheless, it is the direct descendants of Scribonia who should above all be noted when dealing with the connections of M. Scribonius Drusus Libo. Producing a prosopography for Scribonia is one of the most hazardous and vexatious endeavours known to Roman prosopography. Trouble begins with her two marriages prior to Octavian. Suetonius writes:

(p.229) Mox Scriboniam in matrimonium accepit nuptam ante duobus consularibus, ex altero etiam matrem.

Soon he [Octavian] took Scribonia in marriage, [she] had been married before to two ex-consuls, and was a mother by one of them. 57

One of the husbands is divined from a Propertian elegy, in which the spirit of Cornelia comforts her still living husband. 58 In it Cornelia names Scribonia as her mother and implies that her brother was the consul of 16, P.Cornelius P.f. Scipio. Thus, one of Scribonia’s husbands was a P. Cornelius Scipio. The first problem: there is no P. Cornelius Scipio known as consul for the appropriate years. Attempts to bestow the honour on a suffectus of 38 proved inadequate, as were those which summoned forth the suffectus of 35, appearing in the Fasti magistrorum vici as P. Cornelius, but whom the Fasti Tauromenitani revealed as P. Cornelius Dolabella. 59 Nevertheless, the quest continues. 60 The second problem comes in the form of an inscription discovered in 1639. It attests a Cornelius Marcellinus as Scribonia’s son, thus Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus (cos. 56) has been deduced as her husband. 61 Yet Suetonius is sure that Scribonia had children by only one husband. The above is not central to our efforts, but it shows that producing a prosopography for this family is a perilous task and, hence, truly understanding the connections of M. Scribonius Drusus Libo is as difficult as it is important. The other marriage was, of course, to Octavian in 40, and it lasted long enough to produce a third child, Julia. 62 Julia and Cornelia proved the best political and social assets for the Scribonii.

(p.230) Through Julia’s marriage to M. Agrippa, M. Scribonius Drusus Libo gained five important cousins: Gaius and Lucius Caesar, the younger Julia, Agrippina, and Agrippa Postumus. Cornelia married Paullus Aemilius L.f. Lepidus (suff. 34) and produced M. Aemilius P.f. Lepidus (cos. AD 6 and capax imperii) and L. Aemilius P.f. Paullus (cos. AD 1). It has been conjectured that the elder son had more than one wife. The first is thought to be a Vipsania Marcella, whilst the second remains ignota. 63 This ignota produced M. Aemilius M.f. Lepidus and Aemilia Lepida, both betrothed to Germanicus’ children Julia Drusilla and Drusus Caesar, respectively. L. Aemilius Paullus (cos. AD 1), who somehow beat his older brother to the consulship, married his cousin Julia the younger: both were Scribonia’s grandchildren. They produced Aemilia Lepida, whose engagement to Tiberius Claudius Drusus Germanicus (Claudius) was terminated when her mother was relegated in AD 8. 64 Aemilia Lepida was instead engaged to marry M. Junius Silanus (cos. AD 19). The evidence, scarce as it is, suggests strongly that Scribonia had remained close to her children and grandchildren as well as the descendants of her brother and, thus, it is reasonable to believe that among such illustrious company, M. Scribonius Drusus Libo was no stranger. 65

There are two more persons to consider: the unattested but necessary Livia Scriboniana and P. Sulpicius Quirinius (cos. 12). Livia Scriboniana was the daughter of M. Livius Drusus Libo. 66 She was both a cousin and by adoption a sister to Libo, and her husband was the consul for AD 8, M. Furius Camillus (cos. AD 8). They produced M. Furius Camillus, L. Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus (cos. AD 32), and Livia Medullina. 67 Unfortunately, nothing can be made from her nomenclature, for it is no more than a product of Weinrib’s imagination, but her link to the Scribonii Libones is borne out easily enough from her son’s cognomen, Scribonianus. P. Sulpicius Quirinius is more interesting. Tacitus states that he was a propinquus to Drusus Libo, which is commonly taken to mean ‘kinsman’. He was a close friend to Tiberius, and capable of taking Drusus Libo’s request to the emperor without long delays. The nature of their relationship is not attested. P. Quirinius was married to a Claudia, and then to Aemilia Lepida, so that the link must come from his own family. 68 Nevertheless, he should not be (p.231) considered a party to Drusus Libo’s activities. Indeed, his friendship with Tiberius was most likely the reason he was approached. In his darkest hour, when most of his relatives and friends had deserted him, Drusus Libo pinned his hopes of survival on a staunch Tiberian, something like: ‘Please Publius, he trusts you…’. 69 The above thus treats Drusus Libo’s natal and testamentary connections. We are left to consider the identity of his wife’s family.

An inscription found in the middle of the twentieth century attests the existence of Q.Caecilius Drusus Libo. I have shown already that he was the son of Drusus Libo. He was evidently adopted by a Q. Caecilius. 70 The Scribonii Libones and the Caecilii were somehow connected in the late Republic. CIL VI 7.37380 attests:


Q. Caecilius Hilarus, libertus of Caecilia [wife of] Crassus, physician Caecilia Eleutheris, liberta of two Scribonian women, part [of his tomb] for themselves and for their own [i.e. family].

Caecilia Crassi is the daughter of Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus (cos. 69). Her husband was M. Crassus, eldest son of the triumvir M. Licinius Crassus (cos. 70). Syme has shown that Caecilia Metella was the great-aunt of Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus Silanus (cos. AD 7) on account of his adoption by a Metellus. 71 But Caecilia Eleutheris is more interesting. She is evidence of a Caecilian and Scribonian connection. Her name should have been Scribonia Eleutheris. 72 There are two solutions: (i) her formal manumission was officially sponsored by a Caecilius, but it was thought appropriate to honour her original owners (perhaps they had informally manumitted the woman by manumissio inter amicos and her formal manumission was, therefore, seen as simply a rubber stamp) (ii) Caecilius Hilarus and the soon to be Caecilia Eleutheris wished to marry. 73 Caecilius Hilarus convinced his former master to buy his enslaved girlfriend from the duae Scriboniae in order to make her a freedwoman. The duae Scriboniae agreed and were, in turn, sincerely thanked by the now Caecilia Eleutheris, who repaid their kindness by (p.232) continuing to acknowledge a connection with her former owners. Either way, we have a connection dating back to the late Republic. The situation of Q. Caecilius Drusus Libo is therefore suggestive: he was adopted into a family probably long associated with the Scribonii Libones. The most likely possibility is that this Q. Caecilius was Drusus Libo’s father-in-law.

Immediately following the death of Drusus Libo, Drusus Libo’s wife probably moved into the house of a relative while her affairs were put in order. Since Drusus Libo’s son was young when his father died, he will have stayed with his mother. We would thus expect the child to have been adopted by a member of his mother’s family. This is, of course, speculation, but it is at least a reasonable hypothesis based on circumstantial evidence. M. Scribonius Drusus Libo was married to a Junia (or Caecilia), whose father was probably Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus Silanus. Since Creticus Silanus was in Syria until AD 17, he evidently did not adopt the child until he had returned to Rome, i.e. a year had passed between Drusus Libo’s death and his son’s adoption. If this assumption is correct, then Drusus Libo was connected through marriage to an important ally of Germanicus. 74

This investigation shows Drusus Libo in his social and political station. He stood at the centre of the aristocracy and was connected to its most important and powerful branches. A praetorship in AD 15 suggests a date of birth in or around 15 BC, the year his adoptive father reached the consulship. A date of birth c.15 BC makes Drusus Libo five years younger than Gaius Caesar, two years younger than Lucius Caesar, the same age as Germanicus, one year older than Drusus, and three years older than Agrippa Postumus. Drusus Libo would have spent his youth with these boys: with Gaius, Lucius, and Agrippa he shared the important Scribonia with Germanicus and Drusus he shared a connection with Livia. He would ultimately view these men as peers, a presumptuous attitude that proved impossible to sustain.

Lucius Scribonius Libo, fl.56-34 BC - History

Scribonia may refer to:

She was married three times the first two of whom were consuls. The name of the first is unknown, but it has been suggested that he was Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus, consul 56 BC, because of the existence of an inscription that refers to freedmen of Scribonia and her son Cornelius Marcellinus after 39 BC. This indicates she had a son from her first marriage who was living with her after she was divorced from Octavian. Suetonius makes no mention of him, only acknowledging her children from her second and third marriages, indicating that the young Marcellinus probably died young.

In 2 BC, Julia was exiled to Pandateria for adultery and possible treason. Scribonia accompanied her voluntarily into exile. Around AD 4, Julia and Scribonia were allowed to return to the mainland and moved to Rhegium, where Augustus granted Julia property and a yearly income. Scribonia probably remained with her for the fifteen years Julia lived in exile. Julia died in AD 14, shortly after her father's own death. Contemporary historians are vague regarding the circumstances of her death while Dio Cassius indicates Tiberius had her killed, Tacitus writes that after her youngest son, Agrippa Postumus, was murdered she succumbed to despair and her health slowly declined.

The gens Scribonia was a plebeian family at ancient Rome. Members of this gens first appear in history at the time of the Second Punic War, but the first of the Scribonii to obtain the consulship was Gaius Scribonius Curio in 76 BC.

In 40 BC Scribonia was forced to divorce her second husband and marry Octavian who in turn had divorced his wife Clodia Pulchra. Octavian's motive in marrying Scribonia was to cement a political alliance with Sextus Pompey, husband to Scribonia's niece (or sister). The marriage was brief and unhappy he divorced her on the very same day as the birth of their daughter, Julia the Elder, his only natural child. He allegedly wrote that he was "unable to put up with her shrewish disposition." He remarried to Livia Drusilla soon after. Scribonia herself never remarried and appears to have continued to be known as the wife of Caesar thereafter.

Despite her reputation from some modern historians as being "tiresome" and "morose" based on Octavian's reasons for divorce, she appears to have been a figure of some repute and standing. In 16 BC, the same year that her son rose to the consulship, her daughter Cornelia died and became the subject of an elegy by Propertius, in which Scribonia is mentioned. Nor have I wronged you, Scribonia, mother, my sweet origin: what do you wish changed in me, except my fate? My mother’s tears and the city’s grief exalt me, and my bones are protected by Caesar’s moans. He laments that living I was worthy sister to his daughter, and we have seen a god’s tears fall. Suetonius also notes Scribonia's affiliation with Scribonius Aphrodisius, slave and pupil of Lucius Orbilius Pupillus. He was afterwards purchased by Scribonia, possibly to educate her children or even herself, and he was subsequently manumitted by her. Based on this, it is possible that she encouraged him and others as a patroness. Aphrodisius is known to have written a now lost treatise on orthography, in opposition to Verrius Flaccus.

Scribonia married Marcus Licinius Crassus Frugi, a man of consular rank. Frugi’s father, consul and governor Marcus Licinius Crassus, was the adopted son of consul and general Marcus Licinius Crassus the grandson of triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus. He was the last known direct descendant of the triumvir and was the last known direct descendant of the triumvir who bore his name.

Scribonia (c. 70 BC – c. 16 AD) was the second wife of Octavian, later the Roman Emperor Augustus, and the mother of his only natural child, Julia the Elder. Through her youngest daughter she was the mother-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, great-grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, and great-great grandmother of the Emperor Nero.

Scribonia was born before 16, as in 16 her father was stabbed to death by the Roman emperor Tiberius, who had charged him in planning a revolt against the emperor. Scribonia was born and raised in Rome. Very little is known of her life.

Scribonia was a noblewoman of the highest birth and descended from ancient, distinguished and politically influential blood. Her maternal grandparents were Pompeia Magna and suffect consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna (son of the four-time consul Cinna), while her paternal grandparents were consul of 34 BC, Lucius Scribonius Libo and his wife was a member of the gens Sulpicia, the family that the Roman emperor Galba, descended from on his paternal side. Scribonia’s parents were both direct descendants of Pompeia Magna, the daughter of triumvir Pompey from his third marriage to Mucia Tertia. Lucius Scribonius Libo was a descendant of Pompeia Magna, from her first marriage to senator Faustus Cornelius Sulla (son of the dictator Sulla), while Cornelia Pompeia Magna was the daughter of Pompeia Magna from her second marriage to suffect consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna.

Scribonia survived her daughter and appears to have returned to the family mansion in Rome.

Scribonia Magna, known in modern historical sources as Scribonia Crassi, was a Roman noblewoman that lived in the Roman Empire. Scribonia was the daughter and only child of Lucius Scribonius Libo consul AD 16, and Cornelia Pompeia Magna.

Concerning the difference between a concubine and a wife, the jurist Julius Paulus wrote in his Opinions that “a concubine differs from a wife only in the regard in which she is held,” meaning that a concubine was not considered a social equal to her patron, as his wife was. While the official Roman law declared that a man could not have a concubine at the same time he had a wife, there are various notable occurrences of this, including the famous cases of the emperors Augustus, Marcus Aurelius, and Vespasian. Suetonius wrote that Augustus “put Scribonia [his second wife] away because she was too free in complaining about the influence of his concubine”. Often, in return for payment, concubines would relay appeals to their emperor.

After hearing of the death of her last son Julia decides to kill herself. She confides to her mother that she intends to write down her story before she dies so that it can be passed on to her one surviving child, Agrippina. Before she dies, she realises that Tiberius has become corrupted by power like her father had and that it was Agrippa, not Tiberius, whom she truly loved and that Agrippa and Scribonia are the only people that truly loved her.

Licinia Magna, daughter of the consul Marcus Licinius Crassus Frugi and Scribonia (a descendant of Pompey). She married the Roman Senator Lucius Calpurnius Piso, who served as one of the consuls in 57. Piso was later killed by Roman emperor Vespasian as an enemy of the emperor. Licinia and Piso had a daughter called Calpurnia who married Calpurnius Piso Galerianus son of Gaius Calpurnius Piso (co-consul in 41 with Claudius). Calpurnius Piso Galerianus was executed in 70 for opposing Vespasian. Licinia died at some date between 70 and 80 as her grave altar is dated from this period, which was found on the grounds of Villa Bonaparte near the Porta Salaria. The land may have been part of the family’s suburban estates and her grave altar is on display at the Vatican Museums. Licinia may have had another sister called Licinia.

In 34 BC he was consul with Mark Antony. Lucius and wife had three children, two sons: Lucius Scribonius Libo (below) and Marcus Scribonius Libo Drusus and a daughter Scribonia who married Sextus Pompey.

Octavianus, becoming Augustus the first Roman emperor, married Scribonia who gave him a daughter (Julia the Elder). His last marriage was with Livia, a Claudia who had been married to a Claudius. Their son Tiberius, by birth a Claudius, was later adopted by Augustus, thus, like his stepfather Augustus, becoming one of the Julii Caesares by adoption.

Agrippina the Elder was the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. She was a granddaughter of Augustus and Scribonia on her mother's side. Through Agrippina, Augustus was the maternal great-grandfather of Gaius.

Sextus had married Scribonia, a distant relative. She was the daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo, consul of 34 BC and the niece of another Scribonia, the second wife of Octavian. Sextus and Scribonia had a daughter, their only child, called Pompeia Magna. As an affine to both Sextus and Octavian, Scribonius Libo had played a role in brokering peace between Sextus and the Triumviri, and had very reluctantly abandoned Sextus in 36/35, in return for which he had received the consulship.

Marcellinus died before 47 BC. Scribonia remarried to Publius Cornelius Scipio Salvito, with whom she had two children, Cornelius Scipio and Cornelia Scipio, and later she married Augustus and became mother to his only child, Julia the Elder.

Lucius Scribonius Libo, fl.56-34 BC - History

In 34 BC he was consul with Mark Antony. Lucius and wife had three children, two sons: Lucius Scribonius Libo (below) and Marcus Scribonius Libo Drusus and a daughter Scribonia who married Sextus Pompey.

Lucius Scribonius Libo (died 16 AD) was son of the above. He was a consul in 16. This nobleman was brother of Marcus Scribonius Libo, who had planned to revolt against Emperor Tiberius.

Lucius Scribonius Libo was a tribune of the plebs in 216 BC, during the Second Punic War. A question arose pertaining to the ransoming of Roman captives he referred the matter to the Senate. He was one of the three men appointed triumviri mensarii, a commission created by a Lex Minucia, possibly to deal with a shortage of silver the full range of their financial activities is unclear. He was praetor peregrinus in 204 and sent to Cisalpine Gaul.

Lucius Scribonius Libo (fl. 1st century BC) was the son of the above, and likely the elder brother or half-brother of Scribonia, first wife of Augustus. His wife was a member of the gens Sulpicia.

Lucius Scribonius Libo (tribune of the plebs 149 BC) was a member of a Roman Senatorial family. He accused Servius Sulpicius Galba for the outrages against the Lusitanians. He might have been the Scribonius who consecrated the Puteal Scribonianum often mentioned by ancient writers, which was located in the forum close to the Arcus Fabianus. It was called Puteal as it was opened at the top, like a well. Years later it would be repaired and dedicated by another Libo, praetor of 80 BC.

Lucius Scribonius Libo (fl. 1st century BC) was a member of a Roman Senatorial family, and held the office of praetor urbanus in 80 BC.

Loch Libo is a freshwater loch in East Renfrewshire, Parish of Neilston, Scotland. The Lugton Water has its source from the southern end of loch, running 14 miles before reaching its confluence with the River Garnock near Kilwinning. The village of Uplawmoor and the hamlet of Shillford lie nearby. 3 mi away to the southwest is the town of Neilston.

Libo Airport is an airport serving Libo County, Guizhou Province, China. It is also called Qiannan Airport because of its location in the Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture. Construction for the airport started in July 2003 and was completed in September 2007 at a total cost of 390 million yuan. However, since its opening the airport has been plagued by the lack of flights and passengers, handling only 151 passengers in all of 2009.

During the century and a half between the last records of the Julii Iuli and the first appearance of the Julii Caesares, we encounter a Lucius Julius Libo, consul in BC 267. His surname Chase translates as "sprinkler", deriving it from libare, and suggests that it might originally have signified the libation pourer at religious ceremonies. It is not certain whether the name was personal, or whether the consul inherited it from his father and grandfather, of whom all we know is that they were named Lucius. Some scholars have supposed that Libo was descended from the Julii Iuli, and that Lucius, the father of Sextus Julius Caesar, was his son but the evidence is very slight.

Libo County is a county of Guizhou, China. It is under the administration of the Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture.

Tiberius wanted to investigate Libo's slaves but there was a senatorial decree preventing confessions from tortured slaves from being used in trials against their own masters. To get around this Tiberius had Libo's slaves sold to the treasury agent, then the accusations made against Libo were considered confirmed by Libo's ex slaves.

Zhou Libo (born on April 22, 1967, in Shanghai) is a Chinese stand-up comedian, television actor and host. In addition to comedy, he has also been a judge on China's Got Talent. In late 2008, Zhou created his own stand-up comedy called "Shanghai Style Small Talk" which includes A Laughable Talk on the Past 30 Years and A Laughable Talk in Big Shanghai.

Libo may refer to:

Zhou Libo may refer to:

Common angiosperm genera include Beilschumiedia, Cryptocarya, Casearia, Diospeyrus, Pittosporum, Acer, Carpinus, Ulmus, Viburnum, Prunus, and Rosa. Protected wild plants in Libo County include Handeliodendron bodinieri, Mussaenda anomala, Taxus chinensis, Paphiopedilum emersonii, Paphiopedilum barbigerum and Paphiopedilum micranthum, Pinus kwangtungensis, Pseudotsuga sinensis, Pseudotsuga brevifolia, Calocedrus macrolepis, Tetrathyrium subcordatum, Trachycarous nana, Emmenopterys henryi, Liridendron chinense.

Kenneth Harold Libo (December 4, 1937 &ndash March 29, 2012) was an American historian of Jewish immigration who is known for working with writer Irving Howe. In 1959, he graduated from Dartmouth College. In 1974, he received his PhD in English literature from the City University of New York. In 1980, he became the first English-language editor of The Jewish Daily Forward.

Chalcosyrphus libo is a species of syrphid fly in the family Syrphidae.

The son and grandson of Lucius, Libo was the only significant member of his gens to appear in history during a span of nearly a century and a half. The Julii had been one of the leading families of the early Republic, claiming six consulships between 489 and 430 BC, and nine times filling the office of consular tribune from 438 to 379. But the last of the early Julii to hold a magistracy was Gaius Julius Iulus, who had been nominated dictator in 352 BC.

The Libo Airport, opened in late 2007, has capacity to receive planes of the Boeing 737 class, and to handle up to 220,000 passengers annually. However, the $57-million facility is rather underutilized so far. According to the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) statistics, 151 paying passengers flew into or out of the airport in 2009 - which was a 98% drop compared to the previous year (7886 passengers), and placed the airport the last in list of the nation's 166 airports by traffic volume. Currently 4 airlines use the airport.

Loch Libo is the best example of a eutrophic in East Renfrewshire with aquatic and emergent vegetation. Significant plants include the Nationally Scarce cowbane Cicuta virosa and the locally uncommon greater tussock sedge Carex paniculata and lesser pond sedge Carex acutiformis. The nationally uncommon species lesser tussock sedge Carex diandra, water sedge Carex aquatilis, slender tufted sedge Carex acuta and water parsnip Berula erecta are also present.

Stamboom Homs » Scribonia (± 68-± 16)

Scribonia (68 BC-16) was the daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo and Cornelia Sulla, the granddaughter of Pompey the Great and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Her brother of the same name was consul and died in 34 BC.[1] She was the second wife of Roman Emperor Augustus and the mother of his only natural child, Julia Caesaris. She was the grandmother of Gaius Caesar, Julia the Younger, Lucius Caesar, Agrippina the Elder and Agrippa Postumus, great-grandmother to Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, who was the wife of the Emperor Claudius. She was the great-great-grandmother of Emperor Nero.

Contents [hide]
1 Life
2 Marriages and issues
3 Scribonia in popular culture
3.1 Literature
3.2 Drama
4 Notes

[edit] Life
Little is known of Scribonia's early life. According to Suetonius, her first two marriages were to former consuls. Her first husband is unknown, though it had been suggested that he was Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus (consul 56 BC), as there is an inscription that refers to freedmen (post 39 BC) of Scribonia and her son Cornelius Marcellinus [2][3], indicating that she had a son from her previous marriage and that he was living with her after she divorced her third husband. He may have died young and ignored by historians. Her second husband was Publius Cornelius Scipio Salvito[4]. They had a daughter Cornelia Scipio who married Lucius Aemilius Paullus who served as a censor. Scribonia may have also been the mother to Publius Cornelius Scipio, cousul in 16 BC. Salvito was a supporter of Pompey.

In 40 BC Scribonia was forced to divorce her husband and marry Octavian, who was younger than her by several years. Octavian in turn divorced his wife Clodia, marrying Scribonia to cement a political alliance with her uncle Sextus Pompeius. Their daughter Julia the Elder was born in 39 BC, probably in October, and on that very same day Octavian divorced her [5]. Their marriage had not been a happy one Octavian felt she nagged him too much. She never remarried. Cassius Dio and Marcus Velleius Paterculus says that when her youngest child, Julia, was sent into exile for adultery and treason, she requested that she be allowed to accompany her. [6]

When Emperor Tiberius came into power, he separated Scribonia from her daughter, and allegedly starved Julia to death. When Scribonia died is unknown. It is mainly placed two years after Julia and Augustus. In Seneca, she is mentioned as being alive and in full possession of her wits as late as the end of 16 when she tried to convince her nephew Marcus Scribonius Libo not to commit suicide and face his punishment.

No one knows what Scribonia was really like as her image as a shrew was likely to have been the end product of propaganda to divert the potentially scandalous circumstances of her divorce from Augustus. Seneca describes her as a gravis femina gravis meaning “dignified” and “severe”. Modern scholars are divided on her character while some describe her as "tiresome" and "morose" [7] most others view her as an ideal example of a Roman matron as she clearly had the "composure" and "calmness" to look after depressed and suicidal characters such as her daughter and nephew [8][9]. Sextus Propertius praises her motherhood referring to her as "sweet mother Scribonia" in Cornelia Scipio's funeral elegy in 16 BC.

[edit] Marriages and issues
Her first husband, Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus
Cornelius Marcellinus
Her second husband, Publius Cornelius Scipio Salvito
Publius Cornelius Scipio (consul of 16 BC)
Cornelia Scipio
Her third husband, Augustus
Julia the Elder (wife of Agrippa and Tiberius)

[edit] Scribonia in popular culture
Little is known about Scribonia, but she is mentioned in various dramas and novels, each having a different opinion on what she was like.

[edit] Literature
Scribonia is mentioned in Robert Graves's novel I, Claudius when he recalls Julia's birth and later when Julia is exiled. He describes her as a good, moderate and generally kind Roman matron. She is forbidden to see Julia and is only allowed to be with her once she is exiled. Livia convinces Augustus that Scribonia has been unfaithful to him causing him to divorce her faster than he cared to. Evidently Augustus believed she was innocent, as he kept Julia. Graves places Scribonia's death at least two years prior to when it is traditionally placed.
Scribonia gets several mentions in the novel Augustus by Allan Massie. Allan Massie portrays her stereotypically, being ugly, gap-toothed and fat. The novel suggests that Julia got her personality from Scribonia rather than Augustus as historians tend to claim.
Scribonia plays a major role in the novel Caesar's Daughter by Edward Burton, trying to aid Julia in her daily life. She is a very politically aware woman, with detailed information gathering and she plays patroness to many poets such as Horace and Ovid as well as being very popular with the people of Rome. Despite their differences, Augustus respects her.
Scribonia is mentioned in I Loved Tiberius by Elisabeth Dored. Augustus' reign is portrayed as a dictatorship and Scribonia is portrayed as a pretty, gentle, sensitive, warm and steadfast woman made a victim of her husband's cruelty but eventually makes herself a martyr for her daughter, Julia.
She also is shown in Antony and Cleopatra by Colleen McCullough. Scribonia is described a beautiful, kind and sensible. She remains friends with Octavia following her divorce and, contrary to historians accounts, is allowed to raise Julia herself. Augustus orders that Julia be educated in the manner of a man, rather than a woman.

[edit] Drama
Scribonia in Imperium: Augustus is only a few years older than Augustus, and he marries her for her money to pay his armies. Maecenas describes her as being "lovely" and "charming". Julia is loyal to Scribonia blaming Augustus for his bad treatment of her and using her just used her to get a baby. However, Augustus claims he loved Scribonia in his own way because she gave him Julia.

[edit] Notes
^ Schied, J. Scribonia Caesaris et les Julio-Claudiens: Problèmes de vocabulaire de parenté. Mémoires de l'École francaise de Rome et Athènes. 87: 349-71.
^ CIL 6.26033: Libertorum et familiae Scribonae Caes. et Corneli Marcell. f. eius
^ Schied, J, Scribonia Caesaris et les Cornelii Lentuli, Bulletin de Correspondence Helléenigue 100: 185-201.
^ Billows, R. American Journal of Ancient History.
^ Cassius Dio 48.34.3
^ Fantham, Elaine. (2006) Julia Augusti. "Routledge". ISBN 0-415-33146-
^ Syme, R. (1939) The Roman Revolution. Oxford.
^ Fantham, Elaine. (2006) Julia Augusti. "Routledge". ISBN 0-415-33146-
^ Barrett, A.A. (2004) Livia: First Lady of Imperial Rome. "Yale University Press". ISBN 0-300-10298-4

Scribonia was the daughter of a Lucius Scribonius Libo, probably the praetor of that name of 80 BC. Her brother of the same name was consul and died in 34 BC. The name of her mother was Sentia. According to Suetonius, Scribonia's first two marriages were to former consuls. Her first husband is unknown, although it had been suggested that he was Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus (consul 56 BC), as there is an inscription that refers to freedmen (post 39 BC) of Scribonia and her son Cornelius Marcellinus, indicating that she had a son from her previous marriage and that he was living with her after she divorced her third husband. He may have died young and ignored by historians. Her second husband perhaps was Publius Cornelius Scipio Salvito, a supporter of Pompey. They had a daughter Cornelia Scipio who married the censor Lucius Aemilius Paullus. Scribonia may have also been the mother to Publius Cornelius Scipio, consul in 16 BC.

In 40 BC Scribonia was forced to divorce her husband and marry Octavian, who was younger than she was by several years. Octavian in turn divorced his wife Clodia Pulchra, marrying Scribonia to cement a political alliance with her niece Scribonia's husband Sextus Pompey. Their daughter Julia the Elder was born in 39 BC, probably in October, and on that very same day Octavian divorced her. Their marriage had not been a happy one Octavian felt she nagged him too much. She never remarried. Cassius Dio and Marcus Velleius Paterculus says that when her youngest child, Julia, was sent into exile for adultery and treason, she requested that she be allowed to accompany her.

When Emperor Tiberius came into power, he separated Scribonia from her daughter, and allegedly starved Julia to death. When Scribonia died is unknown. It is mainly placed two years after Julia and Augustus. In Seneca, she is mentioned as being alive and in full possession of her wits as late as the end of 16 when she tried to convince her nephew Marcus Scribonius Libo not to commit suicide and face his punishment.

Scribonia's image as a shrew is probably the product of propaganda to divert the potentially scandalous circumstances of her divorce from Augustus. Seneca describes her as a gravis femina gravis meaning “dignified” and “severe”. Modern scholars are divided on her character while some describe her as "tiresome" and "morose" most others view her as an ideal example of a Roman matron as she clearly had the "composure" and "calmness" to look after depressed and suicidal characters such as her daughter and nephew. Sextus Propertius praises her motherhood referring to her as "sweet mother Scribonia" in Cornelia Scipio's funeral elegy in 16 BC.

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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology William Smith, Ed.

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Libo, Scribo'nius

Libo accompanied Pompey to Greece, and was actively engaged in the war that ensued. He and M. Octavius were placed over the Liburnian and Achaean fleets, serving as legates to Bibulus, who had the supreme command of the Pompeian fleet. They were very successful against Caesar's generals in Dalmatia Dolabella they drove out of the country, and C. Antonius they not only defeated but made prisoner. ( Caes. Civ. 3.5 D. C. 12.40 Florus, 4.2.31 Oros. 6.15 .) Libo subsequently joined Bibulus and, on the death of the latter shortly afterwards, the chief authority in the fleet appears to have devolved upon him, although no one was expressly appointed to the supreme command. With fifty ships he appeared before Brundisium, in order to blockade the place strictly, as M. Antony was still there with part of Caesar's troops, waiting for an opportunity to cross over to Greece. But having suffered a repulse from Antony, and being prevented by the cavalry of the latter from obtaining any water, Libo was obliged to retire from the place, and Antony soon afterwards escaped his vigilance and joined Caesar in Greece. ( Caes. Civ. 3.15 , 16 , 18 , 23 , 24 D. C. 41.48 .)

We hear nothing more of Libo for some time, but he probably did not make his submission to Caesar after the battle of Pharsalia, but united himself to those of his party who continued in arms. At the death of the dictator in B. C. 44, we find him in Spain with his son-in-law Sex. Pompey, on whose behalf he wrote to the ruling party at Rome. ( Cic. Att. 16.4 .) He continued with Pompey in the civil wars which followed, and is specially mentioned, in B. C. 40, as one of the persons of high rank who was commissioned to conduct to Antony in the East his mother Julia, who had taken refuge with Sex. Pompey in Sicily after the Perusinian war. This mission alarmed Octavian. He feared that Pompey, who was now decidedly master of the sea, should unite with Antony to crush him and, in order to gain the favour of the former and of his father-in-law Libo, he proposed, on the advice of Maecenas, to marry Libo's sister, Scribonia, although she was much older than himself, and had been married twice before. The marriage shortly after took place, and paved the way for a peace between the triumvirs and Pompey. This was negotiated in the following year (B. C. 39) by Libo, who crossed over from Sicily to Italy for the purpose, and it was finally settled at Misenum. When the war was renewed in B. C. 36, Libo for a time continued faithful to Pompey, but, seeing his cause hopeless, he deserted him in the following year. In B. C. 34, he was consul with M. Antony, as had been agreed at the peace of Misenum. As his name does not occur again in history, he probably died soon afterwards. (Appian, App. BC 5.52 , 53 . 69-73, 139 D. C. 48.16 , 49.38 .)

Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 29 Frank Gardener Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University, Ed.

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[ 9 ] Quintus Caecilius Metellus was named, by the consul who was in the land of the Bruttians, dictator for the purpose of holding the elections, and Metellus' army was disbanded. [ 10 ] Lucius Veturius Philo was named master of the horse. The elections were held by the dictator. [ 11 ] Marcus Cornelius Cethegus and Publius Sempronius Tuditanus were elected consuls, the latter in his absence, since he had Greece as his province. Then Tiberius Claudius Nero, Marcus Marcius Ralla, Lucius Scribonius Libo, Marcus Pomponius Matho were elected praetors. The elections being completed, the dictator abdicated his office.

[ 12 ] The Roman Games were repeated for three of the days, the Plebeian Games for seven. The curule aediles were Gnaeus and Lucius Cornelius Lentulus. [ 13 ] Lucius was in charge of the province of Spain being elected in absence he was aedile in absence. Tiberius Claudius Asellus and Marcus Iunius Pennus were plebeian aediles. The Temple of Valour 8 at the Porta Capena was dedicated that year by Marcus Marcellus, in the seventeenth year after it had been vowed at Clastidium in Gaul by his father in his first consulship. [ 14 ] And the flamen of Mars, Marcus Aemilius Regillus, died that year.

1 Cf. X. xlvii. 7 Periocha 11 Strabo l. c. (cf. n. 1).

3 Cf. XXX. xxiii. 5. One list of the consuls gives Laevinus a first consulship in 220 B.C. Chronogr. an. 354 in C.I.L. I. p. 524. He may have been a suffectus in 208 B.C. (end of the year, both consuls being dead XXVII. xxxiii. 7). In Livy a new man when elected in 211 B.C. XXVI. xxii. 12.

4 See XXVIII. xxx. 11 and note. Whatever may have been the arrangement of the oars on a quinquereme, it is clear that these larger vessels were meant to impress all who saw them with the dignitas of the Roman state.

5 The region was still held by the Gallic invaders, but the temple was favoured and adorned by the kings at Pergamum. That Attalus and the legati actually went to Pessĭnus, about 240 miles from his capital, is very unlikely.

6 Probably a meteorite, small enough to be used later as the face of her statue Arnobius VII. 49 of. VI. 11 Herodian I. 11, 1 Appiaan Hann. 56. Cp. p. 261, n. 2.

8 Cf. Vol. VI. p. 494, note VII. p. 312 f., notes Platner- Ashby, Topogr. Dict. 258 f. For the younger Marcellus cf. p. 288, n. 1.

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Scribonia (* no later than 65 BC † after 16 AD) was the second wife of Octavian, who later became Augustus .

She was the daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo (perhaps Praetor 80 BC) and a Sentia. According to Suetonius , before her marriage to Octavian, she had been married to two men who had made it to the consulate . Your first husband is unknown. After his death, Scribonia was married to a Cornelius, whose identity is not entirely clear perhaps it was Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus (consul 56 BC), perhaps his son, who is presumed to have been a consul suffect from 35 BC. Was identified, of whose name only "Publius Cornelius" is known. From this marriage Scribonia had a son named Cornelius Marcell (inus), perhaps Publius Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus (consul 18 BC), and a daughter Cornelia, who married Paullus Aemilius Lepidus (consul 34 BC) and in that year died while her brother held the consulate.

Octavian married Scribonia after separating from his first wife Claudia , a stepdaughter of Mark Antony , probably in 40 BC. BC (between the Peruvian War and the Treaty of Brundisium ) for political reasons to improve his relations with Sextus Pompey . Scribonia's brother Lucius Scribonius Libo (who later became consul in 34 BC) was Pompey's father-in-law and close confidante.

Scribonia became the mother of Juliet , who would be Augustus' only child. Only a year later, shortly after Julia's birth, Octavian disowned his wife and shortly afterwards married Livia Drusilla . He accused Scribonia of a depraved way of life. Elsewhere, however, the same source (Suetonius) mentions that the reason for the divorce was that Scribonia had complained about the influence of a lover on Octavian.

As Iulia 2 v. Chr. When she was exiled by her father, Scribonia accompanied her daughter. According to Seneca , she was still alive in the alleged conspiracy of her (great) nephew Marcus Scribonius Libo Drusus against Tiberius in AD 16.

Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 22 Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D., Ed.

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[ 5 ] There is also another accounts 3 of the prisoners of war: that ten envoys came at first, and that the senate, after hesitating whether or no to admit them to the City, admitted them, with the proviso that they should have no hearing. [ 6 ] Later, on their delaying longer than anybody had anticipated, three additional envoys came, namely Lucius Scribonius and Gaius Calpurnius and Lucius Manlius then at last a motion was made in the senate by a kinsman of Scribonius, who was tribune of plebs, 4 that the prisoners be ransomed, but the motion was defeated [ 7 ] the three new envoys now returned to Hannibal, but the original ten remained in Rome, alleging that they had freed themselves of their obligation by going back to Hannibal's camp, after starting on their journey, under the pretext of reviewing the prisoners' names. [ 8 ] A proposal to surrender them was hotly debated in the senate and was lost by only a few votes. [ 9 ] However, under the next censors the ten were so overwhelmed with every species of reprobation and disgrace that some of them killed themselves forthwith, and the rest [p. 409] during all the remainder of their lives avoided not 5 only the Forum, but, one might almost say, the light of day and the public streets. [ 10 ] It is more amazing that the authorities should be so divergent than easy to make out the truth.

For the rest, how greatly this disaster exceeded those that had gone before is plain from this: the loyalty of the allies, which had held firm until the day of Cannae, now began to waver, assuredly for no other reason than because they had lost all hope of the empire. [ 11 ] Now these are the peoples that revolted: the Campanians, the Atellani, the Calatini, the Hirpini, a part of the Apulians, all the [ 12?? ] Samnites but the Pentri, all the Bruttii, the Lucanians, and besides these the Uzentini and almost all the Greeks on the coast, the Tarentines, the Metapontines, the Crotoniates and the Locri, together with all the Cisalpine Gauls. 6 [ 13 ] Yet these disasters and the falling away of the allies could not induce the Romans anywhere to mention peace, either before the consul came to Rome or after his coming had turned men's thoughts anew to the calamity which they had suffered. [ 14 ] In that very hour there was such courage in the hearts of the citizens that when the consul was returning from that defeat for which he himself had been chiefly responsible, a crowd of all sorts and conditions went out to meet him on the way, and gave him thanks because he had not despaired of the state [ 15 ] whereas, had he been the commander of the Carthaginians, there was no punishment he would not have been compelled to suffer. 7

1 But the senate could not keep Hannibal from making money out of his prisoners. When the senate would not ransom them, he sold them into slavery, and Polybius (see Livy XXXIV. 1. 6) told how, in 194 B.C., at the request of Flamininus, the Greek states bought up and liberated a great number of Roman prisoners who had been purchased from Hannibal. No less than twelve hundred were freed by the Achaeans alone, at a cost to their state of one hundred talents. Valerius Maximus (v. ii. 6), puts the whole number at two thousand, and doubtless thousands more had died in the course of twenty-two years.

3 This seems to be a fusion of the account preserved by Appian (Hann. 28), where the number of envoys is given as three, with the commoner version of the story, which speaks of ten. The combination may have been made by the C. Acilius who wrote a history in Greek in which he told of the battle of Cannae (Cicero, De Officiis III. 115), and is perhaps the man whose name is given by the MSS. of the Summary of Book LIII. as c. iulius (cf. Schanz-Hosius, Römische Literaturgeschichte, I.4, p. 177).

4 This was probably the L. Scribonius Libo mentioned at XXIII. xxi. 6.

6 This list includes all the peoples of Italy who revolted at one time or another during the war with Hannibal.

7 An allusion to the alleged Carthaginian custom of crucifying incompetent generals. See XXXVIII. xlviii. 13 and Valerius Maximus II. vii. Ext. 1.

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